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NrB. DENNYS, Ph.D., 





\All rights rtterved.'] 



[Copyrighted at Stationerif nall.'\ 

,pitiimn> BT wooDfAtt A«D Einn, 



i Oil 



The origiDal intention of the compiler of this work was to make arrangements 
for re-editing Crawford's valuable Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Archipdago. 
It was, however, found that to do this in conformity with the plan adopted would 
be, for various reasons, impracticable, and the following pages deal only with that 
portion of Malaya lying within the sphere of British influence. 

The volume contains about 3,000 headings. The Straits Settlements and 
Protected Native States are treated of at considerable length, while notices, more 
or less brief, are given of every town, village, river, &c., appearing in published 
maps, as also of many others hitherto undescribed. The various aboriginal 
tribes, the products of the jungle, native manners and customs, the natural 
history of the Peninsula and many other subjects of interest, are described or 
explained. Somewhat less than 140 articles are quoted, rewritten, or brought up 
to date, from Crawfurd's Dictionary^ Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew having kindly 
given permission to that effect. 

Works of Travel by many authors, the Journal of the Indian Archipelago^ 
and the Journal of the Straits Branch R, A, 8,, have been freely drawn upon. 
Particular acknowledgments are due to the Hons. W. E. Maxwell, c.m.g., A. M. 
Skinner, c.m.g., F. A. Swettenham, c.m.o., H. A. O'Brien, and D. P. A. Hervey, c.m.o,, 
to Major J. F. A. MacNair, c.m.g.. Dr. T. Irvine Rowell, c.m.g., Mr. W. A. 
Pickering, c.m.g., Mr. C. W. Kynnersley, Mr. E. W. Birch, Mr. L. Wray, Mr. 
H. L. Noronha, Mr. G. Rappa, and the late Messrs. Davison, J. D. Vaughan, and 
N. Cantley. Very special thanks are due to Mr. A. G. Angieb for numerous 
statistical additions and corrections, as well as for many suggestions which have 
materially improved the value of the work. They are scarcely less due to many 
others who have done much to increase our knowledge of Malayan matters, while 
many details have been derived from the columns of the Singapore and Penang 
newspapers, and will be found duly acknowledged. When practicable, special 
permission was obtained to utilize the information thus afforded ; but it is believed 
that in most other cases the authority quoted is given. Enough original matter 
will, nevertheless, be found to prevent any supposition that the work is a mere 
reprint of previously accessible material. 

A few articles have been inserted — ^notably those refemng to the Independent 


VI Preface. 

Native States and some of the outlying islands — which are not, strictly speaking, 
included in British Malaya. The information given may, however, be of use. 

As to the errors and omissions which will doubtless be discovered, those most 
familiar with the difficulties of producing such a work will criticize it most 
leniently, and be most ready to recognize whatever merits it may justly claim. 
Every month is adding to our knowledge of Malaya, and some time must neces- 
sarily elapse before finality can be reached. The compiler has endeavoured to 
embody the most recent statistical returns, but in some few cases these have come 
to hand after the pages in which they should appear have been printed off. The 
oiftssions, however, are neither so numerous nor important as to require special 

The sincere thanks of the author are specially due to the gentlemen — old 
residents in the Straits Settlements — whose liberality has provided the means for 
publishing the work. 

it. B. DENNYS. 




G.C.m!g., CB., CLE., 




The following abbreviations are used in this work: 

G. = Central. 

Gh. = Chinese. 

E. = East. 

For. = Furlongs. 

H. = Hill. 

I. = Island. 

Imp. = Important. 

Jap. = Japanese. 

J. I. A. = Journal of the Indian Archipelago. 

J. S. 6. B. A. S. = Journal of the Straits 
Branch Boyal Asiatic Society. 

J. B. A. S.K Journal of the Boyal Asiatic 

Kw. = Ewala. • 

Malay G. & Die. = Malay Grammar and Dic- 
M. = Mountain. 

N. = North. 
P. = Province. 
R. = Biver. 
S. = South. 
T. = Town. 
V. = Village. 
W. = West. 




[Articles marked * are wholly or in part taken from CrauforcTs " Dictionary of the 

Indian Archipelago"'] 

Ablution. — The Malays emulate other Mahommedans in their regard for 
physical purity. For this purpose, tanks are placed beside each mosque, to enable 
worshippers to bathe before prayer, if they have not been able to otherwise cleanse 
themselves. The Arabic word vmzzu is used to express religious ablution, and heds 
the state of defilement during which Malays cannot pray. 

Aboriginal Tribes. — The wild tribes of the Peninsula and Settlements com- 
prise the following. It must be understood that some are generic terms and some 
specific. Thus the word hentLa includes many others, but as particulars will be 
found under each word in its alphabetical order, it will suffice to give the terms met 
with in various authorities on the subject : — 

Orang Beduanda Kallang. 

Besisi or Basisi. 

Mintira or Mantra. 

Orang Sabimba. 

Sakei or Sakai jinak. 

Sakei or Sakai Har. 





The generic terms for " aborigines " are Orang huket, 0. liar, and 0. sakei. 

Acre (rSlong) or orlong, equal to 1^ English acres, 3 orlongs making 4 acres. 

Adiantnm Fern, of which the Maiden hair is a charming variety. — ^This is a 
native of the Peninsula, and was discovered by Bishop Hose to exist in Malacca. 
It is also found on Penang Hill. 

Admiral, in Malay, is laksamdna, but the term has long since been disused. 

Adze. — See Axe. 

Agar- Agar. — The Malay name for a species of marine alga, the Fucvssaccha- 
rinus of botanists ; growing on the rocky shores of many of the Malayan islands, 
and forming a considerable article of export to China by junks. It is esculent 
when boiled to a jelly, and is also used by the Chinese as a vegetable glue.* Of 
late years it has been largely adopted in the European cuisine as a substitute for 
isinglass with which to make blanc-mangcs, jellies, &c., though wanting somewhat 

[1] B 

Agr Descriptive Dictionary Aff 

in delicacy of taste, The principal place of production ia Palo Fangkor Laut 
(Dindinga) opposite Perak. 

Agriculture. — The agriculture of the Malays (that of the Chinese is referred 
to below) ie, strictly apeakiiig, almost confined to one object — the cultivation of 
rice, of which several varietiea are grown. The labour rendered neceaaary ia con- 
fined to only two or three months of the year, immediately after the autunuj rains, 
when the padi fields are submerged, and the task of turning in the stubble and 
weed of the preceding season is thus rendered easy. The planting of fruits, Ac., can 
scarcely be termed "agriculture," the natural fertility of the aoil rendering any 
labour unnecessary. In the Bettlementa and Protected States large areas are put 
under rice every season. In the Independent States, the clearings being smaller, 
o^rations are conducted on a more Umited scale, and it is only with great difficulty 
that enough grain is raised to supply domestic consumption, a good deal being 
imported from Siam. 

The following remarks by the late Mr. Looan on the agricultural capabilities of 
the southern portions of the Straits, apply almost equally well to the Peninsula 
generally : — " Although the soils of the district have not the fertility of the volcanic 
and calcareous soils which occur in many parts of the Indian Archipel^o, they are 
covered with an indigenous vegetation of great vigour and luxuriance, supporting 
numbers of animals of different species. The hills of plutonic rock support dense 
and continuous forests composed of more than 200 species of trees, many of which 
are of great size. So long as the iron is not in such excess a« to decompose the 
clay into stone or render it hard, those soils which contain most iron are most fertile. 
The purely or highly felapathic are the worst. But even felapathie soils, when 
intermised with a sufficient proportion of quartz, are, in this climate, capable of 
producing on abundant vegetation. Although it ia obvious to every observer that 
there ia no kind of soil in the district for which nature has not yet provided plants 
that flourish luxuriantly in it, yet it must not be hastily concluded, as some have 
done, that this exuberant vegetation indicates a general fertility in the soil. It is 
found, on the contrary, when the native plants are destroyed and the land is 
employed for agriculture, that there are very few soils in which cultivated plants 
not indigenous to the region, but whose climatic range embraces it, will flourish 
spontaneously. While the cocoanut, betelnut, sago, gomuti and the numerous 
Malayan fruits succeed well with little care, the nutmeg and clove are stunted and 
almost unproductive, unless constantly cultivated and highly manured. Yet the 
climate is perfectly adapted for them. Pla^e them in the rare spots where there is 
naturally a fertile soil, or create one artificially, and the produce is equal to that of 
trees in the Molucca plantations. With respect to indigenous plMits, gambler, 
pepper and all the fruit-trees flourish on the plutonic hills, provided they are not 
too deficient in iron and quartz. The hills of violet shale, where they are not too 
sandy, are equal to the best plutonic soils— those namely in which there is a suffi- 
cient proportion of hard granules to render them friable, and sufficient iron to 
render them highly absorptive of water without becoming plastic. Of all the 
scdimentarv soils, the soudatonc and very arenaceous shales furnish the worst. Of 
the alluvial eoUs, the sand, particularly when it contains a mixture of vegelable 
matter or triturated shells, is the proper soil of the cocoanut, and the vegetable mud 
of the sago. When the countiy has been better and longer drained and cultivated. 
the latter soil will become a rich mould. At present it is everywhere too wet and 
sour to make a fertile soil. Kice is grown on some patches of it. The bluish sea 
mud contains good ingredients, but clay is in excess, and the animal matter in it 
appears to assist in rendering it hard and uutroctable when it in not saturated with 
water. Even for such a soil nature has provided plants useful to man, for the 
betelnut and some of the indigenous fruit-trees grow well in it with little cultiva- 
tion, Although there are cultivated plants adapted to every kind of aoil in the 

Ake of British Malaya. All 

district, and it lias indigenous tribes who can live exclusively on its yams, sago, fisli 
and wild animals, it is incapable of feeding a population of the more civilized races, 
and the latter must always be dependent on other countries for the great necessary 
of life — rice." 

Small patches of tobacco and sugar-cane are common, but in each case the 
cultivation is for domestic use only. The implements used are of the rudest nature, 
the plough being a rough wooden affair capable only of scratching the surface, 
while the harrow is equally primitive. The one tool oi the Malay agriculturalist is 
the chwngkol, or large hoe, q, v. Some indication of the comparatively slight im- 
portance attached to the art of cultivation by the Malays is afforded by the fact 
that no generic word exists for it in the language ; that used, viz., tanam, and its 
derivatives, meaning accurately to plant or bury. 

The Chinese have, in fact, become the real agriculturalists of the Straits, co<»a- 
nuts, sugar, indigo, pepper, gambler, nutmeg and pine-apple being all " cultivated " 
by them in the full sense of the word. European enterprise has of late attempted 
coffee, tea, cocoa, cinchona, cocoanuts and sugar, the latter having been cultivated 
for many years and alone yielded results of importance. Guano, oil cake (especially 
the latter), lime and other fertilizers have been plentifully used on the sugar estates, 
and a good deal of care has been taken with cocoa, &c. The Chinese, however, 
resort sdmost exclusively to excrement and sewerage. 

Aker. — ^Means a root, and is constantly used to form compound words, such 
as A. Jcdhma, A, einapo, A, ttiba, &c, (KaJuna-root, &c.) 

Akki or Akki Apple (BligMa aapida). — ^A vegetable which during growth 
is surrounded by a hard shell ; when the kernel ripens this splits open, disclosing 
a yellow gelatinous seed. Fried with butter and pepper it is an acceptable addition 
to the table. It has been introduced into the Straits from the West Coast of 

Albino. — Persons bom without the colouring matter of the skin, eyes, and 
hair, and thus far imperfect, are occasionally to be seen in every race and tribe of 
the Malayan Peninsula, as they are of those of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. 
The native terms are hcder or sSpak, 

Alboquerquej Affonso. — Or Aponso Albuquebque, was the second son 
of GoNSALVo DE Albuquebque, lord of Villaverde, and an illegitimate descendant 
of the royal family of Portugal. He was born in 1452. In 1503 he made his first 
voyage to India in the joint command of a fleet with his relative Pbancisco Albu- 
QXJEBQXJE. Betuming home in 1503, he was appointed to the command of a squadron 
bound for India, forming part of a fleet under the orders of Tbistan da Cunha, 
who, proceeding himself to India, left Albuqebque to carry on a desultory and 
improfitable warfare with the little Mahommedan States on the eastern coast of 
Africa. In 1508 he acquired the government of India. In 1510 he attacked and, 
after a first unsuccessful attempt, succeeded in capturing Goa, which has ever since 
continued the capital of the Portuguese possessions in India. In 1511 he under- 
took and achieved the conquest of Malacca — the enterprise which connects his name 
with the present work. His last achievement was the conquest of Ormus, soon after 
which he fell sick, returned to India, and died a few days after, in the sixty-third 
year of his age.* 

Allakan Durian Tembaga. — V. in S.E. Selangor, about 5 miles from 
the Simgei Ujong frontier. 

Alligator. — By a common error all reptiles of this family are usually termed 
alligators (Spanish el legarto, the lizard), but the ten species known are all American, 
though the discovery of a true alligator in India has recently been announced. 
Alligators are all fresh-water animals ; the muzzle of the animal tapers roundly 
from the back of the jaw to the snout, and its toes are partly webbed, the outer toe 

[3] B 2 


jm Descriptwe Dictionary Amo 

being free. The canine teeth fit into jn£* in the upper jaw. The hind legs are 
without scales. 

The crocodile likes brackish or salt aa well as fresh water, has scales on the 
hind legs, its teeth fit into notclw^ in the upper jaw, and the side of the jaw is 
depressed in front of the snout. See Ckocodilb. 

Alligator or Avocado Pear. — Not indigenous, introduced from the 
West Indies. 

Allspice {Pimenta fw^f/am).— This is exotic. Mr. Cantley, writing iu 
December, 1886, says of a apecinien in the Botanical Gardens : — " A plant of all- 
spice raised from seed some nine jears ago ie now about twelve feet iu height and 
is for the moment covered with blossom and small fruit." 

• Alma Estate.— Eight miles and 3 furlongs from Butterworth, and situated 
in the centre of Province Wellesley, between Macham Bubo, Bukit Minyak and 
Tebing TinggJ- This estate, which lies two miles inland from the high road, wu.s 
opened nearly 50 years ago by Mr. Kobest Wilson of Penang for the purpose of 
growing the manioc or caaaava root, here called vbi Icayu, for the manufacture of 
tapioca, and it turned out a great success. The soil proved well adapted to the 
growth of the root. A bead of soft water for turning the mill and washing the 
flour was obtained by throwing a dam across a stream running from Bukit Merta- 
jam towards the Juru, and now there are 1,000 acres under cultivation producing a. 
proportionate quantity of that substance. The labourers employed are nearly all 
Klings and Chinese. The house of the manager is situated on rising ground sur- 
rounded by magnificent trees and opposite the lake formed in consequence of the 
danuning operation above described, and is one of the most picturesquely situated 
in the colony. 

Almighty as distinct from " god " is rendered by Maha Eitaaa, but is rather 
a descriptive than nominal phrase, 

Almond trees abound in the Peninsula. They are called biidam (a Persian 
word), kelapong or log. A wild almond is commonly met with. 

Alor Gajah.— A village in the Pigoh district and on the S. borders of the 
Haning territory, N. Malacca. Near it was situated Fort Lismore, at one time 
occupied by a garrison under the East India Company, but now abandoned. A 
Government bungalow and police station exist here, and prior to the reduction of 
Naniug, the place was of some importance. It is about 16 miles N. of Malacca- 
town on the high road to the Tabu district, and was frequently mentioned by early 
explorers of the province. 

Alor Star or Kola Star.—?. "- 

Amber, so called in Malay. Known but not found in Malaya. 

Amaugan. — V. on the S. slope of the hills below Ewala Lumpor iu S.E. 

Amok. — " Kuuning amok " descrilies a species of murder.madness peculiar to 
the Malaya. Inflamed by some real or fancied injury, or in some few eases insane, 
the amok runner rushes throiigh the streets, cutting down with his sword or 2X'fang 
every one he can. As an illuatration we quote the following ; " On the 8th July, 
1846, SuNAN, a respectable Mahiy builder in Penang, ran amok in Chulia Street 
and Penang Road, and before he was arrested killed an old Bindu woman, a Kling, 
a Chinese boy, and a Kling girl about 8 years old in the arms of her father, and 
wounded two Hindus, throe Klings, and two Chinese, of whom only two survived. 
On his trial it appeared that he was greatly afflicted by the loss of his wife and 
child, which preyed upon his mind and quite altered his appearance. A person 
with whom he bad lived up to the 15th of June said further : ' He used to Itring 
his child to bis work ; since its death be has worked for mo ; he often said he could 


Amp of British Malaya. Ant 

not work as he was afflicted by the loss of his child. I think he was out of his 
mind. He did not smoke or drink. I think ho was mad.' On the morning of the 
amok this person met him, and asked him to work at his boat. 'He replied that he 
could not, he was very much afflicted.* ' He had his hands concealed under his 
cloth, and frequently exclaimed, Allah ! Allah ! ' 'He daily complained of the loss 
of his wife and child.' On the trial Sunan declared he did not know what he was 
about, and persisted in this at the place of execution, adding : ' As the gentlemen 
say I have committed so many murders, I suppose it must be so.' The amok took 
place on the 8th, the trial on the 13th, and the execution on the 15th of July — all 
within eight davs." 

British rule has almost exterminated amxik in the Settlements, the prospect of 
being hanged in cold blood causing a disinclination to run the risk. An amoker 
always expects to be cut down while under the influence of his simulated passiSn. 

Ampatlg. — V. in E. Selangor. A little over 10 miles E.S.E. of Kwalor 

Amulets. — fi^ee Chabms. 

Anak Ayer Pari. — A small tributary of the E. Sei Pari, a branch of the 
Kinta Eiver, C. Perak. 

Anchor, — "The Malay anchor is constructed of a piece of forked timber, 
the fluke being strengthened by twisted rattans binding it to the stem, while the 
cross-piece is formed of the long flat stone secured in the same manner. This 
anchor when well made holds exceedingly firm, and, owing to the expense of iron, 
is stiU almost universally used on board the small prahvs" — Wallace. The 
native word to anchor is herlahian. Hence Lahuan, the British Colony of that name. 

Ang Mo Kio. — District in E.G. Singapore, greatly settled by Chinese. 

Angin-Angill. — A weather-cock, which see. 

Aniseed. — This well-known article of trade is termed Adas or jintan m^inis* 

ADJOng Meandong. — Y- in the Pahang Delta about 1^ m. S.E. of the 
junction of the E. Pahang and Pahang Tuah. 

Ant. — 8*mut or Semut in Malay. A number of varieties are found in the 
Peninsula, the largest being the semut temunggong, an insect about 1^ inch in 
length, of black colour and armed with formidable forceps which wiU make an 
appreciable wound. The kongkiah is another black variety over half an inch in 
length and found only on the ground, as it never ascends trees. Its nest is formed 
in the earth, and it is mostly visible in wet weather. It frequently bites the bare 
feet of the natives. Next to this comes the karingga, a red ant, which, like the 
iimiinggong, bites viciously, and is remarkable for the rapidity with which it 
transfers itself from the branch, &c., it may happen to be on, to the person. 
Hundreds will thus attack one in a few seconds, in which case the only alternative 
is to immediately strip — an easy proceeding when within reach of a bath-room, but 
embarrassing when away from nome. Of the anei-anei, or in Singapore aemut puteh, 
or white ant, much might be written, but its depredations are precisely those 
described in countless works of travel. It differs from its American congener in 
never building the lofty tumuli familiar to all readers of Natural History, but is 
none the less a nuisance. This species always attacks the butt end of wood, and 
never (unless the piece attacked be joined to another already perforated) com- 
mences its boring from the side. Metal shoes and a plentiful use of tar, kerosine 
and its other derivatives, are the only known means of repelling their attacks. The 
slight mounds raised by this insect bum, if properly lit, with a powerful red 
heat for some days. A small black ant, of which the largest specimens are only a 
quarter of an inch long, comes next in order. It is called semut sawa by the Malays 
and is apparently harmless. A smaller reddish ant, exactly resembling that at 
home, comes next. It is known as semut kerna. The smallest of the house pests is 


Descriptive Dictionary 


the ftmiii api, or " fire ant," the bite of wliich is aptly likened to the prick of a red- 
hot needle. A yet smaller apecieB, the semvi hitu, infeata the ekina of specimens 
prepared for the museum, but do uo dama^ beyond clearing away any minute 
fragments of fleah left adhering in the course of preparation. These species 
embrace all commonly met with, but the field is yet open to eiploration. 

Antimony.— This metal, formerly unknown to the natives of the East, as it 
was to Eitropeana until the fifteenth century, was found for the first time in Borneo, 
in 1823. The ore is a sulphuret in a matrix of qnartz, and at present furnisheB the 
chief supply of Europe, being exported, from the Emporium of Singapore, to a 
large yearly amount.* Oiide of antimony is obtained in large quantities amongst 
the hills of Perak, chiefly in oonjuuction with veins of tin. 

^Antiquities, Malayan. — No remains of any archaeological importance, 
save a few insiiriptiouB. are to be found in the Peninsula, but an interesting 
sketch of those found in Java, &e,. is given in N. & Q. with No. XVI (1886) of 
J. S. B. R. A. S., p, 88. Traces of ancient Buddhist temples are said to eiiat 
in Province Wellealey. Some of the shell mounds occurring there might be worth 

Ape. — iScE Monkey. 

Apit'Apit. — The game of draughts, much resembling our own. S'ee Dkaitohts. 

Ara Panjang. — V. on E. bank of Perak E., C. Perat. 

Ara RendaXLg. — A small village, 9 miles N.E. of Butterworth, Province 
Wellesley, and close to Malakoff estate. A police station is established here. The 
name is applied by the natives to the district, including the estate referred to. 

Arabs, Arabia. — This country has been familiarly known to the inhab- 
itants of the Malayan islands for sii centuries, the majority of them having, 
within that time, adopted ita religion and laws, aad engrafted much of its language 
n their own. There are many merchants and petty shopkeejiers of this nationality 
in the Settlements.* 

Arabic Language. — Malay contains numerous Arabic words, mostly 
altered however in form. The Arabic alphaljet with the six letters j _ c lij i^ 
and (_j forms that of the Malays. See Ceaufoed, Malay G. &. Kc, Vol. i. 
p. xiii. 

Areca FalXa, Areca catechu (Pokoh Finang). This k the tree which 
produces the well-known betel-nut {q. v.). The leaf-sheath is used to form water 
buckets and baskets. The tree itself is very slender and graceful, and gives ita 
name to the Pulo Pinang, there being about three-quarter million of trees on the 
island. It is common throughout the Peninsula and Settlements, as also in the 

IArehipelago and Southern India. 
Argus Pheasant (Kwiu) (Argva gigantieua). — A native of Malacca, one of 
the most magnificent, though lees brightly coloured than others, of the pheasant 
tribe. The late Mr. Whampoa of Singapore had several in confinement, but it is 
somewliat difficult to keep them alive in Europe. The wing coverts are beautifully 
marked with eyes, and the tail is of gr^at length, i-equiring a very roomy cage 
indeed for its display. 
Armadillo, the tinggilhg of the Malays, is found throughout the Peninsula. 
and " cooked in the shell" is an attractive djsh. 
Anus. — In Malay nnjata, a word found in the language of all the civilized 
nations as far as the Philippines. The earliest weapons of the Indian islanders, 
after clubs, were most likely spears, for which their almost universal forests would 
yield a ready supply. The inhabitants of the island of Matau, scarcely exceeding 
an area of two leagues and a half, who defeated and slew the first circumnavigator 
of the globe, with h's band of sixty Spanish cavaliers, were armed with hardly any 


Arm of British Malaya. Arm 

other weapons than wooden or cane spears sharpened and hardened in the fire, with 
wooden bucklers. The spear is still a favourite weapon with all the Malayan tribes. 
The sling, in Malay aZi-ali, although well known, seems never to have been much 
used. The chief missile in use before the introduction of fire-arms was a small 
arrow ejected from a blow-pipe by the breath, called a sumpitan, meaning the object 
blown through. This instrument is at present in general use by most of the wild 
tribes. The bow for discharging arrows is well known to aU the more advanced 
nations of the Archipelago, but does not seem, at any time, to have been generally 
employed, the blow-pipe probably superseding its use, although a far less effectual 
weapon. The common name for it— ^ana^, — extends over the whole of the islands. 
But of all weapons, the greatest favourite of the Malayan nations is the kris, the 
native word for a dagger or poniard. Men of all ranks wear one, and men of rank 
two, and even three and four when full dressed, the quality of the party being 
shown by the richness of the hilt, scabbard, and belt. The preference ^ven to the 
kris over the more effectual sword had most probably its origin in the high price of 
iron in early times, and when there was no supply from abroad. In such times, a 
kris manufacturer — called a pande, cutler or blacksmith — ^was a person of dis- 
tinction, as the same artificer is represented to have been in the Ossianic poems, 
and the names of several have been handed down by tradition. The word kris 
belongs equally to the Malay and Javanese, and is to be found in the languages of 
all the more advanced nations, expressing the same object. The sword is said to 
have been introduced about the year 1580, which is near 70 years after the Portu- 
guese conquest of Malacca. Bucklers were largely used by the Malayan nations 
before the introduction of fire-arms, and in the Malay language there are no fewer 
than eight names for them, sometimes synonyms, and sometimes expressing their 
different forms. 

Babbos enumerates the different weapons generally used by the Malays of 
Malacca when it was attacked by Albuqttebque. " They consisted," he says, " of 
daggers of from two spans and a half to three spans long, straight in the blade 
and two-edged (the kns), bows and arrows, blow-pipes, which discharged very 
small arrows barbed and poisoned, with short spears for throwing, and bucklers of 
two kinds, the one short, and the other long enough to protect the whole body of 
the wearer." Babbosa says that the Malays of Malacca obtained arms from Java. 
"They" (the Javanese), says he, "bring many arms for sale, such as lances, 
bucklers, and swords (krises), having hilts wrought in marque terie, and blades of 
the finest steel." — Eamusio, vol. i. 

But besides the arms thus enumerated, the Portuguese and Spaniards, when 
they first arrived, found the most advanced of the Malayan nations in possession 
of fire-arms. Babbos incidentally mentions the existence of match-locks in the 
defence of Malacca. The Portuguese had manned a captured junk with cannon, 
and sent her forward to batter the defences of a bridge, and this is his account of 
the action which took place : " As soon as the junk had passed the sand-bank and 
had come to an anchor, a short way from the bridge, the Moorish artillery opened 
a fire on her. Some guns discharged leaden balls at intervals, which passed through 
both sides of the vessel, doing much execution among the crew. In the heat of the 
action Aktonio d'Abbeu, the commander, was struck in the cheek from a fusil 
(espingardSo), carrying off the greater number of his teeth." The son of Albu- 
QUEBQUE, in his Commentaries, is still fuller on the subject of the captured artillery 
and the weapons of defence used by the Malays. " There were captured," says he, 
" 3,000 pieces, of which 2,000 were of brass, and the rest of iron. Among them 
there was one large piece sent by the King of Calicut to the King of Malacca. All 
the artillery with its appurtenances were of such workmanship that it could not be 
excelled, even in Portugal. There were found also match-locks (espingardSto), blow- 
pipes for shooting poisoned arrows, bows and arrows, lances of Java, and divers 
other arms, all which created surprise in those that captured them." — Commentarios 



Descriptive Dictionary 


do tjratiile Afonto ^ Albaqaerque ; Luboa, 1576. The greater nmnber moBt likely 
miiisieted of tho small [jieceB called by the nativea rantaka or haJid-gunB. Castan- 
HBi>A hIbo raentiona match -lock a (espingardao), aud while he reduces the captured 
cannon to 2,000, he sajs that thej threw balls, Bome of stone, and some of iron covered 
with lead. The caanon (bomlwudia) were aome of them of brass and aoiae of iron- 
By his ai-ftount, the bridge — the chief scene of combat in the atorm of Malacca-— waa 
defended by aeventy-two pieces of ordnance. 

The name by wiiich tire-arma are UBually called ia b^dil, a general one for any 
missile, and vuiriam, which is Arabic, and in that language signifies " the Vir^n 
Mary," which would aeem to imply that the knowledge of artillery was derived by 
the Arabs themselves fi'om the Christians, as without doubt it was. Smaller 
ordnance are called by various names, such as raniaka, lela, &c., &a., &c. The 
nJtive term biidil extends to the languages of all the more cnltivated nations, 
although aometimes corrupted. The Arabic name mariata is also of general accept- 
ance. The name of the match-lock is saiingar, a corruption of the Portuguese 
espingardihi, and the musket rifle ia called aanapang, a corruption of the Dutch 

A knowledge of gunpowder must have been, at leaat, as early aa that of can- 
non. It ia not improbable that it may have been even earlier known through the 
Chiaeae, for the manufacture of fire-works, known to the Malaya under the name 
marchun, a word of which the origin is not traceable. The principal ingredient* 
of gunpowder are sufficiently abundant over many parts of the Archipelago, and 
known by native names, gandawa. being the name of saltpetre, and bdliran^, or 
wdiravtg, of sulphur. The names for gunpowder itself are a little singular. In 
Malay it is called vhat-hddQ, which literally means " mi&sile-charm." 

The parties who introduced the knowledge of fire-arms among the Malayan 
nations cannot be mistaken. They were certainly the Mahommedans, and most 
probably the Arabs. Cannon were in full use by Eurojiean nations for military 
purposes in the middle of the fourteenth century, and nearly at the same time by the 
Arabs of Spain, who had a frequent intercourse with their Eastern countrymen, and 
these, at the time, with the Oriental nations aa far aa China. Between the time 
when cannon were in general uae in Europe and the first appearance of the Portu- 
guese in Malaya, a century and a half had elapsed—ample time for the transmisaiou 
of the new invention to the Malayan nations, and even to China, where also It was, 
most probably, first made known by the Arabs, The earliest reliable date which 
we poaaesa of the use of artillery in continental India ia the year 1482, when 
Mahommed Shah, King of Oujrat, employed cannon in a fieet during the war with 
pirates. In such cases iJie cannoniera are stated to have been Turka and Europeans. 
Thia aeems to liave been the case even after the arrival of Europeans ; for in the 
great battle which secured to Babab the posseasion of Northern India, it is repre- 
sented by the hjgtorian Fabishta, that " he ordered his park of artillery to be 
linked together with leathern ropea made of raw hides, according to the practice of 
the armies of Aala Minor." On the arrival of the Portuguese on the western coast 
of India, they found all the maritime nations, whether under Mahommedan or 
Hindu rule, in posseaaion of fire-arms, and employing them both on land and sea, 
and they found the same to be the case from the Arabiaji to the Persian Oulf. 
The handsomest piece of ordnance ea.ptured by them at Malac(a, as has been 
already atat*^, had been a gift the Malay prince from the King of Calicut, tho 
Hindu prince called by the Portuguese the Zauorin. Of the actual year in which 
fire-arma were made known to the inhabitants of Malaya there is no record, but, 
conaidering the frequent intercourse which subsisted between them and the maritime 
parts of Western India, we may safely conclude that the event did not take place 
earlier than fifty yeara Iwfore the arrival of the Portuguese, that is, about the 
middle of the fifteenth century, or abinit a. century after they had been in common 

1 Europe. 


Arr of British Malaya. AUT 

On the first arrival of the Portuguese in Malaya, the Javanese appear to have 
been the great manufacturers of arms of all descriptions. A regular manufacture of 
cutting weapons, match-locks and cannons, is still carried on by the Malays of 
Banjermassin in Borneo, and this with a skill surprising for their state of society. 
As this part of Borneo was long subject to the Javanese, it seems probable that it 
was this people that introduced the art. For many generations the Malays of 
Menangkabau have been the manufacturers of all kinds of arms for Sumatra. But 
the skilful manufacture of arms is by no means confined to these places.* — Con- 
densed from Cbauford*8 D. /See also Kbis, Bow, Sling, and Sumpitan. 

Arrack. — An Arabic word now conventionally used by the Malays to signify 
" spirits." A knowledge of distillation was most probably acquired from either the 
Arabs or Chinese, the fermented liquor known as gilang not being obtained in this 
manner. The Chinese are the principal distillers in the Straits.* • 

Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) , says Mr. Cantley (Report 1886), grows 
perfectlv in the Experimental Nursery, Singapore. It is not much cultivated her^ 
except Dy cottagers for home consumption, but the produce is said to be very 
superior in quafity. 

Arrows (Anak damaJc). — J. I. A., I, 272. Seldom used now with the bow 
(damak), but minute arrows, about 7 inches long, are the projectiles propelled from 
the sumpitan, q, v, 

Arsonic. — ^Is known by a native name, but is not a native product. It was 
probably brought to the islands originally from Siam and Burma, of which it is a 
product. Orpiment, or the sulphuret, goes under the name of warangan or haran- 
gan, and the epithet puteh, or " white," is added for the white oxide. Warangan is 
derived from vjarang, which means the process of applying a compound, of which 
orpiment is a main ingredient, to a kris blade in order to preserve it. Arsenic is 
the principal poison used by the Malays for assassination, but even this very rarely, 
the kris being the means generally had recourse to* 

Arum. — Large and small species of arums abound, that most common being 
known as the hahi-makan, or pig's food (though the grammatical order of the words 
is reversed). The flower is seldom attractive, being rather curious than beautiful. 

AsaJian. — ^V. just inside the boundary between Muar and Malacca, 5 miles 
W. of Mt Ophir. 

Asiatic Society, Straits Branch of. —See Journal. 

Ass {Kalde), known only to the Malays by its presence in other Mahommedan 

Astana or Istana, ?• v. 

Asthma (S^sak dada) . — Is a well-known disease amongst the Malays, yrho 
gladly accept European palliatives. 

Astrology. — Described by the Arabic term elmu nujum, believed in, but 
seldom practised by the existing races. 

Attap. — ^Roof or thatch ; but in common acceptation meaning the leaves of 
the nipa and other palms, which are roughly plaited so as to be used for thatch. 
Other substances, such as lalang grass and cocoanut leaves, are sometimes used, 
though much inferior in lasting qualities, and are then spoken of as " attap lalang,^* 
Ac. NipaAesLves thatch will keep in good condition for three years, but the average 
life of an attap roof is generally taken as five. The names of the trees from which 
attap is chiefly made are, besides Nipa, Attap puar. A, rurribia, A. sampit, A, sordan, 
and A. rajah, 

Aur Gadillg. — ^A thriving v. 6 miles 1 furlong N.E. of Butterworth, P. 
Wellesley, and J mile from the 4th ferry of the Prai River : the site of a Police 
station. A large nutmeg plantation formerly existed here, the property of Mr. S. 
Hebiot of Penang. 


Axe Descriptive Dictionary Ay6 

Axe or liat<'het (Kapak or Uiong). — The native tool is very primitiTe, and 
those of European manufacture are now chiefly used. The bUong cau be altered 
so as to become an adze. 

Aver.— la the Malay word for water, and sometimes for river, and con- 
aeqiienlly for a diatrict seated on a river. Of places having this word combined 
with another, we have at least a score in our maps and charts, as Ayer-itam, black 
water or river ; Ayer-dekat. near rirer ; Ayer-be»ar, great river ; Pula-ayer, water 
island ; and Pvlo-we, which we write Pulo-way, having the same meaning. 

Ayer Anak Sadaug. — V. in N.E. Perak on the Kertang R., a small S. aff, 
of the Plus R. 

Ayer Bamban.— Small V. on the high road in the Jus forest reserve, N. 

Ayer Bankong. — V. at extreme E. boundary between Jubol, Muar and 
MaWc^i. and N. «f Ml. Ophlr. 

Ayer Batu. — Bay in Teluk Blangah district, S.W, Singapore. 

Ayer Belantei. — A swamp on the Rembau-Malacea border. 

Ayer Benkong. — V. on the road between Machap and Pondok Kompas. N. 

Ayer Berendam. — v. S. of Sungei Udang district, Malacca ; the site of a 
Police station. Situated on the high road between Malacca-town and Lin^, alwut 
11^ miles from the former. 

Ayer Bertam.— A small V. about 2 ^ miles W. of Payah Rumput, Malacca. 

Ayer Biru. — V. on Johore shore of Old Strait, opposite W. eitremi^ of 
Pulo Ubin. 

Ayer Blangah. — A v. in the Sungei Pelei district, C, Malacca. -, 

Ayer Brenggan.^A small V, a little over | mile S. of Ayer Panas i 
E.G. Mahioca, 

Ayer Bumben. — A small V. and Police station a little over 2 miles S. of 
Ayer Panas, Malacua, 

Ayer Chambok. — T. on the Jobol side of the boundary between that 
State and Malacc^i, uu the road to Chindras, 

Ayer Chantick. — V. in the Govt, reserve in Sungei Bharu Tengali 
district, Malai'oa. 

Ayer Chermin, — A small V. at the most 8. source of the Duyong E„ 
Malacra, 3 miles due S, of Ayer Panas. 

Ayer Dammar. — Small v. at foot of Punggor hill. Jus forest resorve, 
N. "Malacca. 

Ayer Durian. — A small V. at S,W. comer of the Jus forest reserve, N. 

Ayer Garma.— V. on the left bank of the E. Linggi, neariy opposite Niato. 

Ayer Gemuru. — V. and stream } miles S, of Tanah Merah Besar, Singa- 
pore. A foreign residence and plantation exist here. 

Ayer Itam.— District, v. and R. in Lundu district, E. Penang, 

Ayer Itam.— Small V. on border of Blimbing district in S.C. Malacca. 

Ayer Klama. — V. on the boundary line between Malacca and Johol, 7 
miles S, of Chindraa, 

Ayer Kubu.— A small stream flowing from the N, into the Muar E. and 
forming one of the Iwundariea between JohiJ and Johore, 

Ayer Kuning (lU- yellow water).— A hill on the borders of Jobol and 
Malacca reputed to yield gold. 


Aye of British Malaya. Aye 

Ayer Kuning, — Small v. in the Jus forest resefve, N. Malacca. 
Ayer Langul. — V. in Tangga Batu district, Malacca, on the high road 
from Malacca-town to Linggi. 

Ayer Lombong. — ^A small V. between Dorian Tunggal and Machap. 
Police station about 2^ miles S. of the latter. 

Ayer Lombong. — Small V. 2 miles S. of Machap Police station, C. 

Ayer Ludin. — ^V. in Sungei Udang district, Malacca. 

Ayer Mendatang. — ^V. on road between MerUmau and Chin-Chin, S. 

Ayer Miliyak. — ^A small V. about \\ miles S. of Machap Police station, 
C. Malacca. * 

Ayer Molek, — A V. in Malacca on the road from the town to Ajer Panas. 

Ayer Mulei. — ^V. | miles on right bank of the E. Duyong, Malacca, with 

which it is connected by a small stream. About 3 miles from the coast. 

Ayer Nipah. — ^Bay in S.W. of Teluk Blangah district, Singapore. 

Ayer Panas. — A V. in the neighbourhood of the old tin mines, E.G. 
Malacca, and celebrated for its hot springs. The road to this place branches 
off at right angles from the main S. road from Malacca-town to Merlimau, and 
at the Tillage divides into two — one road leading to Durian Tunggal and the 
other to Jasin. A Government bungalow is situated at the fork, the triangular 
ground at its back, about 3| square miles, being a forest reserve. 

Ayer Panas, or Ganong in Naning, the site of hot springs. 

Ayer Pasir. — ^A small V. \ mile S. of Machap Police station, N.C. Malacca. 

Ayer Pengaga. — ^V. in Sungei Siput district in extreme N.W. of Malacca 
territory, and close to Labu China Police station. 

Ayer Petei. — Small V. 1 mile S. of the boundary line between Malacca 
and Johol, on the road to Chindras. 

Ayer Petei. — A V. in the Sungei Petei district, C. Malacca. 

Ayer Prang. — Stream flowing into a W. aff. of the Kinta E. in C. Perak. 

Ayer Punge. — ^A stream in Naning, N. Malacca. 

Ayer Puteh. — District just N. of Balik Pulau, W.C. Penang. 

Ayer Puteh. — ^V. in the Sungei Bham TJlu district, N.W. Malacca. 

Ayer Rajah. — District N.W. of Penang-town. A well-known residence also 
takes its name from the stream which gives its name to the district. 

Ayer Reminia. — A small V. at S.W. comer of Jus forest reserve, N. 

Ayer Salak. — ^A small V. in N. of Tan^a Batu district, Malacca. 

Ayer Sitandu. — A small v. close to Bukit Linggi, in district of that 
narne^ N. Malacca. 

Ayer Sumbah. — ^V. in the Simgei Bharu Tengah district, Malacca. 

Ayer Tengah. — ^V- \ mile inside the boundary line between Malacca and 
Johol, on the road to Chinoius. 

Ayer Tengah. — ^V. at extreme N. point of boundary line between Malacca 
and Johol. 

Ayer Terap. — ^A small Y. in the Machap district, C. Malacca. 

Ayer Terpin. — ^V. on E. bajik of Jurong, in Jurong district, W. 

Ayer Udang. — ^A v. on the Malacca E. in the Sungei Petei district. 


M^ /V^ct^/itv Dictionary Bag 

v^^v^. KSij^iiu^Il^\ ubv *l\irki*h word for Sir, Father, or Child, and through 
, ^mN^-^uvvJ 'UK* vKo ^miU St^ttloments. It is now applied to all Straits- 
..... »M M ..X rui u' <Uo vhiUUvuof foroigners. 

y> t^. 'i»v '*^'K V/^Nc<>. lu uU likelihood originally a Malay word, but intro- 

^T;,i,. \\\ Aw ^\<4Uv*\sl luuifuages, even into some, as the Javanese and 

1 ^ X, 'i \ :v '».oo u.^fi'^xv tonuH noaidos. It occurs frequently as the name of 

. , 1 1 M . . ! .^ I « Is ' »>>r^^'*<'^k **^^**^ )MvUU>ly by Malayan navigators, and from some fancied 

lial^i Hu*M v'^' K^^vUht). -This animal is a swine, and probably' received 

i^nv.\.ti»»f* »»»vwu^ l\\»iu tho fact that its tusks present so extraordinary an 

,. .,. . TUis*o v^i Uio low't»r jaw project upwards on each side of the upper 

,u iK ..ivl»»K<,»\ WwTi Hut those of the upper jaw pass through the upper 

, ,., J ,uM W\\\\\ s»vor \\\\> faco. The animal is fierce and dangerous, andean 

.llui. I l< ml'l\^ \\ovu\\U with iU lower tusks. The use of the upper ones is 

, .M, utidi.J. tK\^(uU old writers assert that the hahi-ruea was accustomed to 

u I- ui liiu^'^'tt ^\v thorn ti) the branches of trees. The female has no tusks. It 

, I .wiuuuv'V, M\\\ Im found in marshy localities. 

Uik^V^^*^^ ^'^'*<^ "<«'<]/)• "These abound and reach a size to be formidable when 
,,,..,,' I "i ivlU^-ktHl Thoy are reputed to attack monkeys of other species. In 
.litiu. uii ill tiio.v iHVMMot, aH a rule, be trusted, and seem less capable of beingtamed 'M\\ (it hoi tUiluiiil of the same tribe. 

A Minall V. over 2 miles from Malacca-town on the road to Batu 

tt^Uklk Mfttli- ^'ill tmd V. 16 miles 4 furlongs from Butterworth, P. Welles- 
I, 4 Mil Iho loft' of tho road going towards Sungei Bakap. The rising ground is 
.. < ii| h.Y HUiiUl Ntigar-cane and fruit plantations. 

(luv(^UK« V. about 4 miles E. of Prov. Wellesley frontier, 2^ miles N. of 
>)i •till. Kouivh. 

klk^KtiUt /'^^' ^ quay or landing-place : hence a ferry. It has come in Pro- 
^hn>. NVollowloy Ui Hignify a small district, much as the words Ox-ford, &c., have 
l,..>l. ihi.ii |it'iiiiary Kignification and become the names of cities and counties. Thus, 
lixtimn Tunn Kt'chil means more than the actual ferry of Timn Kechil, and is 
•i)*lihoU to tho village proper and surrounding land. 

U^tfttU Ayam. — A fishing village and sea ferry, 2 miles 6 furlongs from Butter- 
\\ Mi Ih. Province Wellesley, from which a road runs westward through Aur Gading to 
AifUitolaiiK* where the ** MalakofE'' sugar estate is situated. This is a large village, 
1(0(1 tliiM'o '\H a mosque and a Malay cemetery by the road-side. Three-quarters of 
li (iitli« boyond Bagan Ayam, a private road diverges through the cocoa-nut planta- 
t-ioii iff Mr. HoGAN direct to the old Police station at Teluk Eemis, where there is a 
hit form bridge across the deep but narrow sand gully which forms the bed of the 
io»*h-wat45r stream. Thirty years ago, as there was no bridge lower down, the 
|iul»lhj road, which led direct to the beach at the mouth of the stream where wheeled 
iHvrriages could not cross except under peculiarly favourable circimistances, fell into 
(llMONo, and could not readily be distinguished. A good bridge has now, however, 
htum erected, and the road thoroughly restored and re-metalled. The private road 
IoimU i)ast the remains of a substantial brick building ftrmerly occupied by Col. 
how, for many years Assistant Eesident of the Province, but which was sold after- 
wards to the present proprietors of the plantation. See Teluk Eemis. 

Bagan Ayer Itam. — On N. bank of same name, W. Penang, just below 
Bukit Kechil. 

Bagan Boya. — ^A fishing village 1 mile N. of Butterworth, P. Wellesley. 
The system of hlats, or fishing weirs, which extends N. to the mouth of the Muda, 



Bag of British Malaya. Bal 

commences here, the coast in the neighbourhood of Butterworth being kept clear 
for convenience of traffic. 

Bagan Dalam. — important as the point where the steam ferry bridge 
crosses to Prai conveying vehicles, &c., each way about every 20 minutes. It is a 
suburb of Butterworth, P. Wellesley. 

Bagan Datoh. — ^V. on S. side of embouchure of Perak E., S.W. Perak. 

Bagan Jermal. — v. on N.E. Coast of Penang, about 3 miles from town. 

Bagan Jermal. — A v. 1 mile 6 furlongs N. of Butterworth, P. Wellesley, 
chiefly occupied by flshermen. A fresh -water stream is crossed by a platform bridge, 
close to which is an extensive Chinese oil-boiling and pig-breeding establishment, 
the animals being fed with the refuse of the cocoa-nuts from which the oil is made. 
The mouth of the stream is often closed with sand, but the water manages to 
escape by filtering through into the sea. On the beach immediately to the N. of 
this stream, and 2 miles I furlong from Butterworth, a large board on two pillars 
defines the northern limit of the Port of Penang. About 200 yards beyond the 
bridge, on the left, near the sea, is a dwelling-house formerly belonging to the Messrs. 
Beown, and occasionally occupied by members of the firm. 

Bagan Nakodah Omar. — V. on S.W. coast, Selangor, about 6 miles S. of 
entrance to Bemam R. 

Bagan Samu. — v. on N. bank of Krian R., 2 miles S.E. of Parit Buntar. 

Bagan Sorai. — District and ferry across the Prai R., P. Wellesley, which is 
here 150 yards broad. On the S. bank of the river are several brick kilns worked 
by Chinese. The bed of clay crosses the river a mile and a half above the ferry, 
where there is also a large brick-making establishment, and then runs along the N. 
bank of the river as far as Aur Gading, the clay improving greatly in quality at 
the latter spot. Bagan Serai ferry is 2 miles 6 furlongs from Butterworth, being 
the second from the mouth of the Prai. 

Bagan Srei. — A ferry and V. about 7 miles from the entrance of the Krian 
R., N.W. Perak. 

Bagan Tiang. — V. on the N.W. coast of Perak, 5^ miles below Krian R. 

Bagan Tuan Kechil. — Ferry place and V. in P. Wellesley, immedi- 
ately N. of Butterworth, the ferry being ^ mile from the Magistrate's house. Popu- 
lation 500 to 600. A large number of boats ply from here to Penang, and a regular 
steam launch service is also kept up, this being the principal point of commu- 
nication with George-town. The inliabitants are boatmen, fishermen, Chinese 
and Kling shopkeepers, with clerks and interpreters attached to the Government 

Balira=3 piculs. — ^A Malacca weight, not given in the tables of Malay 
weights ordinarily published. 

Bajang or Pelisit. — A malicious spirit or goblin which takes possession of 
people, causing sickness, and can only be driven out by exorcists. 

Bajau. — V. in Tengah district, W. Singapore. A Government rest-house \ 
mile N.W. 

Baju Rantei. — fi^ee Mail Armour. 

Balachong. — This is the name of a condiment made of prawns, sardines, 
and other small fish, pounded and pickled. The proper Malay word is hdlachan. 
This article is of universal use as a condiment, and one of the largest articles of 
native consumption throughout both the Malay and Philippine Archipelago. It is 
not confined as a condiment to the Asiatic islanders, but is also largely used by the 
Burmese, the Siamese, and Cochin-Chinese. It is, indeed, in a great measure, 


Bll Descriptive Dictionary Bat 

tiaDr the same article known to the Greeks and Bomans under the name of 
furwm^ the produce of a Mediterranean fish«* 

Balang Balang. — ^A weathercock, which see. 

Balei Paiqailg. — ^V. and Kampong 2| miles from Malacca-town on the road 
to Pajah Sampm. 

Bali Mnnktir. — ^A Y. between Bokit Perling and Bokit Tabo in Naning. 

Balik PolatL — ^District and Y. in S.W.C. Penang, the former haring been 
reeentlj placed under charge of a Magistrate, who has jurisdiction orer the adjoin- 
ing di^ncts. It is reached bj a somewhat difficult road from Penang-town, un- 
suitable for carriages. 

Bambei. — ^Y. on N. bank of Langat B.» S.W. Selangor, near T^ngat., 

Bamboo. — <Se« Bulith. 

Banana. — Bee Pisjuto and Fbuits. 

Banana Fibre. — i9e« Fibres. 

Banda Bhara. — The seat of the Besidencj in Perak. 

Bandahara. — The title of the chief officer of State in the native territories. 
He has control over all matters connected with the sea, and in concurrence with the 
T^munggong instals a newlj^lected Sultan. 

Bandar Kanching. — Y. in Selangor on N. bank B. of same name about 
5 miles E. of Selangor B. 

Bander or Bandar- — ^A town or large Y., used in the names of places. 

Bander Bawang. — ^Y. on an E. aff. of the Selangor B., about 6 miles S.E. 
of the main stream, E. Selangor. 

Bandong. — ^Y. in S.R Selangor about 4 miles N. bj E. of Kwala Lumpor, 
lat. 3° 16' N., long. 101° 55' E. Hot springs exist immediately to the N. 

Bangbnn. — A species of Ichneumon (probably Herpeties griseut) which has 
a peculiar antipathy to serpents and neyer fkils to engage and oyercome one when 
it has the opportunity, escaping bites by its wonderful a^lity. It is also a splendid 
ratter, is easily tamed and becomes much attached to man. It is yery fond of 
crocodiles' eggs. In colour it is brown grizzled with grey : length about 3 feet 3 
inches, of which the tail is about 1 foot 6 inches. It secretes a soent like the ciyet, 
but of no commercial yalue. Its daws are partially retractile.* 

Bangsal Tengah. — ^A small Y. N. of Jelutong, S. Malacca. 

Banian Tree. — Too well known to need description. But many may be 
unaware that its juice is regarded by the natiyes as a beneficial astringent applica- 
tion for sore eyes. 

Bami. — See Pulo Sbnang. 

Barok. — ^ tinder extracted from the runut tree : also used to make the base 
of a sumpitan arrow air-tight in the blow-pipe. 

Barote. — The word applied to wooden roofing materials such as we call 
" shingles." 

Basik. — A pepper known also as Sirih Titan, credited with medicinal 

Basisi. — The name applied to one of the aboriginal tribes of the Peninsula- 
There seems to be no specific difference between them and the Sakais, q. v. 

Baskets (BaktU or Kranjang), — Are made of yarious materials, chiefly 
split bamboo, hertam, rotan kumba, langhap, &c. No particular taste is shown in 
tneir design. 

Batah Babit. — ^V. on C. bank of Perak B., about 5 miles by riyer below 
Purian Sabatang in S.W. Perak. 


Bat of British Malaya. Bat 

Batam. — One of the largest of the many islands at the eastern end of the 
Straits of Malacca, and which seem almost to block up the channel between 
Sumatra and the Peninsula. It lies opposite to Singapore, and, with the larger 
island of Bintang, forms the southern side of the Straits of Singapore, the 
common route to and from the China and Java Sea. Batam is the Portuguese 
orthography of Batang, a word meaning " tnmk," or " main part." The islMid is 
computed to have an area of 128 square geographical miles, and its geological 
formation is like that of the neighbouring countries — plutonic and sedimentary. 
The land is poor and little cultivated. The ruling inhabitants are Malays, but it 
has also a rude tribe unconverted to Mahommedanism, called Sabimba. It belongs 
to the prince of Johor, under the usual superiori^ of the Dutch. [Included here 
as being sighted by all vessels making Singapore Koads.]"*^ 

Batang Bljamei. — ^V. on E. bank of Selangor E. just above its turn N. 
some 25 miles from the coast. 

Batang Malacca Ilir. — v. in N. border of Jus forest reserve, N. Malacca. 

Batang Padang. — v. at head of river of same name in S.E. Perak. 
Abandoned tin mines exist in the neighbourhood, and traces of gold are also found. 
It was formerly settled by numerous Chinese, but has declined in importance since 
tin mining ceased. 

Batang Tiga. — Sub-district of Tangga Batu, and immediately E. of Tanjong 
Kling, Malacca. 

Batin. — ^The title of the chiefs amongst the aboriginal tribes of the Penin- 
sula, B, OnasHa being the highest in rank. For full details, see Vol. I, J. I. A., 
pp. 273-4. 

Bats. — Several species of bats are found in the Peninsula and Settlements, 
those attracting most attention being the frugiverous " flying foxes," q, v. An 
exhaustive monograph on the Asiatic Chiroptera has been published by Dr. Dobson 
(Taylob & Feancis, London, 1876), but the details would be too long and, to the 
majority of readers, uninteresting, to republish in full. Three or four species are 
ordinarily met with within the districts treated of in this work, but they present 
little attraction except to naturalists, being neither venomous like snakes, nor 
man-eaters like tigers. Practically speaking they do not, in any way, affect 
the social life of residents in this part of the world. The " flying fox " is eaten 
by certain tribes in the Malayan Archipelago, but is not an article of diet in the 

Battledore and Shuttlecock. — A wicker ball (raga) is played with as 
a shuttlecock, being struck with the heel in place of a battledore. Considerable 
dexterity is shown by the players. 

Batu in Malay, and Watu in Javanese (a stone or a rock), is a word fre- 
quently foimd throughout the Archipelago in the names of places, as Batu-gade, 
" pawn " or " pledge rock ; " Batu-titi, " bridge rocks ; " Batu-hara, " live coal 
rock ; " and Batu-mandi, " bathing rock." To complete the sense the words pulo, 
uAet, or tanah, land, must generally be prefixed. 

Batu Berendam. — District and V. immediately N. of Malacca-town, the 
latter distant from the coast about | mUe. Two good roads lead to the V., one 
starting on either side of Malacca R. A Police station is situated at their junction. 

Batu Feringga. — District in N. Penang. V. of same name on N. shore. 

Batu Qajah. — Jungle v. 2 miles E. of Merlimau, S.E. Malacca. 

Batu Qajah. — A small v. in the Tabong district, N. Malacca. 

Batu Qajah. — ^V. on W. bank of the Kinta R., a mile below the Baya R. 
joining it, C. Perak. This is the head-quarters of the Kinta district, the seat of 
the principal magistracy and of the Sikh Police force of the district. It is rapidly 


Bat Descriptive Di<tionary Bay 

eitendint?, and the advent of the projected railway to Telok Anson ■will increase its 
importance. Tbe European hiingalowa and public buildings stand upon high 
ground, a good road leading down to the river. It is in telephonic communication 
with the principal outlying statinna and in direct telegraphic communication with 
Penang. Railway communication with IpoU was completed in November, 1893. 

BatU Itam.— Hill (2.278 feet) on W. side of central chain of hilla, C. Penang. 

Ba.tU Kawan, Island of (16 milcB 2 furlongs S. from Eutterworth, Province 
Wellesley) compriaea the estate ao named and a smaller holding under native 
management, and ia formed by an arm of the sea separating it from Butit Tambun. 
The former employs 6 Euraeians, 6 Europeans, 500 Chinese, and 1,100 Klings. with 
their families, and has 1,000 acres under cultivation, giving an average annual out- 
turn of 1,500 tons of sugar. Like all under similar management, it has a well-pro- 
vided hospital, school, &c,, while the machinery of the mill is of the most modei'n 
and improved pattern. It is reached by ferry from Bukit Tambun. The hill is 
about 300 feet high. BaLu Kawan was a sugar-producing district some 60 years 
n^o, or 20 years before the culture was commenced by Europeans. Like many of 
the most successful plantations, its aoil consists mainly of reclaimed mangrove 
swamp, which is peculiarly suitable to sugar-cane. A good road has Iwen made 
from the ferry, turning off at right angles, to reach the works. Prom the liim-off 
the main road continues for nearly a mile to the Batu Kawan Village, which \s_ 
situated on a creek running into the sea to the south of the rocky point of Batu 
Musang, opposite Pulo Era, There is a stnall Police station here, and in the neigh- 
bourhood is a chapel belonging to the Chinese Eoman Catholics. The village is 
17 miles 1 furlong from Eutterworth. 

Batu Kikir.— V. on E. bank of the Kinta E. just below the junction of the 
R. Raya, C. Perak. 

Batu Klirau. — V, at N. source of river of same name in the Ferak range, 
N. Perak, 

Batu Lahar. — V. on the Nyalas district, K. Malacca. 

Batu Lanchang. — V. \ mile S.E. of Ayer Itam V,, N. Penang. 

Batu MaU.— V. in S.E. Penang, N. of Teluk Terapoyak. 

Batu Pahat.— V. and district on S. side of road of same name, W. Johore. 
Numerous pliintatiuus exist here worked by Chinese. 

Batu Pahat. — R- and settlement in Johore. Many Chinese planters reside 
here. It lies about 55 miles from Singapore, half way between that Settlement 
and Malacca. 

Batu Pekarat ("■)—■*- small v. and hill, in the latter of which the S. source 
of the Sungei Batang Malacca takes its rise. Tbe V. is on the W. &dge of the Jus 
forest reserve. N. Malacca. 

Batu Pekarat (6.)— Asmall V. in theTaniongRemuudistrict,N.MalaccR, 

Batu Sawa. — v. on E. bank of Johore E„ 3 miles above Johore Lama. 

Batu SembileU. — V, in S.E. Ponang, E. of R. Bayan Lepas. 

Batu Uban. — l>istrict and V. on E. coast of Penang just below Glogor. 

Batu Undan.— Hill (866 feet) between W. bank of Dmding Road and the 
sea. S. Dinding. 

Bau (acf Raga). — Game of. The wicker-work ball of the Malays is called rajo, 
but the Portugese word holo has been adopted. 

Bayan Lepas. — B- and districtonS.E.comerof Penang Island. Socallcd, 
according to Malay tradition, from the celebrated sea rover Baoah having here 
released a tame bird called Bayan — alao a T. of same name about 1 mile from 8. coaat 
of Penang. 


Bea of British Malaya. Ben 

Bear. — See Bettano. 

BSche de Mer. — See Tbipang. 

Bod. — The Malay (katil or ismvat tidor) consists of tressel- supported 
planks only. Over these is laid a mat. But httle covering is required, the tempera- 
ture being always of summer heut. 

Bedoh and Upper Bedoh. — District in extreme S.E. of Singapore, chiefly 
occupied by cocoa-nut plantations, with vegetable and fruit gardens. Some of the 
views from the high road hereabouts are pretty, owing to the inequalities of the 
ground. Y. of same name on the beach about 1 mile E. of Tanah Merah Kechil 

Bees. — ^Wild bees are found in numerous localities, but no attempt has ever 
been made to domesticate them, though honey is much appreciated by the Malays. 
A very large species, incorrectly called the " carpenter beetle," bores deep cylindrical 
holes m woodwork, and is a considerable nuisance to house-owners. A few natives 
devote their time to honey collecting, and work with immense eang froid amidst 
clouds of angry bees, often at the height of 50 or 60 feet from the ground, cutting 
away the comb and lowering it by a cord to those in waiting below. 

Beetles {See Entomology). — A mere catalogue of the names of the countless 
varietiea found in the Peninsula and Settlements would occupy many pages. See 
Wallace's Malay Archipelago and the Catalogues of the British Museum Collec- 
tions. The Malay term is Mnibamg, 

Bekua. — ^V. at the foot of a hill about 4 miles S.W. by W. of Mt. Ophir in 

Bell (hching or gXnta). — Prom foreign countries only, but now familiar to most 

Benista. — V. on W. bank of Patani R., N.C. Patani, just above the Pala 
Gkdena mines. 

Bentree Oil. — See Oils. 

Benua^ or more correctly Bdnuwa, is a Malay word signifying " a land," 
" country," or " region," that has had a wide extension, although with some modifi- 
cations of sense, for in the Philippine tongues it means '' a village," and in the 
Polynesian, " land " or " earth." The Malays, prefixing to it the word Orang, " men 
or people," use the compound as a generic term for all the wild tribes of the 
Peninsula speaking the same language as themselves, and of the same race, but who 
have not adopted the Mahommedan religion. The literal meaning of the phrase is 
" men of the land " ; and it may be fairly translated in the sense in which the 
Malays use it — "aborigines." Such people are found from the extremity of the 
Peninsula up to 5' of latitude, but apparently not further north. They also exist 
in some of the larger islands of the Archipelago at the eastern extremity of the 
Straits of Malacca. Everywhere they are brown-complexioned and lank-haired, are 
of the same stature as the Malays, have the same features, and speak the same 
language ; in short, are Malays in a lower state of civilization than the people known 
to us under that name. 

Some of the Oramg-hdnuwa dwell on the sea coast, and some in the interior, 
always in small independent tribes. The principal settlements are in the interior 
of Johore and southern portion of- Pahang. Udai, Pago, Mintira, Besisi, Jakun 
and Sakai are all names by which they are known to the Malays, but they are more 
generally named from the rivers on or near which they have their residence, as 
Sletar, Mintira, Sabimba, and BSsisi. The Orang-laut, ** men of the sea," or sea- 
gipsies, as they have been very appropriately called, evidently belong to the same 
class, although some of them have embraced Mahommedanism, or passed through 
the form of having done so. The state of advancement of the different tribes 
varies, some being far more civilized than others. Some of those of the interior 

[17] c 


Descriptive Dictionary 

Sractise a rude husbajidry, grow rice by burning the forest for a dressing, and 
ibbliiig in the seed, cultivate some farinaoeoua roots, some fruits, as the bauaua 
and durian, and have fiied habitations. The only domesticated animals known to 
them are the dog, the cat, and common fowl. The Orang-biinuwa of the interior 
receive their iron and clothing from the Malays, in exchange for the spontaneous 
products of the forest, including of late years the well-known gutta-percha. "At 
the time of my visit," says Mr. Looam, speaking of a tribe of Johore. " nearly every 
man in the country was searching for tehan," that is, for the tree that produces the 
best of this article. In personal appearance the Johore Bdnuwa bear a strong 
resemblance to the Malays, but can be easily distinguished from them. The head 
of the Siiftuwa is somewhat smaller, the eye soft and liquid, and the -general 
expression of the face denotes good nature and content with but slight mental 
energy. The hair is black and sometimes frizzled, but dry and tangled, as oil is 
seldom used on it. The men drees much Uke the Malays, but the women in general 
only a, short tarong reaching to the knees. The ears are always pierced, and with 
some tribes form bandy receptacles for roknk (cigars) or a piece of cloth, but ear- 
rings are worn when procurable. Amongst the very rudest a diawal or loin cloth 
brought up between the legs, and consisting only of terap bark, is worn by the men, 
and a similar piece hanging down by the women. 

Much of the time of the wild races of the interior is spent in hunting and 
fishing. The chief object of the first is the wild hog, which aboiinds ; and next to 
it various species of deer. Both are pursued with dogs and spears, but fire-arms 
are unknown. Ingeniously constructed traps and pit-falls ore also had recourse to. 
The modes of taking fish, which are plentiful, are not less ingenious. In their 
manners tbe Orang-bdniiwa are superstitious, but have no mischievous customfl or 
sanguinary usages. Generally, they are in the same state of society as the Dayaka 
of Borneo, but without the head-hunting, skull- hoarding habits of the latter. 

From the first appearance of Europeans in the Peninsula, the existence of thifl 
wild people bos been known, but they were never well and truly described until 
visitfid by Mr. Looah in 184? and subsequent years. Bakbos, in bis second Decade, 
mentions them in tbe following terms, as the precursors of tbe Malays who founded 
Malacca : "The habitation of tbe Cellates is more on the sea than on the land. 
On the sea, their children are bom and reared without their making any settlement 
on tbe land. However, as they were hated by the people of Singapore and of the 
neighbouring islands, they did not return to these ports, but they came and fixed 
their location on the banks of a river where now stands the city of Malacca. The 
first settlement which they made was on a hill above the fortress, which we n 
hold, where they found some people of the land, half-savages in their manner 
living, whose language was the proper Malay, imderstood by all the people, and 
with which, also, the Collates were acquainted. At first there was alienation 
between the two tribes on account of difference in the mode of life. But through 
the womeu an accommodation was effected, and they agreed to live in one setllo- 
ment, each party following that mode of life to which it had been accustomed, 
the ono subsisting on the produce of the sea, and tbe other on the fruits of thd 

The half-savages of Barros are evidently the Oravg-btiniiwa, and his Cellatea, 
the sea-gipsies, the word being au obvious corruption of the Malay gdlat, a strut o: 
narrow sea, which with orang prefixed, and making "men or people of the straits," 
is still apphed to the inhabitants of the innumerable islands which nearly choke ixp 
the ea*tcm entrance of the Straits of Malacca. Whether the Orang-buauwa be the J 
aboriginal of the Peninsula, and the people from which the wide-spreud Mahiy&n f 
nation is sprung, or settlers from another country, is a question which natuially | 
arises. The whole Peninsula is called by the Malays themselves Tanah MaJayu, 1 
or the country of the Malays, in the same way in which they call Java, Tanah JuWO, 
and Celebes, Tanah Bugis, the land of the Javanese, and the land of the Bugis ; 1 

Ber of British Malaya. Ber 

and this would seem to imply that they consider it their original mother country. 
But this may arise from the country having, except a few scattered mountain negroes, 
no other inhabitants than Malays, and is, therefore, not conclusive. Had the wild 
people of the Peninsula been really its aboriginal inhabitants, they would most 
probably, like the tribes of Borneo, Sumatra, and Celebes, be found speaking many 
languages instead of one. As far as Malayan emigration is authentically known, it has 
always been, not from, but to the Peninsula. Thus, their arrival in a comparatively 
civilized state, with a regular form of government, and with a knowledge of letters, in 
the twelfth century, is stated to have been from Sumatra, and they are, in fact, at 
the present day, migrating from the same country and settling in the Peninsulft. 
It is true, however, that even in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the civil- 
ized Malays found the sea-gipsies and rude people of the interior before them in 
the Peninsula, so that this leaves the question of the parent country of the Malay 
nation still doubtful. All that can safely be asserted, then, is that Malay civiliza- 
tion did not originate in the Peninsula, but most likely in Sumatra. The proba- 
bility is that the Malays were originally fishermen, occupying the mouths and banks 
of the great rivers of the eastern side of Sumatra, such as those of Palembang, 
Jambi, Indragiri, and Siak. Ascending these, after intermixing, as they are known 
to have done, with the more civilized inhabitants of Java, and reaching the rich 
volcanic table-lands in the valleys of the interior, they would naturally become a fixed 
agricultural population, and acquire that civilization and power wnich under the 
name of Menangkabau they are known to have attained. To this inland country, 
communicating by its rivers with the sea, both on the eastern and western sides of 
Sumatra, all the civilized Malay States, whether of the Peninsula or Borneo, trace 
their origin. From the wandering Malay fishermen, who did not partake of the 
civilization of the interior, might naturally proceed the Orang-laut, or gipsies, and 
occasional stragglers from these may have given rise to the Orang-bdnuwa, o^ rude 
tribes of the interior.* It is noteworthy that the Bentia have a tradition of the 
deluge. A very full and interesting account of the Benua of Johore wiU be found 
at pp. 24f6 et seq. Vol. I, J. I. A., and pp. 238 et seq. Vol. II. 

Bera or Brah. — A lake and river in the S. of Pahang flowing into the E. 
Pahang. The former is known as TasseJc Bera, and is about 25 miles in circum- 
ference.-^J. I. A., VI, 372 (where 60 miles is given). 

Bera Kampong. — ^A settlement on the E. of that name, Pahang. 

Berallah China. — A large mass of granite, 60 to 60 feet in height, and 
resembling a misshapen idol, at the entrance of the harbour between P. Ayer and 
P. Dayang, off the E. coast of Johore. 

Beranang. — ^V. on S. bank Langat E. in S.E. Selangor. 

Berhala. — ^V. to N. of S. entrance of Kelantan E. 

Beri-beri. — ^A disease of obscure origin, but the same as the KaJcke of 
Japan. The symptoms include a peculiar swelling of the limbs. The following 
extracts from the reports of the medical officers in the Straits give interesting 
particulars. Dr. Mugliston writes: "The history of every case of beri-beri in 
hospital has been taken with care with the following results : — The diet in most 
instances has been inferior in quality, and has consisted of — (a) rice, which may or 
may not have been of good quality ; (6) salt fish, sometimes good and sometimes 
not ; (c) fresh fish or meat very seldom ; (d) salted vegetables, and occasionally 
fresh ones. In all cases there has been a total absence of fruit in the diet. The 
patients have come from all districts, malarious or not ; for instance, Tanjong Pagar, 
Beach Eoad, Eochor, Tanglin, Sirangun, or Johore. Malaria, by these observations, 
cannot have much to do with causation of the disease. The disease has not 
attacked all the members of a batch of coolies living apparentlv under the same 
oonditionsy and on inquiry it has been found that those attacked have not eaten 
fruit, while other members of the batch have done so. Those enjoying a better 

£19] c 2 

Descriptive Dictionary 



diet, although eating no fresh fruit, have not been attacked so soon as those who 
have aquandered their monej in gambling or opium -fonoking, and who have bo 
obtained less food. By far the njajority of pitiimts have been Chinese, who eat, in 
their usual diet, less nitrogenous food and fruit than do other natives, although 
otherwise living under preciaelv the same conditions. The Kliugs and Malays who 
have been treated here all stated thiit fruit had not been eaten bj them for months. 
Beri-beri frequently occurs at sea amongst natives, in ships that have not obtained 
fresh fruit and diet for a lengthened period . I have thus been almost forced to believe 
in the scorbutic origin of the disease, but this belief is open to correction, as my 
obserrations have not been sufficiently prolonged. . . , These observations are quite 
at variance with those of Doctors CoruelUssen and Sugeiioya, who have recently 
been investigating the disease in Acheen. They conclude (vide Britiah Medical 
Journal of December 5th, 1886) that :- — ' 1. It is a conto^oua disease. 2. Beri- 
beri patients iofect certain localities, and persons in good health, coming from 
districts free from beri-beri, and settling in those infected districts, contract the 
disease. 3. That wooden structures retain the infectious product more than brick 
buildings. 4. That contagion t'hrougb the means of wearbg apparel had been 
observed.' The wards of the Hospital under mj charge are of wood. The beri- 
beri patients occupy these wards with non-beri-beri cases. The wearing apparel is 
not ke^t separate, and still not a case has occurred that could in any way be traced 
to fomites." 

Black beans have been introduced as a portion of the diet during the last few 
years, and, containing as they do a great deal more nitrogen than the equivalent 
amount of rice, have had prooably Eomething to do with the better general health 

Berkuning.— V. on E. bank of Perak B. in 8.E. Kedali, 3 miles 8. o£ Padang 

Bemam. — A river in estreme SE. Perak. 

Bersumptll. — A gathering of Sakais for music and dancing. 

Bertam {Ewjeitnonia triete). — The name of certain jungle plants with long 
straight stems having a pithy interior. The stems are split and flattened and dried, 
and are then used to weave a sort of basket work much used for the walls of native 
houses, &c. By dyeing the stems various colours, but chiefly black or red, very 
tasteful patterns are produced. Bivding hertam is the correct term for this plaited 
work, but it is conventionally termed " Bertam " only. In addition to the pokok 
bertam (which does not produce an edible fruit), three other plants are used for the 
same purpose, viz. P. kiimbar, P. klubi, and P. aala, all of which fumiah edible fruit. 
Bertam is woven in squares as large as 20 x 20 feet. It makes a pretty dado in 
foreign bouses. 

BeSUt. — V. near m. of E. Endau, N. Johore. 

Betel-nut. — The fruit of the Areca Palm, a tall, graceful tree, sometimes 
reaching a height of 60 feet. The nuts are surrounded by a yellow tough fibre 
enclosed in a thickish green rind. To prepare them for use the entire fruit is 
split and the halves dried in the sun. When dry the nut is separated from its 
envelope and is sold for chewing with nrlh leaf and lime. Its use commu- 
nicates a blood-red colour to the lips and gums and the same hue to the saliva, 
which the natives eject without much regard for time or place, unless checked by 
regulation. Foreigners are generally puzzled to account for Malay devotion to 
what api>ears to novices a tasteless object. Value (roughly) $1 per tree. 

Betel Vine or Sirill (^Chaviea Betel). — Generally denominated a pepper. 
A leaf used to chew with betel-nut and lime. The following remarks &om 
a recent issue of The SlraiU Times are worth preservation in a more permanent 
form : — " With the natives chewing eirih is not only serviceable to pasa the time, 
but has certainly proved conducive to health. In this part of the world these fuct« 

Bet of British Malaya, Bet 

have been known for centuries, but no advantage, till recently, has been taken of 
its healing virtues, in the interest of Western medical science. In Europe, they 
have so far escaped notice that hardly anything relating to the betel leaf is met 
with in pharmaceutical text-books. At Sourabaya, experiments and trials have 
resulted m the discovery of a method to separate from the betel leaf the volatile 
oil to which the plant owes its healing qualities. It seems that the reasons why, 
in Europe, hitherto, no use has been made of betel leaves for curative purposes 
reside chiefly in the fact that the leaves are soon liable to become damaged, and in 
drying altogether lose their aromatic, spicy, and stimulating odour. In this part of the 
world, so far as observation goes, betel leaf is used medically for sundry ends. It 
has been outwardly and inwardly applied with some measure of success in different 
disorders. In headache, cough, and affections of the throat, sores and wounds, it 
has been found highly efl&cacious. In Europe, the same remedy may be turned to 
account by making use of the betel oil now available. Already in Germany highly 
satisfactory results have been achieved by prescribing it against these diseases. It 
has been found beneficial even against consumption. This outcome certainly 
affords gratification, from its increasing the resources of civilization in the medical 
line, and alleviating the suffering arising from the diseases it cures." 

Betong. — ^V. on E. side of Gunong Titi Wangsa, Kedah. 

Betong Kusa. — The S. pt. of Changi district, extreme E. Singapore. 

BBtrothal. — ^The Malays are as desirous of making good matches for their 
children as their more civilized brethren, and when they perceive a suitable person, 
that is, one possessing money or landed property, or who has the right of inherit- 
ing any, they solicit the hand of the favoured one for their child, and the affair is 
arranged by the parents to their mutual satisfaction. Children are thus affianced 
at a very tender age. The parents go before a priest, and in the presence of two 
witnesses or more the children are betrothed, and the marriage is consummated 
when they arrive at maturer years. 

If the girl is old enough to decide for herseK, she is questioned, and if her 
views coincide with her father's, the latter goes to a Kali (or priest) and tells him 
that his daughter is anxious to engage himself to so-and-so. IP the Kali approves 
of the match the pair appear before him on a certain day, and in the presence 
of witnesses the Kali says to the young man, " I have betrothed you to N., the 
daui?hter of A., and you must sp^^q him so much," and mentions the amount 
re<}ared by the parent^ of the gi^l for the marriage expenses, which is of course 
guided by circumstances. The young man replies, "I am truly affianced to N., and 
will pay the required amount." The Kali then asks the witnesses if they heard 
\h^ man, and if they reply in the affirmative, it suffices ; but if, on the contrary, 
they declare his reply inaudible, the whole ceremony is repeated. 

Should the girl's father be alive and residing withm a convenient distance, 
it is indispensably necessary that be should be present at the ceremony. 

After the betrothal, should it be discovered that the father was near and not 
present, it would be the duty of the Kali to insist on the ceremony being repeated 
in the father's presence. 

If the father be more than a two days' journey distant, or if it is an unsafe 
road, it is not necessary for him to to be present, but the next of kin appears ; and 
if there is none, then a friend or Wali attends and performs the father's part. 

In cases where betrothal has taken place in youth, when the girl is old enough 
to live with her husband the second ceremony, or 'Nxka^ is performed. The husband 
elect is carried in procession on a platform, or artificial car, which is borne on the 
shoulders of men to the house of the bride. On reaching the door the latter is 
brought out and placed on the stage near her affianced and carried in procession 
back to the latter's residence. The procession is made up of musicians, flag-bearers, 
the relatives of both parties, and as many of the inhabitants of the same com- 


Bez Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

pany as feel inclined to join, some on foot, others on horseback. Fire-arms and 
crackers are discharged as they proceed, and mirth and laughter are the order of 
the day. 

The husband's parents provide the feast, which is partaken of on returning 
from the girl's house. See Mabeiaob. 

Bezoar Stone (gti^iga)- — The concretion found in the stomachs of cattle.. 

BllSkllg. — ^An intoxicating liquor prepared from hemp. An overdose is said 

to be cured by chewing betel-nut. 

Bhar. — ^A measure of weight. About 3| cwt. 

Bhani. — ^New. A name frequently given to villages, &c. There is a 
Kampong Bharu in Singapore, and also in Jumpol near the E. Sercting. 

Bibliography. — A complete bibliography of the Malayan Peninsula has 
yet to be compiled, i.e., one including reference to the many thousand articles 
which have appeared in papers and magazines on the subject. But as regards 
printed works dealing only with the Peninsula, the following lists are fairly 
exhaustive. They comprise : — ^I. General Works ; II. Grammars and Dictionaries ; 
m. Original Malay Works ; IV. Translations in Malay of Foreign Works ; and 
V. Translations in European languages of Malay Works. The last-named is the 
least perfect, much work having been done in this direction by Dutch scholars 
which lies buried in the columns of Dutch periodicals : — 


Administration Bepobt. — Straits Settlements — ^published yearly, ending 1867. 

Andebson, J. — Political and Commercial Considerations relative to the 
Malayan Peninsula and the British Settlement in the Straits of Malacca — 2 parts 
in 1 vol. sm. 4to. — Prince of Wales* Island, 1824. 

Abbowsmith, J. — ^Map of the Asiatic Archipelago— E. Stanfobd, London, 

Asset, Chables. — On the Trade to China, and the Indian Archipelago : with 
Observations on the Insecurity of the British Interests in that Quarter — London, 

Babbosa. — (See Rajittsio). 

Beobie, Captain P. J. — The Malayan Peninsula, embracing its History, Man- 
ners and Customs of its Inhabitants, Politics, Natural History, &c., from its 
earliest Records, by Captain P. J. Beobie, Madras Artillery. Illustrated by 
charts and 9 engravings from original designs. Printed for the author at the 
Vepery Mission Press, Madras, 1834. 

Bennet, Geobge. — Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, 
Singapore, and China in 1832-4. 2 vols. 8vo. — 1834. 

BiNTANG Babat (" Westebn Stab "). — Miilay newspaper published for a short 
period after the appearance of the Jawi Peranakkan, but, like the Peridaran 
8ham8U Walkamer, discontinued. * 

Blue Books, Colonial. — Papers presented to Parliament — (See Parlia- 
mentary Papers). 

Blue Book. — Of the Straits Settlements — ^Published annually, commencing 

BoBiE, Fatheb. — ^An Account of the Aborigines of the Malay Peninsula and 
of the Malayan and other Tribes at present inhabiting it. — Translated from two 
letters of the French Missionary, Father Bobie, at present stationed at Ayer Sala, 
Malacca — Straits Times Office. [No date of publication; original dates 1st 
November, 1857, and 26th April, 1863.] 

Bbaddell, T. — ^Abstract of the Sijara Malayu, or Malayan Annals. — Trans- 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

lated by T. Bbaddell (from Vol. V. of the Journal of the Indian Archipelago, 
commencing at p. 125 ei seq.) 

Bbaddell, T. — Singapore and the Straits Settlements. Statistics of the 
British Possessions in the Straits of Malacca — ^Notices of Singapore, &c. — 8vo. — 
Penang, 1861. 

Singapore and the Straits Settlements described. And the Arrangements 

for the Future Government of these Possessions considered as distinct from the 
general question of the Government of India under the East India Company — 

Calendab of State Pafebs. — Colonial Series, East Indies, China, and 
Japan, 1513-1616. 

Calendab. — ^A Mahommedan and English Comparative Calendar issued yearly 
— Singapore, 1877 et seq. 

A Chinese and English Comparative Calendar issued yearly — Singapore, 

1875 et seq. 

Cambbon, John. — Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India: being a 
Descriptive Account of Singapore, Penang, Province Wellesley, and Malacca, their 
Peoples, Products, Commerce, and Government, by John Camebon, F.E.G.S., with 
Illustrations. — Smith, Eldeb & Co., 65, Cornhill, London, 1868. 

Chinaman Abboad, The. — ^An Account of the Malayan Archipelago. — 8vo. — 
London, 1850. 

CoLLiNowooD, CuTHBEBT, M. A., M.B. — Eamblcs of a Naturalist on the Shores 
and Waters of the China Sea. Being Observations in Natural History during a 
Voyage to China, Formosa, Borneo, Singapore, &c., made in Her Majesty's Vessels 
in 1866-1867— John Mubbay, London, 1868. 

Collins, James. — ^Museums, their Commercial and Scientific Uses — ^A Lecture 
delivered at Government House, Singapore, 26th August, 1874. Eefers to special 
facilities afforded by Singapore as a collecting centre. 

Colonial Office List, The. — Historical and Statistical Information respect- 
ing the Colonial Dependencies of Great Britain, an Account of the Services of the 
Officers of the several Colonial Governments, a Transcript of the Colonial Regula- 
tions, and other Information, with Maps ; compiled from Official Records, by the 
permission of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, by Edwabd Faibfield, of 
the Colonial Office. — (Annual.) — Habeison, 59, Pall Mall, London. 

Colquhoxtn, a. — The Golden Chersonese. 

Cbaxtfobd, John. — ^A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and 
Adjacent Countries, by John Cbattfobd, F.R.S. — Bbadbttbt & Evans, 11 Bouverie 
Street, London, 1856. [A most useful work of reference regarding all matters — 
political, geographical, or scientific — connected with the Malayan Countries. It 
includes the whole of Malaya from Sumatra to the Philippines and New Guinea. 
It must, however, be stated that the author had, in common with others in the 
Straits in 1824, when he was a Resident, less acquaintance with the Malay 
Peninsula than with any of the other districts which he describes.] 

Cbinole, Tom. — Jottings of an Invalid in search of Health, comprising a Eim 
through British India and a Visit to Singa];:^re and Java. A series of Letters 
reprinted from the Times of IndiaJ* — Bombay, 1865. 

Davidson, G. F. — Trade and Travel in the Far East, or EecoUections of 
21 years passed in Java, Singapore, Australia, and China — 8vo. 

Dblaubieb. — ^Voyage d'Abd' Allah ben Abd-el-Kader de Singapore a Kalan- 
tan, 1850. 

—— Collection des principales Chroniques Malayes — publico par M. Ed. 
DsLAUBiBB — ^Paris, 1849. 

Description de TArchipel d'Asie par Ibn Batuta — Paris, 1847. 

Doyle, Patbick. — ^Tin Mining in Larut — London, 1879. 

Eabl, Gbobob Windsob. — ^The Eastern Seas, or Voyages and Adventures in 




Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

the Indian Archipelago, in 1832, 1833, 1834, comprising a Tour of the Island 
of Java, Visits to Borneo, the Malay Peninsula. Siam, &c. : also an Account of 
the Present State of Singapore, with Observations on the Commercial Eeeourcee 
of the Archipelago, by Geokgb WraoaOB Earl, R. A. S.— William H. Allbk & 
Co., Leadenhall Street, London, 1837. [Still a raluable work of reference respects 
ing the places treated of, as regards their past history,] 

Favkb, L'Abb£. — The Wild Tribes inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula.— 12mo. 
—Paris, 1852. 

— An Account of Wild Tribes inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula, Suma- 
tra, Ac, with a Journey in Johore, and a Journey in the Meuangkabau States 
of the Malayan Peninsula, 1866. 

FoRRKST, Captain Thomas. — Voyage from Calcutta to the Mergui Arohi- 
peli^; also an Account of the Islands Jan Sylan, Pulo Pinang, and the Port 
of Queda, &c„ and Directions for Sailinjf from .thence to Fort Marlborough, 
down the South- West Coast of Sumatra ; to which are added an Account of the 
Island Celebes. &c., with maps, views, and other engravings — Royal 8vo.— 
London, 1792. [Also large paper.] 

G-ovKBNMENT Gazettb.— Siroi/s Settlement* Govemmeiit Oaaeife —published 
omenced on 1st January, 1858. 

-Zoology of the Voyage of H.MS. Samarang in surveying the Islands 
of the Eastern Archipelago — London, 1S50. 

Gkoenevbldt, W. P. — Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, com- 
piled from Chinese Sources— Bata via and the Hague, 1876. 

Haobman. — GeBchJedenis der Verovering van Malakka — 4to. 
Haqeman, J. — G«schiedenis der Verovering van Malakka, en der Ooorlogcn 
TuBScben de Portugezen en Maleijers — 4to. — Batavia, 1854 
Hill, T. H. — Report on Johore — Singapore, 1878. 

Hume, Allah.— Stray Feathers (Ornithological Periodical, contains a list of 
Malayan birds)— 8 vols.— Central Press, Calcutta. 1872-80, 

Indo-Chinkbe Glbameb.^ — On the Literature. History, Philosophy, Mythology, 
4c., of the Indo-Chinese Nations, drawn chiefly from Native Languages — 3 toIb. 
Royal 8vo,— Malacca. 1818-22. 

Ikheb, Mas. — The Chersonese with the Gilding off. 

Jack, — Descriptions of Malayan Plants, edited by Geipfith — 8vo. — Calcutta. 
Jaooe, Dr. TEonoB. — Eeiseakitzen Singapore, Malacca und Java — Berlin, . 

Jawi Pbbanakkah (" Steaits-Bobn "). — Malay newspaper published every 
Monday — Singapore, 1876, et eeq. [This ia the first Malay newspaper ever pub- 
lished i circulation about 300 copies,] 

Jawi Standabd. — Malay newspaper published at Peoaug. — (? 1877) now 

JoNQHE. OK. — Hiatoriale ende ware Beschrijvingc van de Reyse des Admirals 
CoENEi-is Matchif de Jonohe naer de Cost Indien uitgetrocken in Mayo, 1605, 
Mitsgaders de belegheringhe voor Malacca euz,^-4to. — Rotltfrdam, 1608. 

JoDKKAL 0¥ Eabtbbn Asia. — Edir,ed by Jahes Collins, P.B.S.E,, Vol. I, No. 
I, July, 1875 — Government Printing Office, Singapore, [Only number published.] 
Some papers intended for the second number of this Journal were published in 
the first number of the Journal of the 9lrait» Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 
Journal of the STEArrs Bbakch of the Royal Asiatic Sociktt. — Pub- 
lished half -yearly — Singapore ■, No. 1, printed at the Straits Timet Office ; Noa. 2 
and 3 at the " Mission Press " ; No. 4 at the Prison Printing Office ; Noa. 5 to 24 
at the Goverameut Printing Office, 1878-92. [This is the Journal of a new 
branch of the Royal Asiatic Sodiety, established in Singapore towards the end of 
1877. The object with which it was promoted was to collect and print information 
regarding the Malay Peninsula and neighbouring countries (Malayan), and more 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

especially in regard to the little known geography of the Peninsula. Considerable 
additions to the knowledge we possess of Perak, Pahang and Johore are to be found 
recorded in the numbers already published. 

Keppbl, Hon. Captain Hensy, R.N. — A Visit to the Indian Archipelago in 
H.M.S. Maudis, with portions of the Private Journal of Sir Bajah Brooke — 8vo. 
— ^London, 1853. 

LEaiSLATiYE Council Papers. — Papers laid before the Legislative Council 
of the Straits Settlements — commencing in the year 1869. 

Leioh, Sir G-eorge, Bart. — ^An Account of the Settlement, Produce, and 
Commerce of Prince of Wales' Island in the Straits of Malacca — 8vo. — 1805. 

Lemos, Jorge de. — 4ito. — ^Historia dos Cercos de Malacca — 4to. — Lisbon, 1585. 

Letters op Extinguisher. — ^A Series of Serio-Comic Contributions to the 
Straits Times — Singapore, 1872. 

Letden, Dr. John. — ^Malay Annals — ^Translated from the Malay Language by 
the late Dr. John Letden; with an Introduction by Sir Thomas Stamford 
Raffles — ^London, 1821. 

Lindsay, J. — ^Directions to accompany Charts of the Straits of Malacca, with 
two Journals from the Island of Mauritius to India — 4to. 

Logan, J. E. — The Journal of the Archipelago and Eastern Asia — Edited by 
J. B. LoGAN^ F.E.S., Member of the Asiatic Society, Corresponding Member of the 
Ethnological Society of London, and of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences 
— In twelve volumes — Printed at the " Mission Press," Singapore, 1847-1862. 
This is a valuable series of Journals, ably edited by Mr. J. E. Logan, who is 
generally held to be the highest authority on all the subjects upon which he 
personally wrote in this Journal. Both from his pen and other contributors a good 
deal of information is to be obtained, particularly in Vols. I to HI, respecting the 
physical geography of the Peninsula, as well as upon many other subjects of a 
scientific character. Most of the volumes in which ^e Journal was annually bound 
contain an Index — ^Yol. I a very good one. A complete Index for the whole series 
is subjoined : — 


*«* N. S. s New Series. The numbering of the volumes follows the binding of the copies in 

the Raffles Library. 

Abdullah's Schooling 
Aoheen, Court of 

I) History of 

„ Annals of (Trans.) 
African Explorations (Livingstone's) 
Agriculture in Straits Settlements 
America, Indians of 
Amoks, Malay ... 

„ f, and Piracies 

Andaman Islanders, the ... 
Anderson's Considerations 
Annals, Malayan, Abstract of 

II i» ti 

Arru Islands, the 

Asia and Indo-Pacifio Islands, Ethnology of 

1, Eaiftem, with References to the Malays 

„ and Australia, Cont. to Physical Geography of... 1852 
Assam, Customs of Hill Tribes of... 
Aur, Pule 
Australia, Aborigines of ... 

„ Tropical, Handbook for Colonists 
Axes, Stone, and Spearheads found in Java 
Bali and Lombok, Scientific Researches in 

„ Researches in 

„ Researches in 



















11 N.S. 






6 N.S. 









7 N.S. 



12 N.S. 


































• • • 




• •• 




• • • 




• • 


Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Ye&r. Vol. Art. 

Banda, Nutmeg Plantations in ... ... ... 1858 ... I ... 6 N.S. 

Banka, Island of ... ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 18 

II ,1 Report on ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 17 

II History of, and Life of Dutch Officials in ... 1848 ... II ... 18 

Barram Biveri the ... ... ... ... 1861 ... V ... 89 

„ „ Journal of a Visit to ... ... 1851 ... V ... 39 

Batavia, Exhibition at, 1853 1853 ... VH ... 7 

BattaSi Cannibalism amongst the... ... ... 1855 ... IX ... 16 

II of Manheling and Pertibi... ... ... 1849 ... HE ... 23 

Bawean, Island of .. ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 24 

Benaik Islands, the Maruior of the ... ... 1858 ... I ... 1 N.S. 

BencooleUi Sugar Loaf Mt. of ... ... ... 1855 ... IX ... 12 

II Nutmegs and Cloves in ... ... 1851 ... V ... 9 

Benua, Orangi of Johore... ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 18 

Betsimisaraks of Madagascar, the ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 42 

Biduana Eallang, Orangi the ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 21 

Bima and Sumbawa ... ... ... ... 1858 ... I ... 8 N.S. 

Birds*-nests Bocks in Java ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 11 

Bongsui the Virgin Daughter of the Sultan ... 1848 ... n ... 43 

Bomeoi Travels in Intenor of ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 11 

II ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••• XO^O ••• XX ••• ^o 

,1 European Intercourse withi prior to 1819 ... 1848 ... n ... 24 

II Chinese n h n ... 1848 ... H ... 33 

I, Proper Traces of Origin of the Kingdom of .. 1848 ... n ... 25 

II General Considerations respecting ... 1848 ... 11 ... 21 

II EayanSi and Kayan Language of ... ... 1849 ... HE ... 11,13 

British Colonies in Straits of Malaccai the ... 1850 ... IV ... 2 

Buddhism in Ceylon and Siam ... ... ... 1858 ... Ill ... 12 N.S. 

Buddhist Monks or Telapoins ... ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 21 

Bukit, A GkOlop to the ... ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 23 

Burmese Buddhai Legend of the ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 14 

••• ... ... 1853 ... Vn ... 5 

II II II ••• ... .• _____ 

... ... ... XOOx ... V J A * ... V 

... ... ... 1855 ... IX ... 13 

>» II II 

II II 19 

Cambodia and the Cambodians ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 19,25 


1852 ... VI ... 7,9,11,28 

1854 ... vrn ... 8 

II II ••• ••• 

CelobeSi Minnahassa in ... ... ... ... 1848 ... II .. 44 

f) f» 

II )} 

If }i 

1858 ... Ill ... 3 N.S. 

,1 Notices of ... ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 38 

1850 ... IV ... 40 

1851 ... V ... 14 
II Ichthyology of ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 5 

II Tortoiseshell of ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 16 

Coram Laut Isles ... ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 26 

Changalelegat, the, or Mantaive Islanders .. ... 1855 ... IX ... 14 

Chiang Chang, Visit to the City of 1850 ... IV ... 14 

Chinese Divorces ... ... ... ... 1854 ... Vm ... 11 

„ Doctrine of the Pulse ... ... ... 1858 ... II ... 7 N.S. 

„ Immigrants, Annual Remittances by ... 1847 ... I ... 4 

,1 in Penangi Notes on the ... ... ... 1854 ... Vm ... 1 

II II II ... ... ... xooo ... x^^ ... o 

II in Singapore n ... ... ... 1848 ... 11 ... 15 

„ Objects of Worship ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 19 

II Superstitions and Customs of ... ... 1858 ... II ... 19 N.S. 

II Tables of Merits and Errors ... ... 1858 ... II ... 8N.S.' 

I, Tibetan, and Ultra-Indian Numerals ... 1858 ... I ... 22 N.S. 

„ Trade with India and I. A.| Antiquity of ... 1848 ... II ... 82 

China, Himalaio Numerals in China Tibet, &o. ... 1858 ... I ... 18 N.S. 

Cinnamon Cultivation in South of Malacca ... 1851 ... V ... 36 

Coal,Sumatran... ... ... ... ... 1848 ... n ... 42 

II in Ligor and Kedah ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 15 

II DepositS|Siamese Coast Penang and Junk Ceylon 1847 ... I ... 14 

Cochin-Ohinai A Voyage to ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 16 

„ Details respecting ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 6 

„ Inyestitare of King of, in 1849 ... 1850 ... IV ... 22 



of British Malaya. 


Goohin-China, Funeral of King of 

Coffee-planting in Ceylon 

Conchology and Malaohology, Bemarks on 

Contributions and Correspondence (Misc.) ... 

Coral Beefs as a Cause of Fever ... 



Cotton, Culture of, in S. S. 



Deer, a White .^. 

Diotionaiy, Crauford's Descriptive 

Dinding, Polo ... 

Do Dongo, Visit to the Mountaineers of ... 

Dok in Muar, A Trip to ... 

Dravidian Formation, the, Inquiries into ... 

Durian, the 

Dutch History in the Archipelago 

Dutch Possessions in the L A. 

Pyaks, Mythology of the 

„ of Banjermassing, Remarks on 
Ethnology of Indo-Pacific Islands 





„ of the Indian Archipelago 

„ of Johore ,, 

Exhibition 1851, List of Singapore Collections 
Farquhar*s (Col.) Search for Place to establish a 

Settlement ... 
Floris, Cannibals on Island of 
Fort Marlborough to Palembang, Journey from 
Gamboge Tree, the 
Oambier as a Preservative of Timber 
Ghunbling and Opium-smoking in the S. S. 
Garens, Notice of the 
Ghoorkas, the, and Cognate Tribes 
Glossarial Affinities (Tibetan, Chinese, Scythic) 
Gold in Sarawak 

Gimong Dempo, Sumatra, Journey to 
„ Benko, Bencoolen, Journey to 
„ Danka, or a Paradise on Earth : a Tale ... 
Gutta taban Collectors, and Imports into Singapore . 
Guttapercha ... 
Harbours, Land-locked ... 
Hill Tribes bordering Assam and of I. A., Customs 

Himalaio or Tibetan Tribes of Asssum, Burma and Pegu 




HimmdUh, Bemarks made during Voyage of the ... 
Hoevell, D>r. Baron van. Labours of 
Horsburgh Lighthouse, Account of the 
Human Baces, the Mixture of 

,» Natural Selection of 

Ichthyology of Sumbawa 
Indian Axohipelago and East Asia, Laws of the 
I, Ancient Trade of the ... 

I, Area of Islands claimed by 

Customs of Hill Tribes of the ... 
Europeans in, in 16th and 17th 

Ethnology of the. Int. Bemarks. 







• • • 

ill . 

.. 21 


• • • 

VI . 

.. 8 


• • • 

I . 

.. 17 


• •• 


.. 30 
.. 43 


• • • 

n . 

.. 22 


• • • 

m . 

.. 28,48 


• • • 

IV .. 

. 9, 88, 44 


• • ■ 

IV . 

.. 46 


• • • 

V . 

7, 12 


• • • 

n .. 

. 10 


• • • 

I .. 

. lON.S. 


• • • 

in .. 

. 29 


• • • 

TT .. 

. 39 


t • • 

n .. 

. 16N.S. 


• • • 

IX .. 

.. 3 


• • • 

V . 

.. 17 


• • • 

I .. 

. 6 N.S. 


• • • 

I .. 

. 13 


• • • 

m .. 

.. 7 


• • • 

I .. 

. 3 


• • • 

V . 

. 16 


• • • 

VI .. 



• •• 

vu .. 



• • • 

vni . 

.. 2 


• • • 

rx . 

.. 1, 17 


• • • 

I . 

. 14 N.S. 


• • • 

Ill . 

.. App. N.S 


• • • 

IV . 

.. 24 


• • • 

I . 

.. 26 


• • • 

V . 



• •• 

VI . 

.. 22 


• •• 

11 . 

.. 9 


• • • 

u .. 

.. 5 N.S. 


• • • 

I .. 

. 13 N.S. 


• • • 

IV .. 

.. 12 


• • • 

I .. 

3 N.S. 


• • • 

V . 

.. 21 


• • • 

Ill .. 

8 N.S. 


• • • 

I .. 

. 16 N.S. 


• •• 

ni . 

.. 46 


• • • 

n . 

1 N.S. 


• • 1 

iX . 

. 12 


• • • 

IV . 

.. 11 


• • • 

n . 

.. 27 


t • • 

I . 

.. 2 


• • • 

VI . 

.. 12 


• • • 

n . 

.. 13 


• • • 

II . 

.. 3 N.S. 


• • • 

II . 

.. 10 N.S. 


• • • 

VI .. 

.. 21 


• • • 

11 .. 

.. 45 


• •• 

VI .. 

. 18 


• • • 

IV .. 



• • • 

m .. 

5 N.S. 


• •• 

u .. 

.. 86 


• • • 

I .. 

. 29 


• •• 

n .. 

. 12 N.S. 


• • • 

n .. 

.. 11 


• •• 

n .. 

. 13 


• • • 

n .. 

. 17 N.S. 


• • • 

I .. 

. 16 

Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Year. Vol. Art. 

Indian Archipelago, Ethnology of the, Int. Remarks 1850 ... IV ... 24 

„ Journal kept on board a Cruiser in 1854 ... YlLl ... 7 

,, Languages of the ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 44 


„ Piracy and Slave Trade in - ... 1849 ... Ill •••139 

„ „ „ 1850 ... rv ... 5 

„ Population of the ... ... 1849 ... in ... 24 

,, Present Condition of the ... 1847 ... I ... 1 

„ Trading Ports of the .. ... 1860 ... IV ... 28 

„ ATripto, inH.M.S. Leancicr ... 1853 ... VII ... 6 

Indian Races, Europeanization of the ... ... 1858 ... Ill ... 9 N.S. 

Indo-Pacifio Islands, Ethnology of ... ... 1861 ... V ... 16 

I, ' ,, ... ... 1852 ... VX ... o 

II II ... ... Xooo ••• VXJ. ... A 

I, I, ... ... 1854 ... Vni ... 2 

II I, ... ... lood ... XJv. ... Xf Xf 

,1 ,1 ... ... loOo ... X ... X4 JN.o. 

,1 II ... ... 1858 ... Ill ... App. N.S. 

Inscription, Ancient Javanese, at Panataran ... 1851 ... V ... 26 

Islam, Legends of ... ... ... ... 1860 ... IV ... 19 

Japan, Commercial Intercourse with ... ... 1851 ... V ... 37 

Java, Excursion in, during War with DipoNegoro ... I ^|9^ "• yjjj g 

{1847 I 9 

1849 III 3 

Javanese Ancient Inscription ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 26 

Johore, Geology of East Coast of .. ... ... 1848 ... 11 ... 35 

,1 East Coast and Islands, Voyage to ... 1848 ... II ... 34 

I, Orang Benua of ... ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 18 

II The Sultan of ... .. ... 1868 ... 11 ... 2 N.S. 

II and Pahan^, Description of East Coast to ... 1851 ... V ... 11 

,1 A Journey m ... ... ... .. 1849 ... Ill ... 4 

,1 Archipelago, Ethnology of the ... ... 1847 ... I ... 26 

„ Translations of Malayan Laws of ... ... 1855 ... IX ... 9 

Kapans, Journal of a Tour on the ... ... 1858 ... I ... 4 N.S. 

Karean Tribes of Martaban and Tavai ... ... 1860 ... IV ... 28 

Karen Nee, Country of the (J^^ ;•; jg ;;; ^1 N.|. 

Karens, Ethnographic Position of the ... . . 1858 ... II ... 20 N.S. 

KarrangBolling(in Java) and Birds'-nests Bocks there 1847 ... I ... 11 

Kayan Language (Borneo), Vocabulary of... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 18 

Kayans, the ... ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 11 

Kedah and Siam, Ancient Connection between ... 1851 ... V ... 81 

Keddah, Some Account of ... .. .. 1850 ... IV ... 4 

II Annals, Translation of the ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 1 

Kei and Arm Islands ... ... ... ... 1853 ... VII ... 3 

Kina-Balow, Ascent of Mt. ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 1 

Komoring, the Orang ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 37 

Labuan, Report on (Geology of ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 20 

Lampong Districts, the ... ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 85 

Languages, Preliminary Remarks on ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 44 

I, Malay, Polynesian and Chinese Words 

introduced from English into ... 1850 ... IV ... 15 

„ of the I. A. ... ... ... ... 1849 ... HI ... 44 

,1 and Races, the Malayan and Polynesian 1848 ... n ... 12 

Laterite, Origin of ... ... ... ... 1860 ... IV ... 17 

Laws of the I. A. and Eastern Asia ... ... 1847 ... I .. 29 

„ MalayaUi of Johore ... ... ... 1855 ... IX ... 9 

Legends of Islam ... ... ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 19 

Lights, Semi-horizon .. ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 6 

Lombok, Notices of ... ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 5 

*« A« ••• ••• ••• ••• XOvX • • • Y • • ■ ^^^ 

,1 and Bali, Scientific Researches in ... 1848 ... II ... 4 

Magindaneo, Adventures amongst the Pirates of .. 1858 ... II ... 16 N.S. 

Mohammedanism in the I. A. ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 32 

Majellis Aohe, Translation from the ... ... 1851 ... V ... 3 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

Year. Vol. Art. 

Malacca, Journey from, to Pahang ... ... 1852 ... VI .«. 17 

„ Law of England in ... ... ... 1868 ... Ill ... 2 N.S. 

„ Agriculture in ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 49 

,, Description of ... ... ... .. 1850 ... IV ... 43 

,, History and Condition of ... ... 1840 ... II ... 41 

„ Map of ... ... ... ... 1858 ... I ... 2 N.S. 

"Mnf^a nn /1848 ... II ... 7 

„ JMOieson ^jQgg ^ J 2 N.S. 

„ Tin Mines of ... ... ... ... 1864 ... VIII ... 5 

„ Trip to Interior of ... ... ... 1853 ... VII ... 4 

Malachology and Conchology, Bemarks on ... 1847 ... I ... 17 

Malay Annals, Translation of ... ... —{1862 * y\ '" ^3 

Malay Peninsula, Search for Coal Deposits on Coast of 1847 ... I ... 28 
„ Sketch of Physical (Geography and 

Gteology ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 2 

„ Sumatra, &c.. Wild Tribes of ... 1848 ... II ... 14 

„ Journey across the ... ... 1862 ... VI ... 17 

„ Journey in the Menangkarbau 

States of ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 12 

,, Pol. and Com. Considerations rela- 
tive to British Settlements in... 1854 ... Vm ... 6 
Malays of Penang and Province Wellesley, the ... 1858 ... II ... 4 N.S. 
Malay Sounds in Boman Letters... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 31 

„ Royal Families ... ... ... ... 1865 ... IX ... 8 

Malays, Manners and Customs of the ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 17 

Meals of the ... ... ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 30 

Memoirs of ... ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 20 

Notes on Maritime ... ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 41 

Polynesians, Papuans and Australians ... 1849 ... Ill ... 47 

Maldivian Alphabet, the... ... ... ... 1858 ... II ... 22 

Marshes and Malaria at Singapore ... ... 1848 ... II ... 22 

Maruvi, the, of the Benaik Islands ... ... 1858 ... I ... 1 N.S. 

Jfeander, Trips of H.M.S., in the I. A. ... ... 1863 ... VII ... 6 

Menangkarbau States, Trip in the ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 12 

Mindoro, the Island of ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 51 

Minahassa in Celebes (Menado) ... ... ... 1858 ... Ill ... 3 N.S. 

„ „ a Glance at ... ... 1848 ... II ... 44 

Mintira, the Drang, Visit of, to Singapore ... ... 1847 ... I ... 26 

„ Phys. Charact. of the ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 19 

„ Biduanda, Measurements of ... ... 1847 ... I ... 23 

„ Superstitions of the ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 24 

„ Agriculture of the ... ... .. 1851 ... V ... 29 

Moar, a Trip to (see also Muar) ... ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 25 

Moco-Moco to Pengkalan Jambi, Journey from ... 1858 ... n ... 18 N.S. 

Mon-Anam Formation, the ... ... ... 1858 ... I ... 20, 21 N.S. 

,, ,, ... ... ... Io5o ... IXx ... App. N.o. 

Mount Semiru, Eruption of January 1846 ... 1860 ... IV ... 20 

Muar (see also MoarJ Sila Datu Tumunggong of ... 1851 ... V ... 6 

Naning, Five Days m ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 2 

„ Notes on and Notice of Naning War ... 1858 ... I ... 7 N.S. 

Netherlands, Area claimed by, in the I. A. ... 1848 ... II ... 11 

„ India, Dr. Baron van Heovill's Labours 1848 ... II ... 46 

New Guinea, North and East Coasts of ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 16 

Nicobar Islands, the ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 18 

„ Sketches at the ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 16 

Numerals, Chinese and Tibeto-Ultra-Indian ... 1858 ... I ... 22 N.S. 

Nutmeg, Cultivation of the ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 37 

„ Tree, Diseases of the ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 46 

„ Cultivation and Trade in, from 17th Century 1861 ... V ... 28 

„ Plantations, Banda ... ... ... 1868 ... I ... 6 N.S. 

Nutmegs and Cloves, Bencoolen .. ... ... 1861 ... V ... 9 

Orang Biduana Kallang of Johore ... .. 1847 ... I ... 21 

„ Komoring, the ... ... ... ... 1849 ... Ill ... 37 

„ Mintira, Visit of, to Singapore ... ... 1847 ... I ... 26 


Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Year. Vol. Art. 

Orang Sabimba, the ... ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 20 

„ Seletar (or Sletar) of Johore, the ... ... 1847 ... I ... 22 

Ophir, a Trip to Mt. ... .. ... ... 1862 ... VI ... 24 

Opium Trade and Christianity, the ... ... 1849 ... m ... . 81 

ri848 ... n ... 1 

„ Smoking in Singapore and Straits ... ...4 1849 ... Ill ... SO 

ll868 ... I ... 8N.S. 

Pahang, Description of East Coast of ... ... 1859 ... V ... 11 

„ Journey to, from Malacca ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 17 

Pa-Laong, Notes on ... ... ... ... 1858 ... 11 ... IIN.S. 

Palawan ... ... ... ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 4 

Palepubang to Fort Marlborough, Journey from ... 1858 ... II ... 5 N.S. 

ri847 ... I ... 80 

Pantuns, Malay ... ... ... ...• 1848 ... 11 ... 46 

Il849 ... in ... 52 

Papuans, Australians and Polynesians ... ... - j^™ *" jy *" ^ 

Pasummah Lebar and GunongDempo, Journey to... 1858 ... n ... 1 N.S. 

X c>^r aUBS ••• ... ... ... ... X04«/ ... XXX ... O 

Perak, Observations on ... ... ... ... 1860 ... IV ... 34 

Penang, the Malays of ... ... ... ... 1858 ... II ... 4 N.S. 

„ the Chinese in ... ... ... ... 1855 ... DC ... 6 

„ Kedah, Notes at ... ... ... 1851 ... V ... 5 

„ Malacca and Singapore, Law of England in 1858 ... m ... 2 N.S. 

„ Climate of ... ... ... ... 1848 ... II ... 28 

(1850 ... IV ... 89 

1861 ;;; ^ .*.'.* \ 

1858 ... n ... 6 N.S. 

Pine-apple Fibre, Preparation of the ... ... 1848 ... 11 ... 26 

Piracies and Amoks, Malay ... ... ... 1849 ... in ... 83 

1849 ... in ... 14 

Piracy and Slave Trade of the I. A. ... ... \ 1849 ... in ... 39 

• • • I ■ 

1850 ... IV ... 5 

Pirates, Sarebas, En>edition against ... ... '1849 ... m ... 19 

Populations of the I. A.... ... ... ... 1849 ... m ... 24 

I, dava ... •.. ... ..a xjjr^t ... X ... v 

Probolingo, a Trip to ... ... ... ... 1848 ... n ... 30 

Pronouns and Definitives, Malay, Polynesian, &o. ... 1858 ... in ... 4 N.S. 

Province Wellesley, the Malays of ... ... 1858 ... n ... 4 N.S. 

Pulo Aur ... ... ... ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 16 

„ Dinding ... ... ... ... ... 1849 ... m ... 29 

Baces and Languages, Asiatic and Indo-Pacifio ... 1855 ... IX ... 2 

Baffles, Sir Stamford, Life and Services of ... 1855 ... DC ... 15 

„ „ and the I. A. ... ... 1858 ... I ... 9 N.S. 

Rainfall at Horsbuigh Lighthouse ... ... 1852 ... VI ... 29 

Bambau, a Walk to Gunong Datu in ... ... 1849 ... m ... 2 

Banow, Journey to the' Lake of ... ... ... 1858 ... n ... 14 N.S. 

Bafflesla Palma, Cont. to Nat. History of ... ... 1847 ... I ... 7 

Bhio, a Glance at ... ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 8 

„ Bevenue and Trade of ... ... 1849 ... ni ... 25 

„ Lingga Archipelago, Sketch of the |J®^ - ^^ •" Jq 

Boute, Steam, between Singapore and Torres Straits 1851 ... V ... 34 

„ from Torres Straits to Sydney ... 1851 ... V ... 38 

„ through Indian Archipelago ... 1851 ... V ... 27 

Sabimba, Orang, the ... ... ... ../ 1847 ... I ... 20 

„ Tribes ... ... ... ... 1847 ... I ... 27 

oago ... ... ... ... ... .. xo49 ... x\.i. ... JM 

Sakei Tribes of the Malay Peninsula ... ... 1850 ... IV ... 29 

Sarawak, Gold in ... ... ... .. 1849 ... in ... 46 

Sarebas and Sakanan Pirates, Destruction of ... 1849 ... in ... 40 

„ „ „ Expedition against ... 1849 ... ni ... 19 

Sassak, the Beligion of ... ... . . ... 1848 ... n ... 6 

Seletar (<m Sletar) 

Semang and Sake! Tribes of Malay Penimrola ... 1850 ... IV ... 29 



of British Malaya. 


Seman, Offerings on the Island of 
Semiru, Eruption of Mt., in 1845 ... 
Shair Bidasari, a Malay Poem and Translation 
Shan, Ka-Kying and Pa Laong, Gomp. Vocab. of 
Slam, Coronation of the King of ... 
the Laws of 

Account of Death of Queen of 
and Kedah, Ancient Connection between 
„ Ancient Annals of... 
Siamese Border, Notes on the 
„ Grammar, Bishop Pallieu's 

Sijara Malayu (Malay Annals), Abstract of 

Sila Datu, Tumunggong of Muar ... 
Silong Language, Vocab. of the ... 

„ Tribe of the Mergui Archipelago 
Singapore, Agriculture of 

Agricultural Statistics, Reports on 

Advice to Livalids visiting 
Botany of 
Census of 






Geology of ... 
Medical Topography of 

Notices of 

„ to Penang, Boat Voyage from 

„ Zoology of ... 

Sletcur (or Siliteur) Orang, of Johore 

„ and Sabimba Tribes 
Soliman's Narration 
Solo, Tiger Fight at 
Soloese, Whale-fishing of the 

Sooloo {fiu also Solo) 

South-Eastem Asia, Ethnology of... 

Steam Boutes through I. A. 


... 1848 

... 1860 

... 1847 

... 1868 

... 1851 

... 1847 

... 1852 

... 1851 

... 1849 

... 1860 

... 1851 

- \1862 
... 1851 
... 1850 
... 1850 
... 1849 


- \1850 
... 1851 
... 1850 
... 1850 

••• \1852 
... 1848 


... 1850 
... 1849 
... 1847 
... 1847 
... 1848 
... 1850 
... 1850 


•• \1849 

... 1850 

... \ 1851 

1 1851 
... 1849 
.. 1852 

• t • 

• t • 

• •• 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• •• 

Straits of Malacca, British Colonies in 

„ Singapore, Geology of the 
Sulu (see Solo and Sooloo). 

Sumatra, General Sketch of ... ... ... 1849 

„ Journey in ... ... ... ... 1858 

„ Coal in ... ... ... ... 1848 

Sumbawa and Bima ... ... ... ... 1858 

Surabaya, Tour from and back to... ... ... 1849 

Ta-lien, Worship of the ... ... ... ... 1850 

Tankuban Prahu (Java) after Eruption May 1846 ... 1848 

Tan Tai Hoey, in Singapore, the ... ... ... 1852 

Temperature at Horsburgh Lighthouse, Tables of ... 1852 

Tenasserim, Vegetable Products of ... ... 1850 

Geological and Geographical Notes on.. 1849 
Metalliferous Deposits and Mineral Pro- 
ducts of ... ... ... 1849 

Thrai Phum, Some Aocoimt of the ... ... 1851 

Tibetan Dialects, Chinese and Scythic ... ... 1858 

„ Lidian and Ultra-Indian Dialects, Words 
common to .. ... 

Tibeto-Ultra-Indian and Mon-Anam Formations 

„ Burman Formation, the ... 

Tiger Fight at Sooloo 

Timor, Dialects of, and adjacent Islands . 


... 1858 
... 1855 
... 1850 
... 1848 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 




































































16 N.S. 



15 N.S. 



Descriptive Dictionary 





Tin Mines ct Malacca ... 

Torres Straits, Icdications of Copper Ore ii 
„ Steam Routea through 

Tortoiac-aboll of Celebes, The 

Trade and Trading Porta of tho I. A. ... ...-i jggg jj 12 N 8 

Trian, an AuriferoUH Mountain, Fall o£ a Portion of. 

Tribes, the Goorkhas, and Cognate of. the Ganges, &c, 

Ultra-Indian Gangotic and Tibetan Languages ... 18S8 ... I ... IT N.5. 

Vocables non-Bhotian, common to N. Ultra-Indian 

Himalajan, and Middle OaQgettc Languages ... 1868 ... I ... 34 N.S, 

Vlndhvaa, Affiliation of tho Tl^ee ClasFies of the 

Tribes of 1B58 ... lU ... 10 N.S. 

Whale-fishiog, Soolooese. . 

Wild Tribes of the Malayan Peninsula 

Words introduced from English into Malay, Poly- 
nesian, oad Chinofio,,. 

Zollinger, SI., Notice of the Labours of ... 

LooAN, J. E. — The EocIib of Pulo Ubin — 4to. pamplilet— Reprinted from Jour. 
Ind. Archipelago. 

Low. — Tlie Soil and Agriculture of Penting and Province Wellesley, with 
Beferencea to Singapore and Malacca — Qojal 8to. — SingapKire, 1836. 

MacAlibteb, Nobman. — HiBtorical Memoir relative to Prince of Wales' Island 
in the Straits of Malacca : and ite Importance, Political and Comtnerdal : submitted 
to the Hon'ble the Eaat India Company, and the Government and Legislature of 
Great Britain — London, 1803. 

Mai^cca. — Periodical Miscullany — 2 vols. 8vo. — Malacca, 1837-38. 

Maiatan MiecELLANiBB. — 2 vols. 8vo. — Bencoolen, 1820-1842. 

MAicoLM, Rev, Howakd. — TrayeU in South-Easteru Asia, embracing Hindu- 
stan, Malaya, Siam. aud China, with Notieea of Missionary Stations and an Account 
of the Burmese Em|.ire— 2 vols. 8vo.— 1839. 

Mabbb, a.— Une Eerolution k Malaka en I'an 1334 de Jesus Christ^l874. 

Mabbden, William. — Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts collected with a 
view to the General Comparison of Languages, and to the Study of Oriental Lit«rar 
ture — ito, — 182?. [Contains a catalogue of works on Malayan matters. The titles 
have been embodied in the present list.] 

A Brief Memoir of his Life and WritingB^Privately printed — ito. — 

I^ndon, 1838. 

Memoirs of a Malayan Family, written by themselves, and translated 

from the original — 8vo. — 1830. 

- — - Miscellaneous Works — 4to. — 1834. 

Maktin. R. Montgomebt.— British Colonial Library — 10 vols. F.cap. 8vo. — 
London. 1843 — Volume 10 : British Possessions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, 
viz., Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, Singapore. 

McMahoh, T. W. R. — My Reminiseences of a Picnic Party at Penang in the 
year 1869.— Calcutta, 1871. 

McNaib, Majoe F. J. A. — Perak and the Malays, or Sarong and Kris, by 
Major Fbed. J. A, McNaib, K.A., C.M.6, ; Colonial Engineer and Surveyor-General, 
9. S., late Officiating H.M. Commissioner, Perak ; Fellow of the LinnKan Society. 
&c, ; Fellow of the Royal Geographicaj Society ; Associate Institute of Civil 
Engineers — TlluBtrated with 13 engravings by E. Knight of photographs taken by 
the author — Tinslkv Bkothbbs, 8, Catherine Street, Strand, London, 1878. 

Mehezeb, db.^ — Malacca conquistada pelo grande AryoNao de ALBtrtjUEBtitB, 
poema heroieo, com os ai^mentoB de Febbeika.^Svo. Lisboa, 1779. 

MoNTooHERiB, W„ M.D. — Letter on Gutta Percha to the Bengal Medical 
Board, 1843. [Dr. Montoomeeie received the gold medal of the Eoyal Society 
of Arts for having brought Qutfa Percha into notice at home.] 

Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

MuAB AND THE MuABiTEs. — (Printed for private circulation only.) — Fcap. — 
Singapore, 1880. 

MuRTON, H. J. — Catalogue of the Plants under Cultivation in the Botanical 
Gardens, Singapore, Straits Settlements, by H. J. Mubton — ^Govemment Print- 
ing Office, Singapore, 1879. [The classification adopted is that of the Genera 
Plantarum as far as the end of the 2nd Part of the 2nd Volume, after which the 
orders are given in accordance with the English Edition of Le Maout et Decaisne. 
With the Ai'oids, the compiler has followed the alphabetical order as given by Mr. 
Brown in Sir Joseph Hooker's Report for 1877. An Index of the genera, as well 
as one containing a good many English and Malay names, have been added to 
enable non-botanists to find a particular plant. The number of species catalogued 
amount to 1,802, of which there are : Orchids, 280 species ; Palms, 113; and Ferns 
and Lycopods, 170 species.] 

Supplement to the Annual Report on the Botanical Gardens for 1875. 

[Contains the names of all the plants then in the Gardens, so far as they were then 
known, which amounted to 488 species.] 

Napier, W. — Memorandum regarding the Maharajah of Johore, his Title and 
Position. — Fcap. — London, 1877. 

Narrative of the Proceedings of the Straits Government with regard to the 
recent operations on the East Coast of the Malay Peninsula — Signed by Colonel 
Orpeur Cavenagh. — 8vo. pamphlet with appendices. — Singapore, 1863. 

Navigations aux Indes Orientales, par les Hollandois, — 6 parts in 1 vol. 
foUo— 1609. 

Netscher. — Twee Belegeringen van Malakka. — 1756-57 en 1784. 

Newbold, Lieut. I. S. — Political and Statistical Account of the British Settle- 
ments in the Straits of Malacca : viz., Penang, Malacca, and Singapore ; with a 
History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula of Malacca, by I. J. Newbold, 
Lieutenant 23rd Madras Light Infantry, Aide-de-Camp to Brigadier-G^eneral 
Wilson, C.B. ; Member of the Asiatic Societies of Bengal and Madras ; and 
Corresponding Member of the Madras Hindu Literary Society — in two volumes — 
John Murray, Albemarle Street, London, 1839. [This book still remains the 
standard work on Malacca and its vicinity : it contains a particularly useful and 
reliable account of the " Naning War," as to which the author, though not himself 
engaged, had the best means of forming an opinion. He was stationed as Staff 
Officer in the territory occupied immediately after, and in consequence of the 
military operations. Lieutenant Newbold is also considered a high authority on 
matters connected with Malay customs and traditions.] 

NoRRis, George. — Singapore thirty years ago — Singapofe, 1879. 

Ordinances of the Straits Settlements — 1867 ei aeq. — Eoyal 8vo. — [Previous 
to April, 1867, the Straits Settlements were under the Indian Gfovemment.] 

OsBORN, Captain Sherard, E.N. — Quedah, or Stray Leaves from a Journal in 
Malayan Waters, by Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N., C.B., Officier de la Legion 
d'Honneur — Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans and Roberts, London, 1857. 

Parker, P. — Expedition from Singapore to Japan— 1838. 

Parliamentary Papers. — 1866. Transfer of the control of the Straits Settle- 
ments from the Government of Lidia to the Colonial Office. 

1872. Command — i^^. Piratical Seizure of a junk in Selangor. 

1874. Command — Despatch from Governor Sir Andrew Clarke to the 

Earl op Kimberley upon the disturbed state of part of the Malayan Peninsula. 

1874. Command — Engagement entered into with the Chiefs of Perak. 

1875. Command — 1111. Correspondence respecting the Affairs of 

certain Native States in the Malay Peninsula. (Perak and Sungei Ujong cam- 

1875. Command — 1320. Further Correspondence, &c. 

1876. Command— 1505. Do. do. 

[33] P 

Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Pabliamentabt Papers. — 1876. Command — 1512. Further Correspondence, &c. 

1877. Command— 1709. Do. do. 

1879. Command — Correspondence respecting Muar Affairs. 

1879. Command — Instructions to Residents in the Native States. 

[Since continued as occasion required, but of comparative unimportance 
as historical documents.] 

Penanq Riots. — Report of the Commissioners appointed under Act XXI of 
1867 to inquire into the Penang Riots. — Argus Press, Penang, 1868. 

Pbnanq Gazette. — Tri-weeklj — published at Penang. 

Penano. — Singapore and Malacca Almanac and Directory for 1843, 1844, 1846. 
Prince of Wales' Island Register and Directory for 1820 and 1829. 
Almanac and Directory — 1861-76. 
Record, the— 2 vols. 8vo.— Pulo Penang, 1856-1857. 
Records from 1785 to 1830— MS. folio with Index. 

Perak. — Official Papers issued by the Government of the Straits Settlements 
relating to Perak Affairs and the Complicity of the Chiefs in the Perak Outrages. 

Parliamentary Papers relating to Native States in the Malay Peninsula — 4 
numbers, Maps — 1876. 

Peridaban Shamsu Walkamer. — (" Revolution of the Sun and Moon ") — 
Malay newspaper published for a short period after the appearance of the " Jawi 
Peranakkan," but discontinued. 

Petires, James, F.R.S. — Opera Omnia — 2 vols, folio — 1746. [Contains notice 
of the natural history of Malayan countries and Java.] 

Phillip's Minute on the Landed Tenures of Prince of Wales' Island — Royal 
8vo.— Prince of Wales' Island, 1829. 

PoPHAM, Captain Sir H. — A Description of Prince of Wales' Island in the 
Straits of Malacca ; with its real and probable Advantages and Sources to recom- 
mend it as a Marine Establishment, by Sir Home Popham, Captain R.N., printed 
for John Stookdale, Piccadilly, London, 1805. 

Proceedings of Agricultural Societies and Institutions at Bencoolen and 
Singapore — Bencoolen, <fcc., 1821. 

PxjNic Faith. — (On the Muar Question), by an Englishman — Singapore, 1879. 

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford. — Statement of Services — 4to. — 1824. 

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford. — Malayan Miscellanies — Collected and chiefly 
written by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles — Bencoolen, from 1820 to 1822. 

Ramusio. — Libro di Odoardo Barbosa — 1516. [Contains very full notices of 
Malayan localities to which Crawpurd makes frequent references.] 

Ransonnet, Baron Euoen von. — Skitzen aus Singapur und Djohor — : 
Braunschweig, 1876. 

Schleqel, Dr. G. — Tliian Tfi Hwui. The Hung League, or Heaven-Earth- 
League — ^with an introduction and numerous cuts and illustrations — 4to. — Batavia, 
1866. [This is the standard work on Chinese Secret Societies ; and, with Mr. W. 
A. Pickering's articles in the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, which forms a sort of supplement, may be taken to have entirely destroyed 
the mystery which formerly surrounded such associations.] 

Singapore Almanac and Directory. — 1846-60. 

Directory for the Straits Settlements for 1877 and 1878. 

Singapore and Straits Directory. — Published yearly — Singapore 1880 
ei seq. 

Singapore Acjction Gazette.— Published weekly — 1879 et seq. 

Singapore Free Press. — ^A daily and weekly paper — ^published at Singapore. 

Singapore Market Report. — Published by the Singapore Exchange (fort- 

Singapore Review and Straits Magazine. — Conducted by E. A. Edgek* 
TON, Singapore — 1861-62. 


Bib of British Malaya, Bib 

Spalding, J. W. — Japaai and Eoiind the World — Crown 8vo. — London, 1856. 
Contains notices of Singapore. 

Speedy, Captain T. C. S. — Blue Book of the Larut District in the Native State 
of Perak. 

St. John, Horace. — The Indian Archipelago, its History and Present State — 
2 vols. 8vo. — London, 1853. 

Steaits Calendar and Directory. — 1861-65, 1867-75. 

Straits Chronicle. — A daily paper — ^published at the "Mission Press," 
Singapore, 1878-79. 

Straits Observer. — ^A daily paper — published at Singapore, 1869 to 1873. 

Straits Produce. — ^A comk periodical, Singapore, 1869-1870. 

Straits Times. — A daily, weekly, and overland mail paper (3 editions) pub- 
lished at Singapore, 1831, et seq. 

SwETTENHAM, F. A., c.M.G. — About Porak. (Eeprinted from the Straits 
Times, Singapore, 1893. 

Tabular Statements of the Commerce and Shipping of Prince of Wales' 
Islands, Singapore and Malacca, from 1823 to 1858 — large 4to. — Singapore and 

Tanoai Snahen. — Tamil newspaper published fortnightly — Singapore, 1877 
et seq. 

Thomson, J. — The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China and China ; or Ten Years' 
Travels, Adventures and Eesidence abroad — Illustrated with upwards of sixty 
wood engravings by J. D. Cooper from the author's own sketches and photographs 
— Sampson Low, Marston, Low & Searle, London, 1875. [Deals with the 
Straits Settlements. The work is well illustrated and amusingly written, but is 
of more interest to China than Straits residents.] 

Thomson, J. T. — Some Glimpses into Life in the Far East, by J. T. Thomson, 
late Government Surveyor, Singapore — 2nd edition — Eichardson & Co., London, 
1865. [Contains sketches of life in Singapore, Malacca, Penang, &c., since 1835.] 

Translation from the Hikayat Abdulla — ^London, 1874. 

Trapaud, Elisha. — A Short Account of the Prince of Wales' Island, or Pulo 
Peenang in the East Indies — given to Captain Light by the King of Quedah — 
Ornamented with a view of the North Point of the Island, and the ceremony of 
christening it, taken on the spot by Elisha Trapaud — London, 1788. 

Treaties and Engagements entered into with or affecting the Native States 
of the Malay Peninsula — Parts I, II, III. — Singapore, 1877. 

Useful Tables. — Local and General — Penang, 1861. 

Valenttn. — Oud en Niew Ooost-Indien, &c. ; a Collection of Voyages to the 
East Indies, Japan, Moluccas, many Islands in the Eastern Seas, the Cape, &c. — 
in Dutch— 8 vols, folio— Dortrecht, 1724-26. 

Vaughan, Jonas Daniel. — The Chinese of the Straits Settlements — 8vo. 
with illustrations — Singapore, 1879. 

Voyages dans l'Inde, en Perse, &c., avec la Description de Tile Poulo 
Pinang, nouvel Etablissement des Anglais pres de la Cote de Coromandel — 1801. 

Wallace, A. E. — The Malay Archipelago — Cr. 8vo. — London, 1869. 

Australasia — 1 vol. — Stanford, London, 1879. [These works take a 

comprehensive view of the whole of the Archipelago as far North as the Philip- 
pines, and give a connected account of the structure and zoological peculiarities of 
most of its islands.] 

Ward and Grant. — Medical Statistics and Topography of Malacca and 
Prince of Wales' Island, and on the prevailing Diseases of the Tenasserim Coast — 
folio— Penang, 1830. 

— Topographical and Statistical Sketch of Singapore. [Not dated ; bound 
with the above.] 

Welch, James. — ^Military Eeminiscences, extracted from a Journal of nearly 

[35] p 2 

^Q^ Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

I'imIy v\MvtV rtotivo Hrrvioo in the East Indies — London, 1830. [Gives an account 
v\ w ^l»»M"l vinit iMvid to l\»nang and Malacca in 1818.] 

Yv\N. I>H. — Six Months amongst the Malays, and a year in China — 12mo. — 

AuuiioNN, P.- Vocabulary of the Malay, Dutch, and Achinese Languages — 

Ai^TtuiM, (loTAHDUS. — Dialogues in Malay — 8vo. — Cologne, 1608. [Mentioned 
hy MAi$HnidN. |). HH of Intro, to Grammar. Origi^al work not procurable.] (See 

MdWHUY, Captain Thomas. — A Dictionary English and Malayo, and Malayo 
liiul ttlii^liMli. To which is added some short Grammar Rules and Directions for 
\ti\\\\\\ (Tbwnrvation of the Propriety and Elegancy of this Language. And also 
i»ifVttml MlMtutllanios, Dialogues, and Letters, in English and Malayo, <&c. To 
witlrli Ih aiinox(Hl the Malayo Alphabet, with. a Specimen of the Character, by 
'I'udMAH llowuEY — 4to. — Loudou, 1701. [Highly commended by Majisden, who 
inttiitidiiH \\ copy corrected in MS. by one Henry Smith, regarding whom nothing 
Inrtliur U known.] {See Marsden's Grammar, Intro., pp. 40, 41.) 

( UiAHKE, John.-— Guide to Eomanized Jawi, Part I. Malay Grammar — 8vo. — 
l\uiaug, 1869. 

Ohawfubd, John. — Grammar and Dictionary in the Malay Language — In 
Uiiiuan Characters — 2 vols. 8vo. — 1852. 

Uanckaebts, Sebastianus. — Vocabularium Belgico-Malayaenum et Vice 
Vt^riMi. <;uin Vocis Portugal-Belgice explicites, et Grammaticis Observationibus 
Liii^. Malayee — S'Graven Hague, 1623. 

OuNNYS, N. B., Ph.D. — A Handbook of Malay Colloquial as spoken in 
Hiiigaixiro — 8vo. — Singapore, 1878. 

J<!r.ouT, P. J. — ^Maleisch Spraakkuust, Grammaire de la Langue Malaie par 
Mr. W. Mabsden; publico a Londres en 1812, et traduite de TAnglais en 
IJollandaiH et Fran9ais par P. J. Eloxtt — Harlem, 1824. 

KyNiNOA, P. P. EooBDA VAN. — Nedcrduitsch en Maleisch, Maleisch en 
Nmlnrduitsch Woordenboek — 2 vols. 8vo — Batavia, 1824-25. 

Beknopte Maleische Spraakkuust en Chrestomathie, Met Ital. en Arab- 

kar -12mo.— Breda, 1839. 

Nedcrduitsch en Malaisch Wordenboek, Ital. Kar — 12mo. — Breda, 1839. 

Kavbe, L'Abbe — Dictionnaire Malais-Fran9ais — 2 vols. 8vo — Vienne, 1875. 
— ~ Grammaire de la Langue Malaise — 8vo. — Vienne, 1876. 

GuBYNiEB, Fbedebic — Fbedebici Gueynieb*s Groot Duytsche ende Maleisch 
Woor-dc-boek, Voormaals ap Batavia Gedrukt 1677, doch nu Herdrukt (Batavia), 
1 IKYA. (Collectanea Malaica Vocabularia.) 

Vocabulaer ofte Worden-Boek in't Deutsch ende Maleys — 4to. — Batavia, 


Guide to Eomanized Jawi — Penang, 1869. 

Haex, David — Dictionarium Malaico-Latinum et Latino-Malaicum. Cum 
aliis quamplurimis Opera, &c. — Romse, P. T., 1631 — Batavia, 1707. 

Hautman van Gouda, Fbedebick de. — Dictionarium, ofte Woord ende 
Spraeck-Boeck, in de Duytsche ende Maleysche Tale, met verscheyde t'samen 
sprekingen, in Duytsche on Maleys, Gestlet — door F. de H. (Fbedebick de Haut- 
man) VAN GouDA — Amsterdam, 1673; Batavia, 1707. (Collectanea Malaica 

Diologi Belgico-Malayce — 4to. — Amsterdam, 1603. 

Hexjbnixjm, JusTUM. — Vocabularium ; ofte Woorden-boek. nae Ordre van den 
Alphabet, in't Duytsch en Maleys. Eertijdts gecomponeered en uyt-gegeven 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

door Casparum Wiltens ende Sebastianum Danckaerts. Ende nu (met meer dan 
drie duysent so woorden als Manieren van spreken) vermeerdert uyt de schriften 
van Jan van Hasel ende Albert Ruvl, &c. — door Justum Heurnium — Amsterdam, 
1650; Batavia, 1708. 

HoLLANDEB, J. J. DE. — Hanleiding tot de Kennis der Maleische Taal — 12mo. — 
—Utrecht, 1856. 

HowisoN. — Malay Grammar, as spoken in Malacca, Sumatra, Java, &c. — 4to. 

HowisoN, JoHK, M.D. — A Dictionary of the Malay Tongue as spoken in the 
Peninsula of Malacca, the Islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Pulo Pinang, &c., in 
two parts, English and Malay, and Malay and English; to which is prefixed a 
Grammar of the Malay Language — 4to. — Printed at the Arabic and Persian Press, 
by S. RoussEAxr, Wood Street, Spa Fields, London, 1801. Ditto, 1805. 

Keasberby, Eev. W. — A Vocabulary of the English and Malay Languages — 
2nd Edition, revised and enlarged — 12mo. — Singapore, 1852. 

LoDEBUs, Andbea Lambebtus. — Maleische Woord-Boek Sameling. Col- 
lectanea Malaica Vocabularia. Hoc est Congeries Omnium Dictionarium 
Malaicorum, hactenus Editorum. Non tantum Vulgariorum Belgico-Malaicorum, 
Verum etiam rarissiomrum hucusque Incognitorum, &c. — Editore Andrea 
Lambebtijs Lodebxjs — Batavise (Ind.), 170?-8. 

LoBBEBUS, John Chbistoph. — Grammatica Malaica, tradens prsecepta brevia 
idiomatio lingua in India Orientale celeberrimee ab indiginis diet® " Malajo," 
succinte dilineata labore Johannis Chbistoph Lobbebi — 8vo. — Vinarise (Weimar) 
1688. [Stated by Mabsden to be a bad translation of Eoman's work.] 

Malay. — ^A Grammar of the Malay Tongue as spoken in the Peninsula of 
Malacca, the Islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Pulo Pinang, &c., &c., compiled 
from BawBEY*s Dictionary and other authentic Documents, Manuscript and Printed 
— London, 1780 — And a 4to. edition, 1801. 

Vocabulary, English and Malay, Eoman and Arabic Characters — 8vo. — 

Malacca, 1837. 

A Short Vocabulary, English and Malay, with Grammar Eules for the 

Attainment of the Malayo Language — Calcutta, 1789. 

Mabbe, Abistide. — Histoire des rois Malais do Malaka, extraite du Sadjerat 
Malayou, traduite du Malais et annotee. 

Kata-Kata Malayou, recueil des mots Malais que Tusage a Francises. 

Index des manuscrits Malais de la Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris. 

Mabsden. — ^A Dictionary of the Malayan Language : to which is prefixed a 
Grammar, with an Introduction and Praxis — London, 1812. 

A Grammar of the Malayan Language, with an Introduction and Praxis. 

—London, 1812. 

Grammaire de la langue Malaie, traduite de TAnglais en Hollandais et 

Fran9ai8 par Elout — 4to. — Harlem, 1824. 

Maxwell, W. E., c.m.q. — A Grammar of the Malay Language — Tbijbneb 
& Co., London, 1882. 

Meijbsinge, a. — Maleisch leesboek, Vermeerderd door G. J. Gbashxjis — 
(Malayan Eeading-book, Enlarged by G. J. Gbashuis) — Ist part, 8vo. — Leiden, 

MoBEL, C. J. — Nieuw Nederlandsch-Maleisch en Maleisch-Nederlandsch 
woordenboek — (New Dutch-Malayan, Malayan-Dutch Dictionary) — 2 vols. 8vo. — 
Haarl., 1879. 

OoiLBY, John. —A Brief Vocabulary of the Malayan Tongue — folio — 
London, 1673. 

RicHABD. — Dictionnaire Fran9ais-Malai8 et Malais-Fran9ais, en Lettres 
Latines — 8vo. — Bordeaux, 1873. 


Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

EiCHABD. — Cours Theoretique et Pratique de la Langue Commerciale de 
TArchipel d'Asie, dite Malaise — 8vo. — Bordeaux, 1872. 

EoBiNsoN, W. — An Attempt to elucidate the Principles of Malayan Ortho- 
graphy, by W. EoBiNSON — Fort Marlborough, 1823 ; Bencoolen, 1828. 

EoMAN, John. — Grondt ofte Kort Bericht van de Maleische Taal—- door 
Johannes Eoman — folio — Amsterdam, 1655. 

EuYLL — Spieghel van de Maleysche Tale, in die Welche sich die Indiansche 
Jeneht Chrosthijick ende Vermaecklick Kunnen oeffnen, met Vocabularium 
Duytsch ende Maleysche — square 8vo. — ^Amsterdam, 1612. 

Spalding, Augustine. — Dialogues in the English and Malaiane Languages : 
or Certaine Common Formes of Speech, first written in Latin, Malaian and 
Madagascar Tongues, by the Diligence and Painfull Endevour of Master 
GoTARDUS Arthusius, a Dantisker, and now faithfully translated into the English 
Tongue by Augustine Spalding, Merchant — London, 1614. [These Dialogues 
are copied from Fr. Hautman.] 

SwETTENHAM, F. A., c.M.G. — ^Vocabulaij of the English and Malay Lan- 
guages — In 2 vols. — Singapore, 1881, and two subsequent editions. 

Thomasin, Hendeick. — ^An Alphabet, Syllabarium, and Praxis, in the 
Malayan Language and Character — Malacca, 1818. 

Thomsen, Eev. — English, Bugis-and Malay Vocabulary — Singapore. (? 1840). 

Thunberg, Carl Peter. — Eesa uti Europa, Africa, Asia, forratted ifr4n An 
1770 til 1779 — 4 vols. 8vo. — ^Upsala, 1789-93. [Vol. 11. contains a Vocabulary and 
Dialogues in Swedish and Malay.] 

Vocabulary, A. — Of the English and Malay Languages, with the Proper 
Orthography for Englishmen — Second edition — 8vo. — Batavia, 1879. 

Werndlij or Werndly, George Henrik. — ^Maleische Spraakkunst', int de 
cige schriften des Maleiers Opgemaakt: mit eene Voorreden, behelzende eene 
Inleiding tot dit werk, en een Aanhangsel van twee Boekzalen van Boekan in deze 
tale zo van Europeers, als van Maleiers Geschreven — 8vo. — ^Amsterdam, 1736. 
Batavia, 4to. 1823. [Very highly praised by Marsden.] 

Wilde, A. de. — Nederduitsch-Maleisch en Soendasche Woordenboek 
benevens twee stukken tot cefening in het Soeiidasch ; uitgegeven door T. Eoobda 
— 8vo — ^Amsterdam, 1841. 

Wiltens, Caspar. — Vocabularium afte Woortboek, naer orde van den 
Alphabet, int 't Duytsch-Maleysch, ende Maieysch-Duytsch, by Caspar Wil- 
tens: ende namaels oversien, vermeerdert, ende uytgegeren door Sebastianus 
Danokaeterts — S'Graven Hage, 1623. Batavia, 1706. (Collectanea Malaica.) 

Woodward, Captain David. — ^Narrative of Captain David Woodward and 
Four Seamen — ^W. Vaughan, 1804. [In the curious "Narrative of Captain 
David Woodward and Four Seamen,*' who were wrecked off the Island of 
Celebes in 1791 and detained in captivity for two years and a half, published 
by William Vaxjghan in 1804, is given a Malay vocabulary "committed to 
writing" by Captain Woodward, differing in some respects to Malay as given 
by Sir Edward Belcher.] 

Worm, Petrus van der. — ^Vocabulaar, in't Duytsch ende Maleys. Mer- 
kelijk Verbeterd en Vermeerderd door en Lief hebber der Maleische Tale — 
Petrxts van der Worm — Batavia, 1708. 


The following list, which embodies the titles found in the British Museum 
and E.A.S. Catalogues, with such local additions as were procurable, is 
believed to include almost all works known in the language to the inhabitants 
of the Peninsula : — 


Bib of British Malaya. 

AcHEH, Sejabah. — Annals of the Kingdom of Acliin-7-in the Malayan 

Aeida Alawam. — ^An Exposition of some of the Fundamental Articles of 
the Mahommedan Faith — 8vo. 

Aluan Kabejikan. — The Pursuit of Virtue. 

Ambun, Inch!. — The Conquest of Mangkasar (Macassar) by the uuited 
forces of the Hollanders and Bigis, under the Command of Admiral Cobnelis 
Speelman and Eaja Palaka, in the year 1667 — a Poem in the Malayan lan- 
guage, by Inchl Ambun. 

AsbabalInsan Fimab!fat ul-bud Abahman. — The Secret of a Pious and 
Benevolent Life. 

AsTBONOMY. — An Astronomical and Astrological Work — in the Malayan 
language — (Mabsden's collection). 

Babal akal kapada sagala obang besab-besab. — An ethic work laying 
down Eules for Ministers when officiating, and illustrated by many tales. 

BabanIkah. — Matrimony and the Rites and Ceremonies thereof according 
to the requirements of Mahommedanism — 8vo. 

BidItI. — The Doctrines of Mahommedanism — 8vo. 

BiooBAPHY. — The Biography of a Malayan Family — with other Tracts — 
(Mabsden's collection). 

BiBDS. — ^A Discussion, in the Malayan Language, amongst the Birds which 
attend the Throne of King Solomon, of the question " Whether it is wiser for 
a person to speak or to be silent." — An imitation of the Hamahat of Habibi. 

BocHABiE VAN DjOHOB. — Dc Kroou aller Koningen — ^Malay text in Arab. 
char, with Dutch translation by Roobda van Eijsinoa— 4to. — Batavia, 1827. 

BoEKOE OBAT DAN KATOEBONOGGo EOEDA. — ^Ya itoc mcuerangken tjatjad 
atawa baiknja koeda, kentara darie boeloe atawa tandanja, bernama Mathie» 
atawa oeijen-oeijengan, bagimana tjarietanja orang doloe kala — 8vo. — Djoodja, 

Bbtjckneb. — Petit traite religieux en Javanais — Serampore, 1826 (?). 

BiTSTANALSALATiN. — Contains a variety of information on such subjects as 
the Creation, Prophets and Kings, Ministers, Learned Men, and Heroes, and all 
sorts of arts. 

Calendab. — A Mahommedan and English comparative Calendar — issued 
1877 et seq. — Singapore. 

Catalogue of Malayan Trees, Fruits, Animals, &c. 
• Chebmin Mata, or the Malay Reader. Aids to the acquirement of know- 
ledge — Singapore, 1859. — Keasbeby. 

Chbestomaties Oceaniennes. — Textes en Langue Boughis — sq. 8vo. 

Dance Koesoemah (Raden). — Soendasch gedicht Radja Darma — Batavia, 

strating with the Real Being. 

Deity. — ^A Malayan tract on the Attributes of the Deity — with a Javanese 

DiABY.— A Diary, from 1184 to 1190 (a.d. 1770-1776) in the Biigis language 
and char. (The names of the Months are European, written in the Arab. char. — 
(Mabsden's collection.) 

Divination. — Instruction in the Art of Divination — in the Malayan language. 

Dbeams and theib Intebpbetations. — ^Malay MS. 

Elmu Plangkah. — The art of divining the favourable times for raising a 
building, setting out on a voyage, celebrating marriages, &c. 

Geomancy. — The book of Geomancy, or of Divination, by Sand — in the 
Malayan language — composed in the year of the Hejirah 1175 (1761) at Palambani 
(Palembang r). Preceded by an Astrological tract, in which the motions of some 


fill) Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

of the Planets are described, and an account given of the days on which the Sun 
enters each Sign of the Zodiac for that (lunar) year. A memordndum in Javanese 
has the date of 1 1 a v (1187), or a.d. 1773. 

Gebicke, J. F. C— Wiwoho of Mintorago — a Javanese poem — fol. — Batavia, 


Hakayat Abbas Mahomed. — Solves 1,000 questions proposed by the Jews ; 
and treats of Keyber and of his conversion. 

Hakayat Abdullah Mxjnshi. — 4to. — Singapore. 

Hakayat AbO Nawas. — Abu Nawas, the Clown of the famous Haroun Al 
Easchid of Bagdad. 

Hakayat Ahmed Bisun. — The Rambles of Ahamad Bisun. 

Hakayat Baktizab. — The Tales of Baktizar. — ^A collection of inculcatory tales. 

Hakayat Bayan B^^diman. — The Gifted Parrot. 

Hakayat Dalano Panouda Isma. — The Prince of Kuripan. (A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat Debma Bulan. — ^A Javanese tale. 

Hakayat Debma Tasla.h. — The Devoted Wife. 

Hakayat Dewa Bisna. — The Adventures of Dewa Bisna. 

Hakayat Dewa Laksamana. — A fairy tale in verse. 

Hakayat Dewa Mandeu. — A fairy tale. 

Hakayat Dunia. — ^Mahomed's account of the Creation and of his Visit to 
Heaven — Singapore, 1855. 

Hakayat Patimah Kawin. — The Marriage of Fatima. 

Hakayat GalIla and DimJna. — ^A collection of fables of the nature of jEsop's. 

Hakayat Hamza. — The adventures of Hamza in the early days of Islam ism. 

Hakayat Hang Txja. — The life and exploits of Laksamana Hang Tua, the 
famous opponent of the Portuguese. 

Hakayat Hoja Memun — or The Gifted Parrot. 

Hakayat Indono Malati Rosuri. — (A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat Indba Kayangan. — The adventures of Indra Kayangan in quest of 
a wonderful musical instrument. 

Hakayat Indba Putra. — The adventures of Indra Putra, son of the King of 

Hakayat Isma YatIm. — ^Life of Isma Yatim, the author of several stories in 
the reign of Raja Pakarma Dati and of Memoirs of Tamum and Dan. 

Hakayat Jabang Kulena. — The adventures of Jarang Kulena, who flees from 
her father's residence and follows her lover in the garb of a man. — (A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat JubAgan BuntMAN. — The rambles of Juragan Budiman, the judicious 
navigator, in quest of her brother. 

Hakayat Kajadian Negri Kedah. — An account of the foundation of KSdah. 

Hakayat Maharaja. — A version of the story of King Skull. 

Hakayat Maharaja All — The story of Maharaja Ali, with the story of King 
Skull (Hakayat RAja Jam Jama), of which it is a version. 

Hakayat MaharAja Borna. — The adventures of Bdma, son of Bison. — (A 
Panji tale.) 

Hakayat Maharaja Indra Dewa, and Shair. — Life of Sri Miskin, the 

Hakayat Mahkota Raja Raja. — ^The duties and responsibilities of the Royal 
Office— 8vo.—(i8'ee Taj.) 

Hakayat Mahomed Shah. — Laws and institutes of Mahomed Shah, of 
Malacca, the first convert to Islamism. 

Hakayat Nasi Musa. — ^Moses receiving various moral and ceremonial institu- 
tions from God. 

Hakayat NagA BisAru. — (A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat PandAwa Jaya. — The life and exploits of Pandawa Jaya. — (A Panji 

Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

Hakayat Panji Wila KabxjmA. — (A Panji tale.) 

Hakatat Paeang POting. — The Miraculous Chopping Knife. 

Hakayat Pabdama Lima. — (A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat Pebsad Indra Laksama. — King of Tharaf — ^His delivery from 
allegiance to Buliya Indra, the Monkey King, whom his son conquered. 

Hakayat Plandoh Jenaka. — The Facetious Mouse-deer. 

Hakayat RAja Baba. —The adventures of Raja Baba. 

Hakayat RAja Berputba. — Observances during the pregnancy of the wives 
of the Kings and their courtiers, and the birth of their children. 

Hakayat RAja BudAk. — ^An allegorical tale wherein the requisite qualifica- 
tions of royalty are considered. 

Hakayat RAja Chaya LangkAba. — Travels of Makadan and Makdini in 
search of the White Saflower. 

Hakayat RAja Hundxtk. — The Subjugation of Raja Hunduk and his 
guerre d mart for the propagation of the Mahommedan faith. 

Hakayat RAja Iskandeb Zxjlkebnein. — The life and conquests of Alexander 
the Great (the two-homed). 

Hakayat RAja Khabab. — The 1,000 questions put to Mahomed by the 
learned Jews of Naibar. 

Hakayat RAja Khebeb. — Capture of Rlija BIheber by Mahomed, and his con- 
version to Islamism. 

Hakayat RAja Pase. — Chronicles of the Rajas of Pase or Samudara, or 
Shamantara (in Sumatra), by which the whole of the island is now called. 

Hakayat RAja RAja Bebpetba. — Court customs and ceremonies at pregnancy, 
parturition, and during the minority of the Royal Family — With notes and glossary 
— 8vo. 

Hakayat RAja Shah MebdAn. — Raja Shah Merdan, his life and reign and 
transmigraficatory powers — 8vo. 

Hakayat RAja Zxjljxjb Aden. — Life and reign of Raja Zadaljub of Aden. 

Hakayat Rangga Abiya Kuda Nastapa. — Adventures of Inu Kertapati. — 
(A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat Ras^^l Allah Bebchukob. — Gabriel shaves Mahomed and the 
nymphs gather his hair. 

Hakayat SebangA BAyu. — ^The adventures of the Royal brothers Ahmed and 
Mohamed, the former a King of Bagdad, the latter his Minister, under the assumed 
name of Sirang^ B4yu. 

Hakayat Shamsul-Bahabain. — The adventures of Shamsul-Baharain» 

Hakayat Si Miskin. — The Fortunate Beggar* 

Hakayat Siti Habashah. — ^An ethic tale. 

Hakayat Sbi RAma. — The adventures of Sri R&ma in quest of his wife, who 
had been carried away by Mahar&ja Rawana. 

Hakayat Taj-us-Salatin. — The duties and responsibilities of the Royal Office, 
and the usages, customs, and ensigns of Court (lit, The Crown for all Kings). 

Hakayat TAm^n al Dabi. — The adventures of Tamun al Dari, an iidiabitant 
of Madura. 

Hakayat Wanang Kebat. — (A Panji tale.) 

Hakayat Yusuf. — The life of Joseph, compiled from the Pentateuch (by Mr. 

Habdeland. — Surat akan ole ngadju hong pulau Borneo — 1846, Cape of Good 

Habdeland. — Surut hapan adjar membasa, kapataa — in 12-br. — 1846. 

Habdeland. — Tjerita karadjan hatalla tuntang angh adjar bara surat Hatalla 
tinei sombajang dan njanjian — 8vo. — Elberfield, 1845. 

Habdeland. — Pira-pira tjerita bara surat Hatalla idja solahe — in-8 Carb. — 
Batavia, 1843. 


Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

HIbis FathIla. — Patbila of Bussorah. His marriage to Siti Zawija — a love 
poem — 8vo. 

HoEzoo. — Petit traite sur la voie du salut en Javanais — in 12 parts — Rotter- 
dam, 1855. 

Indea Jaya. — Indra Jaya, son of the King of Samsualum Balir61. His 
adventures in search of the Princess now Lela Chaja and other Princesses who had 
been carried away by a griffin. 

JuRAGAN BCdiman. — The rambles of Jnrigan Budim&n, the judicious navi- 
gator, in quest of her brother — 1 vol. 8vo. 

Keijzer, S. — Kitab Toehpah, Javaansch-Mohammedaansch Wetboek — Java- 
nese text with annotations and glossary — 8vo. — La Haye, 1853. 

Keyser, S. — Kitab Toehpah, Javaansche-Mohammedaansch Wetboek — in 8 
cart. — Gravenhage, 1853. 

KissAH Eaja EAja yano Ampuna Adat. — Duties and responsibilities of the 
B[ingly Office. 

Kitab Maniatakan SagAla Agama. — ^An account of the religions from Adam 
to Mahomed and of the trust of Mahomed. 

Kitab Mantahi pada maranchanakan sabda nahi. — Explanations of the 
receipts of Mahomed. 

Kitab Tbasxtl. — Etiquette of compliments in letter writing. 

Lela Majnum. — An allegorical tale in which is illustrated the passion of love 
and its seductiveness. 

Life and Eeign of Abdul Muluk, King of Barbary. 

Maraat-ul Makakin. — ^A Catechism on religious terms. 

Malayan Correspondence — consisting chiefly of letters from the B&jas and 
principal native merchants of the Peninsula and neighbouring islands, addressed to 
Captain Francis Light, and Captain James Scott, of Pulau Pinang. Li several 
Portfolios — (Marsden's collection). 

Matthes, F. B. — ^Boegineesch Hcldendicht — texte Boughi en caract^res origin- 
aux— 1864. 

MuHAMED Hanufiah. — Muhamcd Hanuflah's guerre d mart against the Infidel 
Y&zed at Mecca. 

MxjHAMED UL Atik. — Evidence of the existence of a Divine Being, and dis- 
sertations on Islamism, its creed and ceremonies. 

Mt^JizAT Eastjlallah Memangil Btjlan. — Mahomed*s miracle of making 
the moon pass by halves through his sleeves. 

cipal articles of the Mahommedan faith. 

NAbi Me'raj. — The ascent of Mahomed to Heaven on the Bordk — 8vo. 
Newspapers. — In Malay — 

BiNTANG Barat. — Batavia, published on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
BiNTANG Barat. — ( " Western Star " ) — Singapore. [Malay newspaper 
published for a short period after the appearance of the " Jawi Peranak- 
kan," but, like the " Peridaran Shamsu Walkamer," discontinued.] 
BiNTANG Djohor. — Published by the Society of Missionaries, Batavia, in 

fortnightly numbers, on Saturdays. 
BiNTANS Timor. — Soerat kabar di Soerabaya, published on Wednesdays and 

Bromartani Soerakarta. — In Javanese — ^published every Thursday. 
Darmo Warsito. — Djocdja — published every Saturday. 
HiNDiA Nederland. — Socrat kabar Betawi — Batavia — ^published on Wed- 
nesdays and Saturdays. 
Jawi Piranakkan ("Straits bom**) — ^Malay newspaper published every 
Monday — Sin^pore, 1876 et seq, [This is the first Malay newspaper ever 
published. Circulation about 300 copies.] 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

Jawi Standabd. — ^Malaj newspaper published at Penang (? 187?) — now 

PsBiDABAN Shamsit Walkamer. — (" Rovolution of the Sun and Moon") 
[Malay newspaper published for a short period after the appearance of the 
" Jawi Peranakkan," but discontinued.] 
Selompbet Melajoe. — Soerat kabar dan advertentie — Samarang, published 

on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 
Tangai Snehan. — ^Tamil newspaper published fortnightly — Singapore — 18?7 

et seq, 
Tjahaja Sijang. — Kartas Chabar Minahassa. — ^Tanawangko (Isle of 
Celebes) — ^published every Thursday. 
Panoajab. — ^Agama Kristan man inik inik pakata, dipilih doan kitab jubata 
blaksa — ISmo. — Singapore, 1847. 

Pant^ns. — ^A Collection of Pant^ns, or short Malayan Sonnets — (Mabsden's 

PANTtNs. — 83 Love Songs — 8vo. 

PENoaLiiTi. — ^Amusing Stories in Malay — Mahomed Syed — Singapore, 1879. 
Pbnoutib. — Segala r^mah P6ngatahwan — Nos. 3 & 4 — Eoman characters — 

* PhbIith. — ^The law relating to the distribution of the estates of deceased 
persons — 8vo. 

PoBNiKO TjABios ANEL TiGA BELAH. — lu Javauesc characters — 8vo. — Batavia, 

Pbayeb. — ^Malayan religious tracts containing Rules to be observed with 
respect to prayer, &c. 

Pbentah adat EAja Eaja dan bethany. — ^Usages, customs, and ceremonies 
relating to Malayan Kings from childhood to marriage — ^Malay MS. 

Raden Mas Abjo Poebwo Lenono. — ^Reizen, texte Javanaise — 2 vols, in-8 
cart.— Batavia, 1865-66. 

RljA BastamIm. — His conquest of Persia and Palestine for the propagation 
of the Mahommedan faith — 1 vol. foolscap. 

REacriiATiONS. — Established for the port of Krui or Croee, in Siunatra, by the 
Government of Batam, in Java, engraved on copper, in the Sunda dialect of Java 
and Malayan Character. Dated in the year 1108 of the Hejirah, or a.d. 1696. 
Rbligious Instruction in the Malayan language, grounded on Arabic text. 
RoMO. — Javaansch gedicht naar de bewerking van Joro Dhipoero. Uitgeg, 
door C. P. WiNTEB — Batavia, 1858. 

RooBDA VAN Eysinoa.— Geschiedenis van Sultan Ibrahim vorst vau Eirah, 
uit het Maleisch in Javaansche poezy met javaansch karakter-mits gaders nati sastra 
of zedesplenhen, in het kawi met roode letters — in-8 cart. — ^Amsterdam, 1842. 

Roobda, T. — Javaansche Brieveo, BerigtcD, Verslagen, Verzoekschriften, Pro- 
clamatien, Publicaties, Contracten, Schuldbekenthenissen, Quitanties, Processtuk- 
ken, Pachtbrieven en andere soortgelijke stukken — 8vo. — ^Amsterdam, 1845. 
SabilIl. — ^The Rites and Ceremonies of Mahommedanism — 8vo. 
Saif-itl Lizan. — The adventures of Saif-ul LizAn, King of Abyssinia, his 
life and his accession to the throne of Medina Aharam in Abyssinia, founded by 
his grandfather, a King of Yemen, Arabia — 8vo. 

Samabkhand. — ^A catechism on the precepts of Islamism. 
Sbjabah Malayu. — ^Malay Chronicles from the time of Demang Lobar Daon, 
a descendant of Alexander of Macedon, to the arrival of the Portuguese in the 
reign of Sultan Mahomed — 8vo. — Singapore. 

Sblasilah RAja RAja Chebbon. — ^A genealogical account of the Kings of 

SsLASiLAH RAja RAja di Tanah Jawa. — Q-enealogicaJ account of the 
Sovereigns of Java. 


Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Serat Tjarios belampahan poen praboe oema jon fol. — Javanese characters 
— 8vo. — Batavia, 1879. 

Sewaka. — JaYaansch gedicht, met eene Yertalingen woordenboek Uitgeg. door 
J. A. Wilkels— 8vo.— 1850. 

Shahib Iblis. — The devil visits the prophet (Mahomed) and acknowledges 
his superiority. 

Shahir Iean Tamb'os. — ^A love poem. 

Shahir Ken Tabithan. — Ken Tabuhan, a captive princess of rare beauty, is 
immured within the walls of a fort by order of Eadin Mantri's mother, who had 
arranged a marriage between him and the princess of Banjor Kulou. The Badin 
defiantly enters the place and as defiantly declares his love. The Queen is indig- 
nant and disappointed, and Ken Tabuhan is forthwith assassinated. — ^A tragic love 

Shaib AbdCl Mulxjk. — The life and times of Abdul Muluk, King of Bar- 
bary — 8vo. 

Shair BarAo BArAo. — The Mocking Bird Bar^o Bar&o, being exhortations 
and precepts to Eling Solomon. 

Shair BidasAri. — The beautiful Bidas4ri is discovered in a boat. The King 
is captivated by her attractiveness ; the Queen, jealous of this, ill-treats her and 
sends her home in an insensible state. By recourse to supernatural means she 'is 
resuscitated during the night and thrown back into her former state during the 
day. The Queen believes her no longer a dangerous rivaL Bedasari in time 
recovers and marries the King despite the opposition of his consort. 

Shair Bunga. — Flowers — a poem. 

Shair Burong Pingei. — An allegorical poem regarding the soul. 

Shair Chinta Berahi. — Love poems. 

Shair Daoano. — The Stranger — a poem. 

Shair Ikan. — Exhortation to children — A poem in which fishes are intro- 
duivd an the oxhorters. 

■ SuAiK JoHAN Anak RAja Perall. — A tragic love poem. 

S^^Kts. — An exposition of the mystical doctrines of the Siii^s in the Malayan 
languagt\ Written at Pas6 near Achin, in a character remarkably well-formed. 

Sui.TAN Abdobl Moesok OF Barbary. — Life and reign of, in Malay, a. c, 
publinluHl by Roorda van Eysinga — 8vo. — Batavia, 1847. 

Sultan Usman. — Sheriff, King of Egypt, history of — ^Malay MS. 

Sultan Ibrahim, — zoon van Adaham, Vorst van L-akh, history of, in Malay 
(Arab, char.) with commentary by Lenting — 4to. — Breda, 1846. 

SuRAT AL KiAmAt. — A pocm depicting the sorrows and punishments of the 
next world — 1 vol. 8vo. 

SxTRAT AL Nabi. — ^An account of God's dealings with Adam, Noah and others 
down to Mahomed's time — 2 vols, large foolscap. 

SuRAT brasi Djanji Taheta, Tuhan dan I)juru Salamat ikel Jesus Kristus 
— 8vo. — Cape of Good Hope, 1846. 

SuRAT brasih Djanji Taheta, tuhan tuntang diuru, salatus — 8vo. — Amsterdam, 

Tabir Mimpi. — Literpretations of dreams, and of involuntary motions of the 

TAj-il Mxjlxjk. — A love poem — 1 voL 8vo. 

Taj-us-SxjlAtin or Hakayat Mahkota Sagala RAja RAja.— The duties and 
responsibilities of the Regal Office. 

Taman Punotauan bagie kanak kanak — Roman char. — Singapore. 

Thomasin, Hendrick. — ^A Discourse in the Malayan language and character, 
professing to have for its text the 6th verse of the 11th chapter of Paul's Epistle 
to the Hebrews — ^Malacca, 1818. 

Tjaritania Ibrahim. — ^Batavia, 1853. 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

Tjabitania Joesoeb anak Jakoeb. — 32ino. — Samarang, 1860. 

Tract. — Religious observances, in the Malayan language, much mixed with 

T&AiTB Religiextx. — Eu langue Boughi — Caracteres originales — 1833. 

Treatise. — On the magical virtues of the Sloth and other animals, and of 
certain herbs. 

Tripling Adventures, in the Malayan language. 

Trom PIpit. — The original wanderings of the Malay Race — (Very ancient.) 

Trombu Menang Kabao. — Table showing the genealogy of the Kings of 
Menang E&bM — 2 sheets. 

TCN-Bi-t^L Ekwhan. — The Ceremonial law of Mahommedanism — 1 vol. 8vo. 

TCn-bi-Cl-gIjAlin. — The ordinances of Mahommedanism and admonitions to 
practise the same — 1 vol. 8vo. 

Trombu Palembang. — Genealogical Table of the Kings of Palembang. 

XJndang Undang Sultan Mahomed Shah. — The Laws and Institutions of 
Sultan Mahomed Shah of Malacca. 

WicHERS, J. M. — Soerat Ondang Ondang atas tanah Hindie Nederland — 8vo. 
— Batavia, 1856. 


Adelung, J. C. — Mithridates, oder allgemeine Sprachenkunge, mit wichtigen 
Beytragen zweyer grossen Sprachforscher, fortgesetzt von Vater — containing the 
"Lord's Prayer" in 500 Languages and Dialects — i vols. 8vo. — Berlin, 1806-17. 

Anslijn, N. — De brave Hendrik een leesboekje voor jonge kinderen — Livre de 
lecture trad, en Batak (Dialecte Mandailingsche) par W. Iskander — 1865. 

Babkeng Kariehin. — Histoire des premiers temps (La Gen^se ?) en Javanais 
— publ. par Bruchner ?) Bandjarmasin ? — in-12 br. 

Beodes. — Histoires tiroes des Evangiles — in-12 cart. — Harlem, 1867. 

Bible. — ^Elkitab 'ija itu segala surat perdjanjian lama dan baharuw tersalm 
kapada bahasa Malajew — 8vo. — 1821. 

The Holy Bible or Books of the Old and New Testament in the Malayan 

language and character, originally printed at Bat^via in 1758, and reprinted, with 
alterations, at Serampore, in Bengal, in 1821 — (Executed under the superintendence 
of Bobert Hutchings). 

The Books of the Old and New Testament in the Malayan language and 

character-T-by Johan Mauritz Mohr and Herman Petrus van de Werth — Batavia, 

De Scheppingsgeschiedenis, volgens Genesis I., overgebragt in de taal der 

Bataks door H. N. van der Tuuk— 1853. 

— Het boek Genesis, in het Boegineesch vertaald door Dr. B. F. Matthes — 

Het boek (Jenesis, in het Tobaasch vertaald door H. N. van der Tuuk — 


— Het boek Exodus, in het Tobaasch vertaald door H. N. van der Tuuk — 

Bible en Langue Javanaise — 3 vols, in-8 cart. — 'sGravenhage — 1854. 

Bible op Every Land. — A History of the Sacred Scriptures in every Lan- 
guage and Dialect into which translations have been made : illustrated with specimen 
portions in Native Characters, Alphabets, Maps, &c. — ito. w. d, 

Biblia. — ^Id est Vetus et Novum Testamentum Malaice (Arab, char.) ed Wilmet 
—8vo.— Harlem, 1853. 

Branto, Ajinoldtjs. — Eisilet pada menjatakan, &c. — (Exhortation of the 
Lord's Supper) — translated into the Malayan language — Amsterdam, 1734, 


Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progeess. — ^In Malay (Alzafar Alz&hid) a. c. 4to. — 
Singapore, 1840. 

Catechism on the Creation of Adam and Eve ; in the Bngis dialect spoken at 
Boni Eata Islands, Celebes Sea. 

Catecismo — ^De la Doctrina, en idioma de Pangasinan, anadido la iQtimo con 
algunas oraciones para ayudar a bien morir — Imprenta de S. Thomas — in-32 broche 
— Manila, 1857. 

Ceremonials. — ^Malayan tracts, principally a translation of that part of the 
Arabic Hedaya or legal guide which relates to Ceremonials, Ablutions, &c. 

Cherita Nabi Alla Mtjsa Manajat di Bukit Forsina. — Moses' Ascent on 
Mount Sinai. 

Cherita Sultan Iskander. — Stories of Alexander the Great. 

Common Prayers. — In Malay (Arab, char.) Ixih, — Singapore, 1857. 

Common Prayers. — In Malay (Eom. char.) in four versions, with Pujian and 
Surat Kiriman S. Paulos — n. ^., Sarawak. 

Frederick, E. — Boma Kawya (Sanskt. Bh&uma £]awya), dat is gedicht van 
Bh^umn, den zoon van Wisjnoe en de Aarde (Sanskt. Prethiwi of Bhilnu.) In het 
Oorspronkelijk Kawi — 4to. — 1253. 

Gospel according to St. John. — Translation in the Malayan language and 
character, by W. Eobinson — Bencoolen, 1823. 

Evangelie van Johannes in het Tobaasch door H. N. van der Tuuk — 


Gospel according to St. Luke. — Het Evangelie van Lukas, in het Tobaasch 
vertaald door H. N. van der Tuuk — 1859. 

Gospel according to St. Mare. — En Javanaise — in-12 cart. — Amsterdam, 

Gospel according to St. Matthew. — ^With commentaries (Arab, char.) — 

— Indjil iang tarsoerat oleh Mattheus (Eom. char.) — 16mo. — Batavia, 

— Indjil ande kasoeratheun koe Mattheus — in-8 br. — Batavia, 1854. 
Hakayat GalIla dan DimIna. — Malay version of the tables of Pilpay — ^MS. 
Histories. — Malayan translation of Arabian histories, commencing with the 

Khalifat of Omar. 

History of Little Henry and his Bearer. — 12mo. a,c. — Singapore. 

HoEzoo. — Abrege de la vie de Jesus Christ par demandes et reponses — ^in-12 
cart. — Rotterdam, 1855. 

Jellersma. — ^Abr^ge de Thistoire sainte, en Javanais — ^in-12 cart. — ^Rotterdam, 

— Hymnes Chr^tiennes en Javanais avec musique — in-12 cart. — ^Rotterdam, 

Malay Magazine for the months of January, April, August, and October, 
1821, and for January and April, 1822 — Printed at Malacca. 

MoEHAMAD MoESSAH (Radcu Hadji). — Geschiedenis van Abdoerahman en 
Abdoerahim, vertaald uit het Arabisch in het Soendaasch door Raden Hadji 
Moehamad Moessah — in-8 br. — Batavia, 1863. 

Moses. — Religious Historical Tracts in the Arabic and Malayan languages 
(reciting the actions of Moses and Muhammed, with a mixture of absurd febles 
and gross anachronisms). 

Mystical Religion. — An Arabic Work on Mystical Religion, with a Malayan 
interlinear translation, 7i. cf. 

Naamlijsten. — Der opvolgende Vorsten van God, Tello, Boni Wadjo, Sopeng 

Natural Philosophy. — In Malay — a. c. — Singapore, 1841. 

New Testament. ^Jang ampat £vangelia derri Tuan lata Jesu Christi, daao 


Bib of British Malaya. Bib 

Berboatan derri jang Apostoli bersakti, bersallin dallam bassa Malajo — (The four 
Gospels of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Acts of the Holy Apostles, translated 
into Malayan tongue). — Published by Thomas Hyde and Thomas Marshall from 
the version of Justus Heumius — Oxford, 1677. 

Testamento Barou, attau segalla kitab derri Tuan Cami Jesu Christo 

pounja comvoul barou. Derri bassa Greeco, Latino daen Hallando bersalin dallam 
bassa Malayo, derripada Daniel Browcrins — Amsterdam, 1668. 

Books of the New Testament translated into the Malayan language — 

Amsterdam — ^The Books of the Old Testament, 1733. The Psalms of David, and 
other writings. (The whole under the direction of George Henrik Wemdly) — 
Amsterdam, 1735. 

The Holy Gospel, or Books of the New Testament, in the Malayan lan- 
guage and character — Originally printed at Batavia, 1758 ; reprinted at Serampore, 
in &ngal, 1817. 

Nouveau Testament traduit en Javanais par Bruchner, Serampore, 1829. 

In Malay (Arab, char.) — 8vo. — Singapore, 1831. 

Surat brasi djandji taheta tuhan dan djuru salamat ikei Jesus Kristus — 
in-8 cart. — Kapstad, 1846. 

(Le nouveau) en Javanais — Publi6 par J. F. C. Gericke — in-fol., cart. — 

Gravenhage, 1847. 

— in Javanese — in 8vo. — 1847. 

Oetiz, E. p. Fr. Thomas, de la orden S. Augustin — Via Crucis oang daang 
linacadan nang ating panginoong Jesu Cristong nag pasannang cruz — in-12 br. — 
Madrid, 1820. 

Pbbsia. — A Komantic story of a King of Persia, in the Malayan language. 
(To be found in the continuation of the Arabian Tales, or Thousand and one 

Psalms op David (Zabur — a. c. litli. — Singapore. 

PsATJMES DB David— traduits en Javanais (par Geriche) — in-8 cart. — 
Amsterdam, 1854. 

Puji PujiAN. — ^Hymns for use in Church — a. c, — Pulo Penang. 

Bamayana, thb. — ^Malayan abbreviated translation of the Hindu Poem of the 

Ebcttbil de LB90N8 piEXTSES — cu Javauais — in-12 cart. — Bandjarmasin, 1863. 

Belioious Tracts. — a. e, printed in Singapore, bd. in 1 vol. 

ScBiPTTJBE Stories. — In Malay (no date) — Singapore. 

Sermon op Jesus upon the Mount. — In Chinese (Chinese char.) Malay 
(Bom. char.) and English — 8vo. — Malacca, 1842. 

Spiritual Hymns. — In the Malayan language and character — Serampore, 1825. 

Stories from the Gospels. — a. c. lith, — Singapore, 1844. 

Tjarita-nja. — Joesoeb anak Jakoeb — 32mo. — Samarang, 1860. 

TooBN, J. L. VAN DER and L. K. Habmsen. — Pada menjatakan sagala hal- 
ahwal ilmoe petjakan perrapoeloehan — (Published by the East-Indian Government) 
— 8vo. pp. 64— Batavia, 1879. 

TuuK, H. N. VAN DEB. — Dc Scheppingsgeschiedcnis, volgens Genesis L, 
overgebragt in de taal der Bataks — ^Amsterdam, 1853. 

XJndang Undang. — Police Act 1860, Hackney Carriages, Harbour, Nuisances, 
Gambling Ordinances, &c. 

Undang Undang Chukei. — Indian Stamp Act (10 of 1862). 

Wall, A. P. von de. — Hikajat Aladdin — (Malay text in Arabic characters) 
— ^with six coloured Plates, pp. 48 — Batavia, 1879. 

Werndlt, George Henrik. — Pang-adjaran Servus, Karel George — agama 
Meslhhij, &c, (Christian Instruction and Catechism in the Malayan language 
and Roman character. To which is prefixed the Malayan Alphabet.) By George 
Henrik Werndly and Karel George Servus — ^Amsterdam, 1780, 


Bib Descriptive Dictionary Bib 

Werndly, G-eobge Henbik. — Pang-adjS,ran kabenaran jang p61ion ibadet De 
Lrere der Waarheit die naar de Godzaligheit is. Mit een Kort Bericht van de 
Maleische Letteren — (A book of religious instruction in the Malayan language 
and Eoman Character) — Amsterdam, 1 732. 

Winter, C. F. — Duizend en eene nacht, Arabische Vertellingen ; naar de 
Nederduitsche Vertaling in het Javaansch vertaald door C. F. Winter, uitgegeven 
door T. EooRS^ — 2 vols, in-8 — Qravenhage, 1847. 

Fables traduites en Javanais — in-12 cart. — ^Amsterdam, 1849. 

Fables translated into Javanese — 12mo. — Batavia, 1849. 


Adji-Saka. — Het boek, oude fabelachtige geschiedenis van Java; uit de 
poezie in Javaansche proza overgebragt door C. F. Winter. Met een bijvoegsel 
tot het woordenboek der Javaansche taal door G-ericke en Eoorda---8vo. — 
Amsterdam, 1857. 

Backer, L. de. — Bidasari, po^me Malais precede des traditions poetiques de 
Torient et de Toccident — 1875. 

BocHARY DE J6hor. — TAj-u'l-SalAtia, de kroon aller koningen oud-Maleisch 
en Neder-Duitsch — 4to. — Batavia, 1827. 

Brata-Joeda, De — de Eama, en de Ardjoenasasta' Drie Javaansche 
heldendichten, in Javaansch Proza verkort door C. F. Winter — 8vo. — Amsterdam, 

— Indisch Javaansch Heldendicht, voor de uitgave bewerkt door A. B. 
Cohen Stuart — 2 vols. — Batavia, 1860. 

Chroniques Javanaises — Histoire genealogique des princes, en vers, dans la 
mesure du chant Asmara Dana. 

Code op Bxjgis Maritime Laws, with a translation and vocabulary, giving 
the pronunciation and meaning of each word, with an appendix — 8vo. — Singapore, 

Demang Batawidjaya Eaden. — Zededicht Bidajatoessalih, onder leiding 
van den Eegent aldaar, Eaden Adipati Aria hoesoemah Diningrat— Batavia, 1864. 

Friederich, R. — ^Ardjoena Weivaha, een oorspronkelyk hawieverk, volgens 
een Balineesch mss. met interlineareon commentarius : uitgegeven door R. 
Friederich — Batavia, 1850. 

Gericke, J. F. C. — Wiwoho of Mintorogo, een Javaansch gedicht — Batavia, 

Manik Maja. — Javaansch gedicht : uitgeg. door 4to. — Hollander, 1851. 

Marre, a. — Code des successions et du manage en usage d Java, transcrit en 
caractdres Europ^ens et traduit en Fran^ais — 8vo. — Paris, 1874. 

Sumatra, Histoire des rois de Passey, traduite et annotee — 1874. 

Malaka, Histoire des rois Malays de Malaka et ceremonial de leur cour — 

Trad, du Malay— 1874. 

XJne Revolution a Malakka en Tan 1834 — 8vo. 

Matthes, B. F. — Boegineesch Heldendicht op Daeng Kalaboe, uitgegeven en 
vertaald door, 1838. 

— Boegineesch Heldendicht op Daeng Kalaboe, uitgegeven en vertaald — 8vo. 
— Makassar, 1858. 

Boegineesch Heldendicht op den eersten Bonischen Veldtogt van 1859, 

uitgegeven en vertaald, alsmede van aanteekeningen en beknopte historische 
inleiding voorzein — 8vo. — Makassar, 1862. 

Moehamad Moessa. — Geschiedenis van Setja Nala, bcvattende lessen voor den 
boeren en handelstand — ^Batavia, 1863. 


Bib of British Malaya. Bin 

MoEHAMAD MoEssA Saden Hadji. — Soendaasch gedicht Eadja Soedibja — 
Batavia, 1862. 

Soendasche gedichten en fabelen — Batavia, 1862. 

Soendaasch zededicht Woelang, Krama — Batavia, 1862. 

MoEHAMAD Aiii MoEHTAB. — Batavia, 1864. 

Prawiba Koesoeman Baden. — Soendasche gedichten Dongeng-Dongeng 
Toeladan— Batavia, 1863. 

BooBDA, T. — Het boek radja Perangon, of de Geschiedenis van nabi moesa, 
eene javaansche legende — 'sGravenhage, 1844. 

- De Wajangverhalen van Pala-sara, pandoe en Baden Pandji, in het 
javaansch, met aanteekeningen door T. Boobda — *sGravenhage, 1869. 

BooBDA Van Eysinoa. — Geschiedenis van Sultan Ibrahim, vorst van Eirah, 
uit het Maleisch in Javaansche poezy met javaansche karakter, mitsgaders nito 
sastra of zedespreuken, in het kawi met roode letters — Amsterdam, 1843. 

Stuabt, a. B. Cohen. — Geschiedenis van baron Sakendher, een javaansch 
verhaal — 2 vols. — Batavia, 1854. 

Taman Panoataun Baju Kanak-Kanak. — 1848, edited bv Keasbebby. 

Thomson, J. T. — Translations from the Hikayit Abdullah bin Abdulkadar 
Munshi, with comments. — Henby S. Kino &Co., London, 1874. [Very interesting 
to those who are unable to peruse the work in the original Malay. It contains 
sketches of many officials eminent in the history of the Straits Settlements between 
the years 1797-1866.] 

TuNK, H. N. VAN DEB. — Accouut of the Malay Manuscripts belonging to the 
B. A. S.— 8vo.— 1866. 

WiNTEB, C. F. — Contes et anecdotes trad, en Javanaise — ^Amsterdam, 1849. 

Het boek Adji, Saka, oude fabelachtige Geschiedenis van Java, uit de 

poezie in Javaansch proza overgebracht door C. F. Winteb ; uitgegeven door 
J. B. Gaal et T. BooBDA. Met een uitvoerig bijvoegsel tot het woordenboek der 
javaansche taal van Geriche en Boorda — Amsterdam, 1867. 

Hangling darmo, bevattende de regering, wonderlyke lotgevaUen en 

krygsbedryven van den vorst Hangling darmo te Metowo Pati, tot de verheffing van 
zynen kleinzoon bambang gondo koesoemo tot vorst vangenoemd ryk Malawo Pati 
—Batavia, 1863. 

Bomo, een Javaansch gedicht, naar de bewerking van Joso Dhipoero, 

uitgegeven door F. Winteb — Batavia, 1847. 

Bidadari. — A celestial nymph. The name of a house and extensive grounds 
in E. Singapore owned by H.H. the Sultan of Johore. 

Bidor. — V. at head of B. and foot of Mts. of same name. Some 35 years ago 
it had a population of about 3,000 Chinese engaged in mining, but this being 
abandoned, it has lost all importance. 

Bidaanda Kallang. — Originally the aboriginal inhabitants of Kallang in 
Singapore, who, upon its cession to the British, were removed by the Tumungong 
to the banks of the B. Pulai in S. Johore. They then numbered 100 families, but 
in 1847 their number was reduced to eight, and as a tribe they are now extinct. 
An account of them is given at pp. 299 et seq,, Vol. T., J. I. A. 

Bills. — ^V. in the Chaban district, extreme E. of Malacca. 
Billal. — The assistant priest in a mosque, who calls the people to prayers. 
He ranks below the Elhalib or preacher, who is again below the Lnam. 

Biiqei. — ^V. in the Padang Sebang district, N. Malacca. 

BintUTOng, — One of the Ichneumon family, a native of Malacca. It has a 
coarse dead black fur, with the exception of the head, which is grey. The tail is 
tbick and heavy, longer than the body and prehensile. It sleeps during the day 

[49] E 

Bin Descriptive Dictionary Bir 

and is sullen in manner. It feeds on eggs, birds, rice, fruit, and vegetables. 
Length about 2 feet 6 inches exclusive of the tail, which is somewhat longer. In 
height it is from 12 to 15 inches. 

Binaa (Orang), — See Benua. 

Bird of Paradise. — Probably the most beautiful of the feathered tribe, the 
hiirong dewata, hirong eiipan, or eepaJi pitri of the Malays. It is occasionally brought 
both alive and dead to Singapore by the Bugis traders, its home being in the Am 
and other southern islands of the Archipelago and New Guinea. The legs of the 
first skins procured having been removed by the natives who killed the birds, gave 
rise to the idea that they were legless. Wallace's " Malay Archipelago " gives 
full particulars of the various species known, 18 in all, of which 11 inhabit New 

Birdlime. — The juices of gutta or india rubber trees arc used for the same 
purpose as birdlime at home. 

Birds. — See Obnitholooy. 

Birds' Nests (edible). —The esculent nests of the Ilh-undo esculenta, a small 
dark coloured swallow with a greenish hue on the back, a bluish one on the breast, 
and no white mark. The nest consists of a marine fucus (seaweed) elaborated by 
the bird, and the Japanese are said to have discovered a means of preparing the 
seaweed by hand so as to exactly imitate the consistency of the nest. The nests are 
found throughout the Archipelago, and appear in the Straits Settlements as articles 
of trade. They make an excellent but somewhat tasteless soup. Java and Borneo 
are the chief producing centres. 

Birth| Customs connected with. — Mr. J. D. Vauqhan's excellent remarks on 
this subject in Vol. XI. of the J. I. A. render original compilation unnecessary. 
He says : — " The young Malay is ushered into the world, attended by those dangers 
that are to be found in the train of ignorance. Several months before parturition 
great exertions are made by the expectant parents to collect fuel, which is an 
indispensable part of the lying-in apparatus, together with some medicines in the 
shape of oils and herbs of various descriptions. 

The crones that act as nurses are, as may be supposed, perfectly ignorant of 
the art of midwifery, and quite incapable of rendering any assistance in the event 
of danger. In most cases nature accomplishes the work unaided, but if any diffi- 
culty occurs, the mother or child must fall a victim to their stupidity. During 
labour a fire is kindled with the fuel so assiduously collected, to which tne woman's 
person is exposed, and sometimes so closely that the heat causes a violent irritation 
of the nerves, which quite unfits lier for the requisite exertion. 

On one occasion, a poor woman was brought to the point of death by the 
ignorance of the midwife, and would have died if she had not been rescued by the 
kind interposition of the Civil Assistant Surgeon ; the excessive excitement caused 
by the heat was so overpowering that aberration of mind ensued, which continued 
for several months. When the child is born it is cleansed and swaddled from 
shoulder to heel, and kept so sometimes for three months. This bandage, it is 
believed, keeps the child well-formed, by preventing it from starting suddenly and 
thereby distorting its limbs. 

After childbirth the mother is exposed to a roaring fire, once in every twelve 
hours, for an hour or more at a time. This is continued forty days, and in 
addition heated bricks and sand are sometimes applied to the stomach. To this 
barbarous practice may be attributed the emaciated and shrivelled look that all 
Malay women assume after bearing a few children. During the lying-in, an Imam, 
or priest, reads portions of the Koran in an adjoining chamber to the inmates 
and visitors ; this is not a general custom, but is adopted only by those that are 

When tlie cliild is seven days old a feast is held, and in the presence of the 


Bla of British Malaya. Bla 

guests the child's head is shaved and his name announced by the Katib, or assistant 

Eriest. On the fortieth day after birth a second feast is given, and the child may 
e named on that day if more convenient ; the wealthy generally name the child 
when seven days old, but the poor are often obliged to postpone the ceremony to the 
fortieth dav, so as to get the necessary funds for "the feast. On the seventh day, 
when the nead is shaved, a tuft of hair is left on the crown to denote that the 
child is still unclean ; this tuft is taken off on the fortieth day, and the child is 
considered purified, the mother bathes, and is exposed no more to fire after that day. 

Babes are suckled till they are twelve or fourteen months old, and are then fed 
by the mother on all she eats herself. During the progress of dentition no par- 
ticular care is taken of children, and no relief is afforded them when suffering. 
Such a recourse as cutting the gums to free the teeth is unknown. The consequence 
is that about fifty per cent, die at an early age. 

On noticing delicate children who were evidently suffering with their teeth, 
and inquiring if any remedies were afforded them, the parents have evinced the 
greatest unconcern on the subject. They replied that children never ail while 
teething, that they get their teeth easily, and that no care is required ; they admit 
that a great number die young, but it is difficult to persuade them that teething is 
the cause of their illness. The writer has made mquiries and learnt that fully 
half the offspring of each family perish from neglect. 

When a child is too young to crawl, it is usually put in a basket, which is 
suspended from the rafters of the house, the mother swings it to and fro by means 
of a string tied thereto, or if employed, and there are other children in the house, 
the latter are made to do it in turns. Sometimes the mother carries her babe 
slung over the shoulder in a hammock or bag, when she is employed out of doors 
or engaged in household duties ; by so doing her arms are free. A child is 
occasionally carried on the hip, with a leg on each side of the body ; this is an 
Eastern custom, but it is not so common among the Malays as it is on the Continent 
of India. 

Women are seldom seen caressing their children, but the opposite sex delight 
in fondling them, and may be constantly observed with their children in tlieir 

A good description of Birth Ceremonies in Perak is given in Notes and 
Queries with No. 16 (1885) of the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Eoyal 
Asiatic Society. 

Blachang. — S^ee Balachono. 

Black Leopard. — The black leopard — Leopardm melas — is called rimau 
trong kctsow by the Malays. It is of glossy blackness, except in particular lights, 
when its markings, as darker than the general colour, can be seen. It is reputed 
to be more dangerous than the tiger, although leopards as a rule are less apt to 
attack man. This is the only species of leopard found in the Peninsula, and its 
general appearance contradicts Mr. Wood's surmise that it is only a variety of the 

Black Tiger. — A misnomer of the above. 

Blair Harbour. — The channel between Tanj. Peniabong and Keban I., 
N. Johore. 

Blakang Mati. — ^An island about 2 J miles long, and in places 300 feet in 
height, lying off the S.W. face of Singapore, and forming the southern boundary 
of New Harbour. Various fanciful reasons are given for its name — ** Behind 
Death." One explanation is that the southern, or, as regards Singapore, hinder, 
face was so unhealthy that the Malays gave it a designation signifying by 
onomatopoeia that death was to be foimd behind its ridge. 

Blazqa. — important V. on E. bank of Perak E., in a line with the Binding 
N. frontier. 

[51] E 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 

Blian or Chenaku,— A creature -who, uuder the semblance of homan 
foim, conceals its identity aa a tiger— the Malay Welir-wolf, a belief iu which la 
widespread in the Peniuaula. 

Blimbing. — A dietriet about 9 miles N. of Malacca town, of which Birubong 
ia the principal V. Tapioca is largely gr«wii in the neighbourhood. 

Bliong. — An ase or adze eo TOnstructcd that it can be used as either at 
pleasure, Malay carpenters are very clever with it, aud turn out work which com- 
pares favourably with that of Chinese. 

Blowpipe. — '5ee Spmpitan. 

Blakar Trusan.— V. on W. bank of R. Madek.E. Johore. 

Boar, Wild.— Fierce bpeeimens of the wild boar are to be found both in 
the Setth?ment« and Peninsula, and " shooting pig " is a favourite amusement, 
especiiilly in Province Wellesley, 

Boats fjwiM or sampan, Ch.). Dug-outs are tj-'mied *i jor or jaior, house- 
boats Miap. while the small fishing canoe is called kohk. The Malays are eipert 
boat- builders, and their mtHJels are superior to those of most Western nations. 

Boran Darat.— R*ef of Eocks off E. face of Blakang Mati I.. 8. Singapore. 

Borolak Keping.— The N.E. point of Elakang Mati I., S. of Singapore. 

Botany. — The bofemy of the Malay Peninsula has never been exhaustively 
dealt with, but scattered notices abound in moat works dealing with Eastern fauna. 
Amongst other papers may be noted those in the J. 1. A., Vol. I., pp. 7 ef seq,, and 
in Essays relating to Indo-China, Vol. II., p. 257. Mr. N. Caktley, however, 
had a work on the subject in preparation previous to his decease. He kindly 
furnished much of the information herein given under Emit, Ferns, &c., ifec. 

Catalogues of the plants in the Botanical Gardens at Singapore have been 
issued from time to time, and much information may be gained from the Ileports 
of the Forest Department published annually by the Government. Woods and 
fruits will be found noticed herein in their alphabetical places, its also plants 
connected with trade. 

Bow and ArrOWS. — See Abmb. 

Boya or Buaya. — Crocodile, j- v. 

Boyah.— A place N, of Sengang ou the Perak R. 

Brapit. — V. about 7 miles W. of Kota Lama, C, Perak. 

Bread Fruit {ArUicarp-u* inci»a). — Two varieties, of which one only is 
edible, exist in the Peninsula, and even that is held in Uttle esteem. It resembles 
the celebrated product of the South Sea Island, and reiinires cooking to become 

Breeding Pearls. — S^ee Peakls. 

Bribor. — V. on E. bank of Tfin ta, R., 4 miles N. of Kinta, C. Perat. 5 
Bricks {haUi), arc of E\u-opean introduction only. 

Bride and Bridegroom.— See Massiaoe. 

Brlmbang Faniang. — V. on W. side of the embouchure of Perak R. iu 
S.W. Pemk. 

Brimbun.— A hill about 3,300 feet high on the W. border of Olu Muar 
(Negri Sembilan), forming part, of tlie dividing range between Selaugorand that State. 

Bringin. — v. and District in C Malacca, Bumbia being the nearest place 
of importance to the former, which lies about 11 miles N. of Malacca- town. 

Briso. — Settlement and hill about 1^ miles S. of Bukit Putus iu N. Malacca. 

British. — " We ourselves and our country are called by the natives of tbo 
Malayan lalands Ingris or IngUs. a corruption, the origin of which is obvious, 

BrO of British Malaya. Buft 

The word is an adjective, and for the first, requires to be preceded by a word 
signifying men or people, and for the second, by one signifying land or country. 
The English first appeared in the Archipelago in 1602, the last year of the reign of 
Elizabeth, six years after the Dutch, and 107 after the Portuguese. The first 
place visited by us was Achin, under Sir James Lancaster, the same commander 
having in 1603 visited Bantam. Owing to the great superiority of the Dutch of 
the seventeenth century in commercial and nautical enterprise, they expelled the 
Portuguese and Spaniards out of almost all their possessions in the Malay 
Archipelago, drove ourselves out of the Spice Islands in 1620, and from Bantam 
and Jaratra, in Java, 1683. Expelled by their influence from Bantam, we 
established ourselves in the sterile land of Bencoolen in Sumatra in 1685, our sole 
and humble object being to secure a share in the pepper trade. Bencoolen, with 
some neighbouring establishments, continued for a himdred years, or up to the 
foundation of Penang in 1785, to be our sole territorial possessions in the 
Malay Archipelago ; for our other attempts at such acquisitions were ephemeral. 
In ] 819 we founded Singapore, and in 1824 we received by convention Malacca and 
its territory from the Dutch, giving them Bencoolen and our other possessions in 
Sumatra in return." * Our present territorial possessions within the localities dealt 
with in this work are Penang, Province Wellesley, The Dindings, Malacca, and 
Singapore. The Native States Perak, Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the Negri Sem- 
bilan and Pahang are under our protection. 

Brooch. (Krusang). — This article of jewellery is made by the Malays, but is 
of rough design. Most of those in use are of Hindoo or Chinese workmanship. 
They are used to fasten the kahaya or short jacket at the neck. 

Brooms (Penyapv), — These are made of the midribs of the cocoa-nut leaf, 
and are very effective. 

Bru. — The name of a tribe inhabiting Pulo Tingi ajid Sibu off the E. coast 
of Johore. Described as very ill-favoured and filthy in their habits. 

Bru. — The name of a large ape alleged to exist in the jungles on the 
boundaij of Pahang and Kelantan. No zoologist has as yet met with it. 

Bruang. — The Malayan sun-bear — the only animal of the bear species in 
the Peninsula. It is also known as the honey-bear, from its fondness for that 
sweet. It is black in colour, with the exception of a semi-lunar shaped patch of 
white on the breast, and a yellowish white patch on the snout and upper jaw. 
The fir is fine and glossy. Its feet are armed with formidable claws, and its lips 
and tongue are peculiarly long and flexible, all three organs adapting it to tear 
open and get at the apertures in old trees where the wild bees usually build. It is 
naturally a fruit eater, and very easily tamed, especially if caught young. It 
is frequently exhibited by itinerant native showmen. It is extremely destructive in 
plantain and cocoa-nut plantations while in a state of nature. 

Bmas. — ^V. on N. bank of Bruas, R., Dinding Territory, about 3 miles from 
the coast. 

Bruas. — Dist. on coast of Larut, Perak, on banks of R. of same name. 
Said to be the original seat of Government in Perak. 

Bruk. — See Monkey. 

Buah Paku. — ^A small palmite, the heart of which is much used as a 
vegetable by the Malays. Its fruit resembles a pine-apple in external appearance. 

Buah Tandok. — ^A curious nut, shaped like the upper head and horns 
of a buffalo. It is sometimes called the Water Caltrop, being the root of an 
aquatic plant. 

Buaya or Boya.— Crocodile (gf. v.), 

Bubur. — ^A mixture of sago, cocoa-nut milk and scrapings, and a coarse 


Bnd Descriptive Dictionary Bug 

sugar known as gula Malacca. A favourite dish with most European children, and 
some of their older relatives also, at times. The Malays greatly esteem it. 

Buddha. — The name of this Indian deity, either in this its most frequent 
form, or as Gautama or Sakya, or any other shape, is not found in any of the 
living languages of Malaya. The nearest approach to it in form is the Sanskrit 
word Buda, " old or ancient," which is a naturalized one in Javanese. No Buddhist 
temple, properly so called, exists in British Malaya, but Chinese temples, nominally 
Buddhistic, are of course frequently met with. The reader curious on such 
subjects may be referred to Dr. Eitel's ** Three Lectures on Buddhism " (Hong- 
kong, China Mail OflRce, 1873). 

Buffalo (more generally called the water-buffalo). — The Bos hvhalus of 
naturalists. (Kerhau in Malay.) The same useful, powerful, ugly, sluggish, and 
unwieldy animal which exists in all the warm countries of Asia, and which was 
introduced into Greece, Egypt, and Southern Italy in the middle ages. It is only, 
however, within ten or twelve degrees of the equator that it is found of great size, 
strength, and vigour. Compared with that of the Malayan countries, the buffalo 
of Southern Italy is certainly an inferior animal, and that of Northern India even 
a puny one. The buffalo is the principal beast of draught and burden throughout 
Malaya, the ox being chiefly reserved for the tillage of dry upland grounds. The 
buffalo is larger and more powerful than the ox, but much slower and with less 
capacity of enduring toil. The flesh of this semi-aquatic animal is coarse, and its 
milk poor in quality, compared with that of the cow. Its courage is indomitable, 
and, united to its great strength, makes it an overmatch for the royal tiger. It 
has a repugnance to strangers, but with its friends is thoroughly docile. I have 
seen a boy of ten years of age part two enraged bulls with a switch, mount that 
which was his own by one of its horns, and ride home on it. The domestic buffalo 
is very scantily covered with hair, the colour of the skin appearing through it. It 
is either black, flesh-coloured, or white, without any other variety, the black in 
nine cases out of ten predominating, and being considered, perhaps without much 
foundation, preferable to the white. Whenever the buffalo is found in the 
domestic state, it is also found in the wild one ; and this makes it exceedingly 
difficult to determine whether this animal be a native of the Archipelago, or a 
domesticated stranger. Naturalists, I know not on what ground, have come to 
the latter conclusion, and the natives of the country seem to entertain the same 
opinion, for they caU all buffaloes found in the forest by an epithet which implies this, 
and which in Malay is jalang, meaning ** stray" or ** vagabond." The names given 
to the animal, however, afford no warranty for this conclusion. With one excep- 
tion, they are native, and not traceable to any foreign tongue.* The Malay name is 
Kerho or Kerhau, and this with very slight variations extends over, at least, ten 
different langiiages of the Archipelago and Philippines. It is a penal offence in 
the Straits Settlements to lead or drive a buffalo without a wooden guard across the 
horns so as to j>revent the animal from ripping. The wound inflicted by an enraged 
buffalo is fearful. The victim is generally gored in the thigh, the femoral artery 
being ripped open, and death of course ensues. Four cases of death from this 
cause occurred in Province Wellesley from January, 1886, to May, 1887. 

Buffalo-head Nut. — The root of an aquatic plant resembling a pair of 
buffalo-horns in shape, and very common in the Peninsula. (See Buah Tandok). 

Bugis. — The name given by the Malays to the dominant people of Celebes, 
who call themselves Wugi, of which, no doubt, it is a corruption. As constant 
visitors to Singapore and occasional settlers in the Peninsula, they demand notice, 
and we therefore quote Cbawpued's account in full. The native country of the 
Bugis is the south-western limb of Celebes. The Macassar, or Mangkasara, nation 
occupying the most southerly part of this peninsula, borders the Bugis to the 
south, and the Mandar nation to the north. Like the Malays, they are, for the 


Bug of British Malaya. Bug 

most part, a maritime people, and it may be suspected that the original seat of 
their civilization was the shores of the interior lake Labayo, or Taparang-danao, a 
collection of navigable water said to be about 25 miles in length, surrounded by 
fertile land, at present well cultivated and peopled. 

The people who speak the Bugis language are, at present, divided into many 
small states, and seem never to have been united under one government. Several 
of these little states are united into confederations for general purposes. Each 
state is under the government of its own prince, elected by the chiefs of the tribe 
from the members of a family in which the office is hereditary, and women are not 
excluded from the choice. The princes so elected form a council, which must be 
unanimous for the decision of all matters of common concern. The confederacy 
of Boni consists of eight princes, and that of Waju of no fewer than forty. 

The Bugis are among the most advanced people of the Aixhipelago. They 
have long possessed all |the domesticated animals, and cultivated the useful 
plants known to the civilized inhabitants of the more westerly islands. They 
understand the working of the useful metals, the rearing of cotton, and the 
manufacture of cloth from it. They had framed a native calendar, although 
they had no epoch. The year of the calendar is solar, consisting of 365 days, 
and divided into 12 months, each with a native name. It commences with the 
16th day of May of our time ; eight of its months containing 30 days, three of 
them 31, and one 32. But above all, they possessed the art of writing, having 
invented an alphabet which expresses with adequate precision the native sounds 
of their own language, a language that is softer than the Malay, for even its 
liquids do not coalesce with other consonants, and every word must end either 
in a vowel, an aspirate, or the soft nasal ng. 

The Bugis, to judge by their language, would seem to have been indebted 
to the Malavs and Javanese for a large amount of their civilization. Thus the 
names of cultivate plants and domesticated animals are, for the most part, taken 
from the languages of these people ; so are the names of the metals, terms con- 
nected with the useful arts, navigation, numeration, and even law and religion. 

It is remarkable that the Bugis, now the most enterprising of aU the native 
tribes of the Archipelago, are never mentioned by the earlier European writers. 
Thus Babbosa, who describes the Javanese, the natives of the Coromandel coast, 
and the Chinese whom he met at Malacca, never alludes to the Bugis, who, had 
they existed there in his time, could hardly have failed to attract his attention, 
were it only for the very peculiar build of their vessels. Babbos' enumeration of 
the people trading to Mialacca is even more full than that of Babbosa, for he adds 
to his list the Peguans and the Japanese, but he makes no allusion to the Bugis. 
The inference is, that this people were unknown as traders in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, and that the commercial enterprise by which they are now distin- 
guished is of comparatively recent origin. Even their native country, according to 
Babbos, was not discovered until 1525, and when that happened, the country, 
instead of being considered by the Portuguese as one great island, was thought to 
be an aggregation of many islets, the people of which were thought to be in a very 
rude state — clothed in the bark of trees, and unacquainted with all the metals 
except gold. 

The first distinct notice we have of the Bugis is derived from native authority, 
and this assigns the year 1366 to the commencement of the reign of one of their 
princes. Their early commercial enterprises do not seem to have extended beyond 
the neighbouring Spice Islands. In the native annals of the state of Malacca, they 
and the people of Macassar are represented as harassing the trade of Malacca by 
their piracies in the time of a prince called Munsub Shah, whose reigu begun in 
the year 1374. Even the name of the piratical leader, Kbaino Sa.meblak, is given, 
which proves, however, that he was not of the Bugis, but of the Macassar nation, which 
had acquired notoriety before it. No traces whatever of the Hindu religion, in the 


Bug Descriptive Dictionary Bug 

shape of temples, images, or inscriptions, such as exist in Java and Sumatra, have 
l/t^iu discovered in the country of the Bugis, or in an^ other part of Celebes. Their 
language, however, shows that the people speaking it had been slightly tinctured 
with Hinduism, but no more. It contains a considerable number of theological 
\AtrmA, palpably enough Sanskrit, but identical with those contained in the Malay 
and Javanese, and obviously introduced with other words of these languages. 

Of all the more advanced nations of the Archipelago, the Bugis were the latest 
CiuverU to Mahommedanism. Even the Macassar nation, although in this respect in 
a/lvance of them, did not adopt it until as late as 1605, or 94 years after the arrival 
of the Portuguese, and even a few vears subsequent to that of the Dutch and 
EugHsh. It was this peojile, at the time the most potent in Celebes, that by force 
of arms (enforced the Mahommedan religion on the Bugis about the year 1640. It 
was, most probablv, the adoption of the new religion that moved the Bugis, as it 
did thrj Arabs, although in a different direction, to action, and which in the sequel 
has nia^le thiun what thoy now are, at once the bravest men and the most enterpris- 
ing morchants and navigators of the Archipelago. 

Tho (mterprising character of the Bugis belongs more especially to the tribes 
whi(!h go under the common name of Waju. The trade of this people extends, at 
prttsnnt, to ev<3ry country of the Archipelago, from Sumatra to New Guinea. They 
aru, in fa<^t, the carriers of the internal trade, and now what the Malays and Java- 
niitft) wore on the arrival of the Europeans. The exports from the eastern ports of 
the Ari'hipt'higo to the western are chiefly composed of cotton fabrics of their own 
niamifacturts of gold-dust, holothurion, esculent roots, tortoise-shell, pearl shells, 
rice from Java luid Bali, and, of late years, tobacco and coffee. Prom the Euro- 
pean <'nii>oria thoy take back, to be distributed far and wide, the produce and 
nianulu<;turoH of Europe and India. The Bugis are not only traders, but also 
si^tth^rs in many of the countries with which they carry on trade. The largest 
number of such settlers are probably on the western, and especially on the eastern 
coast of Borneo, on the strait which divides this island from their own country. 
On the large rivers of Pasir and Coti there are supposed to be about 1,600 
families of them, in a state nearly independent of the Malay princes. The Waju 
Bugis have also established themselves in the territories of Mandar and Kaili in 
thtjir own island, and the Bugis of Boni formed a colony in the little island of 
Bonirati, between Celebes and Ploris. In the European settlement they form con- 
siderable communities, living in separatejquarters, and preserving their own 
manners and language. Thus in Singapore, by the census of 1849, they were 
found to number 2,269. 

Altogether, the number of the Bugis* praus, usually known by the name of 
Padewakan, carrying on foreign trade, is thought not to be short of 800, of the 
burden of about 50 tons each. In their navigation they use charts and compasses, 
the former from European originals, with the names in Bugis characters, and the 
last made for them by the Chinese of Batavia. The account which Mr. Mabsden 
gives of this people as he saw them at Bencoolen, above 80 years ago, is worth 
quoting. " The Macassar and Bugis people," says*he, ** who come annually in their 
praus from Celebes to trade at Sumatra are looked up to by the inhabitants as their 
superiors in manners. The Malays affect to copy their style of dress, and frequent 
allusions to the feats and achievements of these people are made in their songs. 
Their reputation for courage, which certainly surpasses that of all other people in 
the eastern seas, acquires for them thisjflattering aistinction. They also derive part 
of the respect paid them from the richness of the cargoes they import, and the 
spirit with which they spend the produce in gaming, cock-fighting, and opium- 
smoking." — History of Sumatra, page 209. 

A few years ago, a Bugis Chief of Perak married Inchi Maida of that State. 
The lady is very popular with foreigners, and gave us ready aid when needed during 
the disturbances. 


Bnk of British Malaya. Bnk 

Bllkho Kang. — ^District S. of Mandai, N.W. Singapore, 11 to 12 miles from 

Bukiti in Malay, is " a hill or mountain," and equivalent to Gunung in Java- 
nese. Both words are of very frequent occurrence in the names of places. 

Bukit Ampar. — ^A hill in the Tabu district, N. Malacca. 
Bukit Arong. — Hill close to Eisang Point, N. Johore. 
Bukit Assahan. — HiU on S. side of Bemam B., 3 miles S. of Bemam, 

Bukit Ayer. — ^A small hill \ mile from the coast in the Sungei Bharu 
Tengah district, Malacca, on the short cut between Penkalan Balak ^and Ayer 

Bukit Ayer. — ^A hill close to the main road from Linggi to Malacca on the 

Sungei Bharu Tengah district. 

Bukit Badak. — ^A hill on the frontier of Pahang and Johol. 

Bukit Bakau. — HiU on N. bank of Pahang E., nearly N. of Chgno, C. 

Buikt Balucham. — 640 feet high, in E. Selangor, about 8 miles E.S.E. of 
Kwala Lumpor. 

Bukit BandoL — Hill range in S. portion of Terachi, one of the Negri 

Bukit Banian. — ^A hill \ mile from Bukit Putus, just inside frontier line 
between Malacca and Eembau. 

Bukit BatU. — Hill 6 miles N.N.W. of Kwala Lumpor Selangor. Limestone 
caves exist in it. Height 1,516 feet, lat. 3° 2^' 19-J" N., long. 101° 52^'' E. 

Bukit BatU Atap. — Hill in N.C. Pahang, 4 miles W.S.W. of Gunong 

Bukit Batu Pahat. — Hill on the dividing range between Selangor and 
Pahang. The Selangor E. rises close by. 

Bukit Batu Paliat. — Hill on the dividing range between Selangor and 
Pahang, close to XJlu Selangor on N.E. of that State. 

Bukit Batu Riawat. — A hiU on the frontier of Pahang and Johol. 
Bukit Bemban. — Hill on W. bank of Linggi K., Sungei XJjong, opposite 

Bukit Berapit. — HiU and pass on the road from the mouth of the LarutE. 

to Kwala Kangsa, Perak. 

Bukit Besar. — Name of a hill in N. Patani, 10 miles S. of the coast. 

Bukit Bharu. — Small V. 3 miles N.N.E. of Malacca-town. 

Bukit Brembang. — Hill in S. Malacaa about \ mile from W. bank of E. 
Duyong and 4f miles from the coast. 

Bukit Bruang. — Hill in the Batu Berendam district, S. Malacca. 

Bukit Bulan.— Hill in E. Johore, S. by W. of the source of the E. Madek. 

Bukit Cana. — Hill just below Jelutong in the Batu Berendam district, S. 

Bukit Chai (3,600 feet).— Hill 9 miles S.W. of Kwala Kangsa in C. 

Bukit Champakian.— Hill on N. bank of Pahang E., 6 miles E. of E. 

Bukit Changgan.— Hill on N. bank of Bemam E., S.E. Perak. 

Bukiit Chennn.— HQl and small V. on the Duyong E., Malacca, a little 
over 8 miles S.W. of Ayer Panas. Also hill in Singapore. 


9ul( Descriptive Dictionary Bilk 

ttukil Oblmundcng. - Hill :3,^XX) feet high in C. Johore near the supposed" 
BM^lt Ohinft* *V\\i* hill to the N. of Malacca-town occupied as a cemetery 
Bukit China, inn ami v. on W. bank of Johore E., 5 miles N.W. of 

,|^/hi/Mt hlihlM.. 

Bukit DakukU. Hill 14 milos H. W. of Kwala Lumpor in Selangor. 

Bukit Dpilong. A lull in tho (hiding Forest reserve, N. Central Malacca. 

Bukit Dftinar ItfUn. Hill in the Bayan Lepas district, S.E. Penang. 

Bukll Doh. A hill in W. Mnar, about 8 miles from the Kessang E., 5 
im)Ii:h HVV. nf Mt. ()|ihii\ 

Bukit Dulang Dulang, inil in St^hingor, about 8 miles N.W. by W. of 
\imU LiHMiuir. hu. ii° W N,. long,, lor M^ E. 

Bukit Purl, Hill KMuiloHa i^ PiUuuig R. in C. Pahang. E. of same 
MfiMMi rimi4 in i( 

Bilkit Durl, llill ^'^^ W. ^^^^ ^^f l\Umug R.» Wtween Gnau and Cheno, C. 

Bukll PuyM\|(« -^ l^ill U ^^^il*'* ^^ ^^f ^^^^' ri^'^'r ^^ *^** °*"^^ andSi miles 
I Mini (hu rviHvt 

Biikii Slp^VpO^ Hill 10 uuW S. of K\^'ala LumiK^r and just N. of the 
ImmmuI»u\ brlv^^H^u rtivliiug\vv an\l Snug^n l-joug. 

BiiUii SlU^b^. ^^^^ N. t'uiv of Hlakang Mati Id., S. of SingaiM>re. 

BuMt QftdP^g- Sn\all V. about 3 miles E. of Durian Tunggal, C* 
Miiltvt-Vii. in Uu'. v>U tin- mining district. 

BiiHit Q^dP^g' — ^^ l^^n ^^ Tanjong Eling, Malacca, about \ mile from the 

Bukit Qc^h^n. - A hill in the Tabu district, N. Malacca, about 2| miles 
liuin llu: Ik'.mlulu fi\»ntior. 

Bukit Q^^h Mati. — Hill on coast of Sungei XJjong at Kwala Lukut. 

B\^kit QakdUg. — A. hill in the Sungei Bharu Tengah district, in Malacca, 
•liMiiil \ \\\nK\ from tho beach. 

Bukit Qambir. — Hill between Jelutong and Glugor districts, E. Penang. 

Bukit Qanong. — a hill in Naning, N. Malacca. 

Bukit Qantang. — Hill S. of Taii>eng, Perak, and distant about 5 miles. 

Bukit Oasing.— Hill on W. bank of Klang E., about 9 miles S.W. of 
livviila Lumpor. 

Bukit Oayang (3,857 feet). — One of the hills in the Bukit Panjang 
Hungn, N. l*erak. 

Bukit Oemuruh. — Hill in S. Penang to N. of point of same name. 

Bukit Oondol. — Hill 3^ miles N.E. of Malacca-town. 

Bukit Oumaleh .— Hill in lat. 2° 58' N. and long. lOl** 31' E. in S.E. 

Bukit Ouy. — Hill on S. bank of Kkng E., about 9 miles E. of Daman 
Hara, Selangor. 

Bukit Indra Muda. — ^A pretty hill about 6 miles from Butterworth, P. 
Welh'sley, and close to Bukit Merah {q, v.). It is the site of a village, and Qiuch 
fruit is grown in the vicinity. 

Bukit JakaS. — Hill on W. side of Sembrong E., just below its turn E. in 
N. Johore. 


Buk of British Malaya. Buk 

Bukit Jalalang. — ^In Nanlng, so caUed from its* abounding in a small shrub 
the leaves of which sting the hand slightly. 

Bukit Java. — Hill about 6 miles from the mouth of the R. Klang, on the 
S. bank. 

Bukit Jelutong. — ^A hill of low elevation owned by Mr. Nooedin of 
Penang, on the S. bank of the Prai R., about 44 miles from Butterworth, P. 

Bukit Jelutong.— Hill on N. side of Bemam R., S.E. Perak. 

Bukit Jelutong.— Hill on W. side of Selangor R. after its turn S. in N. 

Bukit Jelutong. — Hill on the border between Rembau and Malacca. 

Bukit Jemah.— The principal Mt. in N. Kedah, lat. 6° 31' N. and long. 
100** 35' E. 

Bukit Jerom.— Hill 200 feet high on the coast of Selangor, 14 miles N. of 
the entrance of the Klang R. 

Bukit Jetty. — ^HiU about 8 miles from the mouth of the Klang R., close to 
Klang, on the S. bajik. 

Bukit Jugra. — Hill in S.W. Selangor, on S. side of Langat R., where it 
flows into the Jugra R. According to the Admiralty Chart, this is Parcelar Hill, 
which is, however, shown as a separate elevation on Langat I., 8 miles W. on the 
S. A. S. map. 

Bukit JlU'ak. — Small hill in E. bank of R. Endau, close to a stream of 
same name, N.E. Johore. 

Bukit Kaboh. — Hill in C. Pahang on the N. bank of Pahang R. where it 
turns E. just W. of Cheno. 

Bukit Kachang.— 932 feet high, 1\ miles S.E. of Kwala Lumpor, 

it Kajang. — Hill and tapioca plantation in S. Malacca, about h\ miles 
from the coast. 

Bukit Kakusan.— A hill in the Padang Sebang (Naning) district, N- 

^ Bukit Kalang. — Hill in the Kalang district, on the E. border of Chas- 
seriau Estate, Singapore. 

Bukit Kali. — ^Hill on N. bank of upper stream of Selangor R. in extreme 
E. of the State. 

Bukit Kalu. — Small hill on W. bank of Duyong R. about Z\ miles from 
the coast of Malacca. 

Bukit Kamandu. — v. at E. edge of Bukit Linggi forest reserve, N- 

Bukit Kamuning.— Hill on W. side of a N. turn of the Klang R., about 

8 miles E. of Klang. 

Bukit Kamuning.— Hill 2 miles N. of Selangor R., about 10 miles from 
the coast. 

it Kanching. — ^Hill (800 feet) near source of R. of same name {(i, v.) 
in Selangor E. The range is said to reach 840 feet. 

Bukit Kayu Arang. — ^A small hill in the Government reserve, Sungei 
Bharu Tengah district, Malacca. 

Bukit Kechil. — Small v. on the Muar side of the R. Chohong (Kessaag), 
forming the boundary between Muar and Malacca. It is about 2 miles from Chin- 
chin in our own territory. 

Bukit Keoh il.— Hill in S.E. Penang, S. side of Sungei Nipah. 



Descriptive Dictionary 


Bukit Kechil.— Hill in Ayer Puteh district, W. Penang. 

Bukit Kechil.— Hili (300 feet) on W. coast o£ Penang. on N. bunk of 

Bukit Kedi.— Hill in estreme W. portion of Sungei IJjong. 
Bukit Keluar.— Hill'on N. side of Bernam E., S.E. Peralc. 
Bukit Kendok.— Hiil about 2 miles S. o£ the Pahang frontier in N.C. 

Bukit Kenta.— Hill on N. side of Bernam E., S.E. Perak. 

Bukit Kepong.— Hill and V. on E. bank of Muar E., Jobore. oppoait* 

Trits Labis Isl 



Bukit Kledang.— Hill 1^ nules E. of Merlimau. 8.E. Malacca, 

Bukit Kledang. — A hiU in the Suneei Bharu liar district, 

Bukit Kramat.— Hill on W". side of Liuggi E.. 3 miles N,W. of Rantau, 
Suuj/;fi Ujong. 

Bukit Kriang.— A hUl 2,000 feet higb in the N. of Jelebu. 

Bukit Kribon (982 feet high).— About 9 i»iles S. of Kwala Lumpor in 
S.E. Selaugor. 

Bukit Krlngga.— A MU (3.812 feet) of the Bukit Panjang range in N. 

Bukit KritOW Sinjang,— Hill on E. side of Pahang E. at its bond N. in 
0. Pithang. 

Bukit Kuan.— HiU on E. sidB of Madek K., E. Johore. 

Bukit Kuda.— Hil! ou N. bank of Klaug E., opposite Klang, Solaugur. 

Bukit Kuda Mati-Hill in C. Johol, Negri Sembilan. 

Bukit Kuklin.— HiU at head of R. of same name, N.E. Selangor. 

Bukit Kuwan,— HUl 4 mUes N.E. of Ma!a<?ca-town. 

Bukit Lada.— A hill in the Molaket district of Malacca, about 21 mUoa 
N.W. of tin? town. 

Bukit Ladang. — A hiU on the borders of Johol and Malacca ; one of the 
seven golil-jirudiu-iiij; kills in that neighbourhood. 

Bukit Laksamana.— HiU t« W. of Western HUl. Penang. 

Bukit Lalow.— HiU close to one of the sources of the Klang E., in 
Selangor, abciiit 4 miles N. of Kwala Lumpor. 

Bukit Langkap.— Hill on E. side of E. Endau in N.E. Johore. 

Bukit Larang. — HiU in tJie TTmbei district, S. Mahtcca, about 21 niilea 
from the coast. 

Bukit Liatang. — HiU lying a little over 5 mUos due E.of Malacca- town, 
about 2s mUea from the coast. 

Bukit Lintang.— HiU in the Lundu district, W. Malacca. 

Bukit Louchong.— HiU about 2 miles N.W. of Kajang in S.E. part of 

Bukit Lungga. — Hill in W. Johore, source of E. of same name, and S 
miles from Lungga V. 

Bukit Lunjul. — HiU range in Terachi, one of the Negri Sembilan. 

Bukit Machamapi.— HUl just inside the Pahang S. boundary line, about 
2 miles N. of Segamat E. 

Bukit Mahang.— In eitremo N. of Perak, one of the Perak range. R. and 
V. of same name at foot. Supposed frontier of Kedah juet N. 

Bnk of British Malaya. Bnk 

Bukit Mahminah.— A hill in the Juru district, p. Wellesley. 

Bnkit Mandi. — v., Police Station and Government Bungalow, 12| miles 
from town in Mandi district, N.W. Singapore. 

Bukit ManiS. — Hill in the Km district, Rembau, just inside the boundary 
line from Malacca. 

Bukit Marachet. — Hill in Naning territory, Malacca, not marked in the 
OoYemment maps. 

Bukit Merah. — A hill of red sandstone about 400 feet high, about 4 miles 
from Butterworth, P. Wellesley, on the Kubang Semang road. It forms part of 
the property of Mr. Noobdin of Penang, and is precipitous on its N. side, but 
cidtivated. on the southern slope. The hill is crowned with a substantial house, 
giving a clear view over a great portion of the Province. 

Bukit Merbiliug. — Hill on the W. boundary point between Selangor and 
Sungei Ujong, S. Selangor. 

Bukit Merinang. — ^Hill 205 feet high, 6 miles from the coast and 2 miles 
from N. bank of Klang E., Selangor. 

Bukit Mertajam. — Hill and V. in the Central district of P. Wellesley, 
9 miles 5 furlongs from Butterworth. The village lies close to the foot of the hiU, 
and is well shaded by fruit-trees of all sizes. There are a good many shops hero 
kept by Chinese, and a number of other Chinese are employed growing fruits or 
spices, but the Malays are about ten times more numerous. There are also a 
number of Klings. The daily markets are well attended during the fruit season, 
as dealers come all the way from Penang. They generally land at Kwaia Prai, 
and come by the new road, or " Jalan Bharu," which is nearly direct, the distance 
being only six miles. A district magistrate resides in the village. 

There is a road leading to the southward from Mertajam towards the Alma 
Estate, which has only been completed within the last few years. It has since 
been continued to Macham Bubu, near the boimdary, where a tin mine was opened, 
the speculators being Chinese merchants of Penang. The speculation, however, 
was not a success. 

Bukit Miliyak. — ^A small hill N. of the Government Eeserve in Sungei 

Bharu Tengah district, Malacca ; also a hospital station in Province Wellesley. 

Bukit Muar. — ^Hill about 2 miles from the coast and 5 miles from S.E. of 
the entrance of the Muar B. in that State. 

Bukit Muc{i. — One of the hill ranges in Naning territory not marked in 
Government maps? 

Bukit Muriang. — A hill on the W. borders of Muar, near Chaban, 

Bukit Musiam. — See Noeth Hummock. 

Bukit Naksa. — One of the hills in S.E. Kedah joining the Gimong Titi 

Bukit Nior. — ^A hill in the S.W. comer of Pahang. 

Bukit Niwang.— Hill in N.W. Sungei Ujong. 

Bukit Pagan. — Hill at the confluence of the E. Kurut and Chendariang 
with the Kinta, S.C. Perak. 

Bukit Pago. — ^A hill on E. side of Muar E. close to Panchor, W. Johore. 

Bukit Pajam. — Hill in N. Sungei Ujong, 7 miles E. of Pantay. 

Bukit PanaS. — A hill in the Ayer Pah Abas district, Malacca. 

Bukit Panchor. — A small range of hills in the Malacca Pindah district, 
C. Malacca. 

Bukit Panglor. — ^Hill in S.W. Pahang, about 10 miles N. of Segamat. 



Descriptive Dictiofiary 

Bukit Panjang.— Hill in N. of Bukit Timah district, Singapore. 

Bukit Panjang,— Range in N. Perak forming the E. of the twu chuins j 
riiuoitiLT N. ill iLiit ytiitc. 

Bukit Pasir Panjang. — Hill in S.W. Penang. v. of same name on coast I 
at fuot. I 

Bukit Pataling.— Hill on W. bank of Klang E., about 10 miles S.W. of ] 
Ewala Lumpor, S-'ianfjor. Tin mines exist just S. of it. 

Bukit Payong,— Hill about 17 miles E. of Gunong Jerei, N. Kedah. 

Bukit Payong.— Ill Naning, N. Malacca. 

Bukit Payong.— Hill l mile W. of Kota Lama. C. Pt-i-ak, one of tie Pemk 

Bukit Penah Panjang. - 

im> of the E. Miid.'k. 

-Hill i 

E.G. Joliore about 7 mUfs S.W. of tho 


Bukit Penera— (1.150 feet). \ mile S.E. of Mt. Elvira, C. Penang. 

Bukit Pengkalan.— HiU and v. near one of the sources of the Duvong R., " 

uva ai.,.111 'l\ i.iiles S.W. of Ayer Panaa. 

Bukit Peniujau.— Hill and V. at S. extremity of forest reserve E. of 
Sungei Bhiii-u Ilir districl. N.W. Malacca. 

Bukit Penyabong.— HiU in S.C. Johore, one of a series between the 
Madek and Leugj^nn E. 

Bukit Pesisik,— Hill N. of Johore R, between the Seluang and Pesisik 
Rivera, S. Johort', 

Bukit Piata,— Hill in extreme W. of Singapore I., \ mile N. of Tanjong 

Bukit Piatu,— A small V. about 3 milea from Malacca-town, bearing N.E. , 

Bukit Plabang.— A hlll in the Tabu didrict,. N, Malacca, about 2| miles ' 
from thi> Koiiihitu frootier. 

Bukit Plandok. — Hill in eitreme S. of Selangor on frontier of Sungci Ujong, 

Bukit Punggor. — See Punqook. 

Bukit Pupur.— Hill on E. bank of Lenpgin E., S.E. Johore. 

Bukit Putus.— Hill in the Jelebu range between Terachi and Sungei Hjong. 

Bukit Putus.— Hill on the boundary line between Malacca and Johol, 
iK'twnt-Q KwaLi Siiu);or iiud Ayer Tengab. 

Bukit Putus. — Hill on S, sideofMuar E., in Enas t*rritory.Negri Sembilan. 

Bukit Rambei. — A small V. 5 miles N.W. of Malacca-town. 

Bukit Ruminta.— A hill 1 mile S. of Bukit Putus in N. part of Malaw-a 

Bukit Sabukor. — Hill just N. of Priggit and nearly 3 miles N. of Malacca- 

Bukit Samalau. — Small hill on W. bank of R. Ihivong just below Kwata 

Bukit Santi.— 645 feet high, in S. Johore. 

Bukit Sapam. — A small V. in the Padang Sebang dislriet, N. Malacca. 

Bukit Sapetang {Hwih Momd on the Adm. CfcirO-— Hill about 10 miles 
h-^-m \\w .■ and l mile 8, of Kurau R. in N.W. Perak. 

Bukit Segamat. — Hill on the boundary line between Johore and Pafaang- 
ih miles from Segamat. 

Bukit Seginting.— Small V. iu the Durian Tunggal dislriet, C. Malacca. 

Bukit Selosa.— At ertreme W. end of Blakang Mati 1., S. of 3ingai«)re. 

Bnk of British Malaya. Buk 

Bukit Senoh, — A hiU in S.W. comer of Pahang. 

Bukit Sepang. — Hill in N. Sungei Ujong, 4 miles W. of Pantay. 

Bukit Sera Pono. — Hill in N. of Blakang Mati I., S. of Singapore. 

Bukit Serdang. — Hill E. of E. of the same name, S.W. Kedah ; "at or near 
the boundary line with Perak. 

Bukit Sidinan. — Small v. in the Jus forest reserve, N. Malacca. 

Bukit Sigari. — Hill just S. of Telok Sera, N. Binding Territory. 

Bukit Sigari. — Hill 9 miles from the coast, W. Perak, opposite mouth of 

Jarum Mas E. Marked as Tulu Saggar or False Binding on Adm. Chart. 

Bukit Sikari. — Hill about 3 miles E. of Muar E. about 10 miles from the 
coast in W. Johore. 

Bukit Silunchu. — Hill on S. Johore 2 miles N. of the Selat Tambrau. 

Bukit Siuandong. — ^V. and tapioca plantation in the Burian Tunggal dis- 
trict, C. Malacca, and about 2 miles from the Police station at the same village. 

Bukit Singgi. — Bistrict in N. Malacca S. of Jus, and forming part of the 
forest reserve. V. of the same name just S. of high road from Pondok Kompas to 

Bukit SogOr. — ^HiU on E. side of Linggi E. about 3 miles N.W. of Eantau, 
Sungei Ujong. 

Bukit Sudu. — ^Hill in N. Sungei Ujong 2 miles above Pantay. 

Bukit Sungei Pinang. — Hill on S. bank of W. Eiver of that name about 
2 miles from the W. shore of the island. 

Bukit Tabong. — A hill on the borders of Malacca and Johol reputed, like 
Chendras and Ganunshi, to produce gold. 

Bukit Talang. — Hill 1 mile N. of Selangor E. about 9 miles from the coast. 

Bukit Tambun. — Hill 3 miles W. of Perak E. about \ mile N. of Kota 
Lama, C. Perak. 

Bukit Tambun. — The most important village as to size and population in 
Province Wellesley, being exactly 15 miles S. of Butterworth. There are nearly 
1,000 inhabitants, including many Chinese and Kling shopkeepers. The village 
consists of a single street running roimd the northern base of Tambun hill, having 
a salt-water creek into which runs the Junjong river, navigable by large boats, 
parallel with the road. The Inspector of Police of the southern division of the 
ftovince resides here in the upper storey of a commodious Police station. The 
Magistrate in charge of the district holds a Court of Police and Eequests at Bukit 
Tambun. Beyond the village the road skirts the foot of the hill to the Bukit 
Tambun Perry across the Junjong river to Batu Kawan, the river being about 
150 yards across. There is more traffic at this ferry than at any other in the Pro- 
vince, more especially of foot-passengers. There is also a large traffic of passengers 
and produce by boat to and from Penang, two steam laimches (the fares by which 
are 35 cents Ist class and 15 cents 2nd class) leaving each place daily. The creek 
is much infested by crocodiles. Bukit Tambun derives additional importance from 
being the chief highway to the S. of the Province, and a large number of two- 
wheeled hack gharries are always plying for hire. 

Bukit Tampoi. — A v. in the N. Central district of Mak, Malacca. 

Bukit TampurODg. — A hill the S. of a small chain in the Tabu district, 
N. Malacca. 

Tanggah. — Hill in the Jelebu range between Sungei Ujong and 
Ulu Muar, the source of the Muar river, 3,300 feet high. 

Bukit TaDJOng. — ^A hill in the Chabau district, E. Malacca, 



Descriptive Dictionary 

Bukit Tebakar, — Hill and small village in forest reBcrre, E. Simgei Siput i 

diatrict, N.W. of Malacca. 

Bukit Tebakar.^A hiU in the Ayer Pah Abaa district, Malacca. 

Bukit Telenteng.— Hill in N. bank of Lenggin R., S.C. Johore. 

Bukit Telok Duri.— Hill on E, side of Gunong Titi Wangsa range, \ 

Bukit Teluk Pachat. — Hill about 1 \ miles from W. coast of Penang, 1 
not far from E. bank of Suiigoi Gagah, W. Penang. 

Bukit Tengah.— Hil) on the N. boundary of Sungei Ujong just S. of Bt. ' 
Bruang iu Selang'.>r. 

Bukit Tengah. — A Tillage of some importance 6 miles 5 furlongn from 
BiittCTworth, P. Wellesley. To the left, about 100 yards from the high road, is the 
main entrance of the Golden GroTO Sugar Estate, at one time the property of the 
Rt. Hon. E. HoKBMAN. M.P.. and still owned by his representatives. The village 
consists of Chinese and Kling shops on either side of the road which runs through 
the centre of the Gulden Grove Estate. A substantial Police station, and the 
K'sidouue of tbt.- Magistrate in chaise of the central division, stands at tlie 8. end. ' 
I W. Johore in the Jakua country, 20 miles N. of 1 

Bukit Terunka. — In S. Kedah, just N. of the supposed boundary between I 

Perak and Kedah. 

Bukit Tial.— Small V. about IJ miles E. of Duyong E., and 2\ miles S.W. 
of Ajer Panas, B.C. Malacca. 

Bukit Tiga,— Hill juat beiow Linggi, S. Sungei Ujong. 

Bukit Tiga Puloh Tigah.— A portion of the Perak range in N. Perak, 
nmniug N.N.W. from Kota Tampan. 

—Hill about J mile W. of R. l>uyong, Malacca, about 7 miles J 

Bukit Timall. — Hill of a range in N. Penang, a little over 1 mile N. of J 
Government Hill Bungalow, Penang. 

Bukit Timah. — Divided into two districts E. and W. The former indudea 
the hill which is the highest elevation on the Island of Singapore, variously esti- 
mated at 500 to 540 feet above the sea-level. A Government bungalow, accessible 
liy a good cart road of not very steep grade, affording good accommodation, eiista 
on the top of the bill, whence a good view of the isl^d generally is obtainable. 
West Bnkit Timah has numerous plantations but no villages. The Police station 
is situated on the high road from town at the 7 mile stone. A Government bunga- 
low is close by. 

Bukit Tinggi.— A hill in S.W. extremity of Pahang. 

Bukit Tinggi.— A hill in Sungei Bharu Tengah district, Malacca. 

Bukit To Kanga. — A hill occupied as trigonometrical stations, of Sungei 
Juru in P. WcUesicy. 

Bukit Trek.— Hill about 4 miles N. of the E. Lenggin in E.C. Johor«. 

Bukit Trokil. — A small 1., about 7 miles from the coast of Kelantan, 
140 feet high. 

Bukit Tunggal.— A hill in Malacca not far from Alor Gajah. This is also 
the name of a residence in Singapore on the road between Bukit Timah and Thomp' 

Bukit Ulu Bin.— (3.072 feet,) One of the Bt. Panjang range. N. Perak, 



Bnk of British Malaya, Bun 

Bnkit Ulu Chepah.— (3,816 feet.) One of the Bt. Panjang range, N. 

Bnkit Ulu Selangor. — Hill in the dividing range between Selangor and 
Pahang, near the source of B. of same name, in extreme E. of the State. 
Bnkit Ulu Tulang.— Hill in N.W. Sungei Ujong. 
Bnkit Undong. — A small V. about a mile from Rumbia, C. Malacca. 

Bnloh Serua. — V. on W. bank of Bemam E., \\ miles below Changkat 
Bamu, S. Perak. 

Bulnh. (Bamboo — See Woods). — The uses of the bamboo are so numerous 
that several pages might be occupied in their simple indication. There are many 
varieties, the handsomest being of a bright yellow with vertical green stripes. A 
pretty sort furnishes the handles of Chinese pencils. It is alleged that jungle fires 
are sometimes caused by the constant rubbing together by the wind of two or more 
trees which have grown so as to cross each other. The large hollow joints are used 
to carry water and toddy. 

The striped bamboo {Bainhuea vulgaris var. striata), the Hedge bamboo {B, 
Nana), the yellow bamboo (B. vulgaris var. aurea), and the common bamboo (B, 
vulgaris), are cultivated in the Singapore Botanic Gardens, the plants having been 
introduced from India and China. They are, however, indigenous to the Peninsula. 

The Male Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictvs) and the Prickly Bamboo (D. spino- 
sus), have been introduced into the Singapore Botanic Gardens from the East 

The countless uses of the bamboo &om flooring to paper-stuff have been too 
often described to make repetition useful. A recent writer computed that over 360 
articles of daily use or ornament were made from bamboo in the various countries 
where it abounds. 

Bulnh. Bibut or B. Perindu (Storm or plaintive bamboo). — ^A bamboo « 
which by means of perpendicular slits cut above each joint and placed so as to 
catch the wind becomes a sort of gigantic iBolian harp. The effect is most pleasing, 
the larger holes giving a deep organ tone which the stringed instrument cannot 
furnish. By an ingenious contrivance similar to the tail fan of a windmill the 
apertures are always kept facing the wind. One of these bamboos is in the Baffles 

Bulnh. Timiang. — ^A species of bamboo used to make sumpitans ; a very 
light and fine-grained variety. 

Bundi The. — ^An embankment on the south side of the Muda River, N. 
of Province Wellesley, made for the prot/Cction of the northern padi lands from 
floods durings heavy rains. A tax is collected by Government on every animal 
passing over the Bund, and an annual sum is spent on maintaining its efficiency. 

BuBga-Mas. — The flowers wrought in gold, presented by certain semi- 
independent Malay States to Siam as tribute. They are beautifully worked. 

BuBga Taujong. — A small v. in the Tabu district, N. Malacca. 

Bunga Taujong. — ^A sweet-scented star-shaped flower, used by native 
women to ornament their hair. The Klings in the Settlements and Peninsula 
offer them in chaplets at the shrines of their gods. 

Bunga Taujong. — Small v. on road between Pulau and Briso, S. of Tabu 
district, N. Malacca. 

Bungams FaSCiatuS (Ular puchok). — One of the venomous snakes 
common in the Settlements and Peninsula. It is handsomely marked with 
alternate rings of bright yellow and black, and frequents swampy ground. Only 
one death from its bite has been recorded during the past ten years. 

{65] • F 

a Descriptive Dictionary Cam 

Bxingkwang.— >ve Majtoktang. 
Burial Customs. — S<e Pdserals. 

Butterflies. — See Entomoiajot. 

ButterWOrth, Hon. GoL C. B. — GoTern«r of the Stiaits Settlements, 
1847-1851. Col. BiJTTERwoBTH gare gnat eiiL-oangcmeiit to tlie fooudatioa of 
the Joumiil of the Indian Artliij>^lay«. J. I. A., I., iii. 

Butterworth. — TUe printijial settlement of Prorince Wellesle/, where the 
Ik^imU t>f tlit< vartnus dtr^utiuents mostlv reside. It is situated on Uie beach of 
Bawau Tiiau Kivhil. Thi> chief Police" Station. Hospital, Post Office, and Public 
Wovba Offii* of the jnwinee are located here, the situation being conreiuent for 
Rixx'Bs to IVuaut;- It is connected by telegraph with Penang and Perak. and with 
thii Mit'StHtiottt iu the province by telephone. The place has been much improved 
undi'r ivcvnC admiuist^Uions, a new sea-wall and loathing-house, with improved 
lniiUUn([» fur boitaiug the Pohcu and other offii:ials having been receutly com- 
iiK'tod or I'ut in hand. It takes its name from Col. ButtbuWoetb, Governor S. S. 

Byrftm Kstate (Province Wellesley). — 27 miles by road from Butter- 
tivrth. This is the moat westerly of the cluster of three estates N. of S. 
Kriui. tuid, like the others, is under su^r-uane, 700 acres being now cultivated. 

Cl^dpnt, Oil of. — Corrupted from Kayu pitteh. a tree which yields a green 
v'<il valuable aa an embrocation for rheumatism, &c. See Uils. 

Oftl fttnil B .—The scientific name of the class of plants which botanists have 
■t^Tfocd to consider as l>elonging tu the family of palms, although in appearance 
tooro hko rank grasses — popularly "canes and rattans." These abound in all 
the forests of Malaya, particularly in tow and swampy lands, which they contribute 
br their density and numerous prickles to render nearly impenetrable. They vary 
iu ttixe from a few lines to a couple of inches in diamet«r, and creeping along the 
ground or climbing trees, they often extend to the length of several hundred 
yards. By the natives they are used for almost every purpose of cordage. The 
great«r number of those eiport«d are the produce of Sumatra and Borneo, The 
UaUiys, with a generic name for the whole family, distinguish the different Idoda. 
which are probably distinct species, by adding an epithet to them. The general 
name Is rofan, of which the European rattan is an obvious corruption. It is 
thought to be derived from the verb rawat, which in Malay means " to pare or 
trim," in reference to the process by which the canes are prepared for use. 

Caledonia Estate. — 23 miles from Butterworth, P. Wellesley, by the old 
road, but about 2H by the new cut. It is the moat N. of the three estates (the 
other two being Victoria and Byram) owned in this neighbourhood by residents at 
home. It has very good machinery, and the usual hospital, school, &o., for the 
coolies and children. Some 1,162 acres are under sugar-cane. 

CelU. — See Kali. 

Caltrop (ranjau). — Small pointed irons or bamboos partly inserted in the 
ground and planted round stockades or in ditches when attack is expected. Their 
points are sometimes poisoned, and thej are very effective against a bare-fooled 
enemy. Sec Ranjau. 

Camel. — This quadruped, fitted for the dry sands of the desert, is wholly 
unsuit«d to the humid climate and forest-ckd lands of the Peninsula. It is in 
fact unknown to the natives, except by its Sanskrit name Unta, just na is the ease 
with the lion. 

Camphor. — A drug procured from the haiirut eamjtkora by soaking the 
branches, leaves and chips in water, which becomes saturated with the gum. Tbia 
latter is then alloned to coagulate. It is then placed iu an iron vessel with fine 

Cam of British Malaya. Car 

earth, over which a second vessel is tightly luted, and heat being applied the 
camphor sublime into the upper vessel. Camphor-trees abound in the dense 
jungle of the interior, and those who search for it abstain from certain kinds of 
food, eat a little earth, and use a special dialect known as pantang kapor, or camphor 
language (q. t?.). Camphor is not collected by the Bemam tribes on the western 
side of the Pensinula. That sent to market is generally very crude and requires 
refining for medical and other purposes. The wood is generally imported from 
China, want of facilities for transport preventing the Malays from bringing it to 
the coast. 

Regarding Formosa and Sumatra camphor Mr. Cantley writes as follows : — 

"Camphob (Camphora offidnarum), or Formosa camphor, is not of much 
interest to Straits people so far as its cultivation is concerned, the climate being 
unsuitable for its proper growth. It nevertheless grows fairly well in Singapore. 

SxJMATBA Camphob (Dryohalanop8 aromatica), also known as Borneo 
Camphor, is sparingly found on the Peninsula ; and its impoi*tance in the afforesta- 
tion of the Settlements is not overlooked. Private enterprise will hardly ever 
successfully cultivate the plant, owing to the time which is required to elapse 
between first outlay and first income. 

Asiatic Camphob (Cinnamomum camphora) has been introduced from E. 
Asia into the Singapore Botanic Gardens.'' 

CsunpllOr Language {Fantan^ Kapor), — An artificial dialect used by 
camphor hunters ; e. g,, for wood, instead of kayu, they say chue ; for eakit, sick, 
hinto, Ac. In many cases the words substituted describe some quality of the object 
referred to, e. g., " grass fruit " for " rice," ** far-sounding " for " gun," &c. It is 
believed that no camphor will be found if care be not taken to use the pantang 
kapor. See J. I. A., Vol. i., p. 263. 

CampOBg. — See Kampong (K. being the initial Malay letter). 

Cane. — See Malacca Cake. 

Canoe (Koleh). — These vary in length from 8 to 15 feet, and are hollowed 
out from one piece of wood. Kayu pinak is preferred, as it wiU last about 20 
years. A canoe from 12 to 15 feet in length will carry 400 to 530 gantangs, and 
requires two men to manage it. Its value is from 10 to 12 dollars, a shorter canoe 
fetching 7 or 8 dollars. See Boats. 

CaOUtcllOUC. — Two trees yielding the India-rubber of commerce have been 
found in the Peninsula and British Settlements, viz., Chitta Rambong and Chitta 
Singarip. They do not, however, exist in sufficient quantities to allow the gum to 
be an aji^icle of trade, though it is said to be occasionally mixed with gutta percha, 
which is largely dealt in. J. S. B. R. A. S., No. 1, p. 107. The Panama rubber 
(CasieUoa elastica) has been introduced into the Singapore Botanic Gardens from 
Moreton Bay. 

Car, Cart| Chariot. — The name, in Malay, where foreign influence has 
not peneixated, for a car or cart for ordinary use, is pdd-aU. Wheel-carriages are 
hardly in use among the up-country Malays, for the boat takes their place ; and 
even with the agricultural nations they are little used, except where European 
power has been established. For a carriage for luxury or hire, the terms used are 
kreta and raia^ both Sanskrit. In Malayan romances we frequently read of a 
particular carriage of this description ; and the Portuguese historian, Castagneda, 
voL iii., p. 94, has described one taken or rather destroyed at the capture of 
Malacca. His account of it is as follows, and it will give the reader some notion 
of the kind of barbaric pomp in which a Malay prince indulged three centuries 
and a half ago : — *' There was also set on fire a great wooden house placed on a 
car, which had thirty wheels, every one of them equal in size to the end of a hogs- 
bead. This chariot was made by command of the King of Malacca, in order to con- 

[67] . p 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 

vey in procesBion througli the city the King of Pam (Pahang), to whom he had given 
one o£ his daughters in marriage. He had prepared a great festival for the 
nuptials, and this chariot was one of the (Mmtrivaneea for the purpoae. It was 
hung with silk inside, and adorned with banners without. Vol. iii., p. 194.* 

Carbuncle (gSnuila), known to the Malays, but not found in the Peninsula. 
It is not partienlarly esteemed as a gem. 

Cards (Kertu* siojjon^). — The Malays are fond of card games, but few 
Europeans have taken tlie trouble to understand or describe them. Mr. W. 
Maxweil, C.M.G., contributed the following description of dniwi liga lei to the 
Notes and Queries of the J. S. B. R. A. 8. It refers to the game in question as 
played in Perak : — 

Hearts LUcoh, i King Raja. 

Diamouds Eetin. Queen BancUtliaTu. 

Clubs Kalalmear. Knave Pekah. 

Spades ... ... Sakopong. \ Ace ... ... 8di. 

To sluifSi', Kiyai, mengiyat. 

To deal, Membawa. 

To out, Kerat. 

To sweep the board, make every one pay, MengSlong. 

Three cards are dealt out to each player. The highest hand counting by pips 
is that which contains the greatest number of pips after the tens are deducted. 
Thus a knave, ten and nine is a good hand. 

The best hand is three aces, 8&t tiga. 

The nest best ia three court-cards, Kuda ; naik kuda. 

The next is nine. 

The nest is eight. 

All these four bands are known as tiniB. 

A hand of three threes is really a good hand, being nine, but it is considered 
a propitiation of good luck to throw it down (without exposing it) and announce 
that one is buta, in the hopes of getting good luck afterwards. 

Each player makes two stakes — kapala aud ekor. They may bo of equal 
value, or the ekiyr may be of greater value than the kajiala. 

The hapala must not be of greater value than the ekor; that is tsulled dui' 
ka-itjong (tual^beral). 

Or there may be a single stake only, which is called podul. 

Betting between players is called eorong, or tuioi, or eorong twei. 

A pool, tuici tengah. 

The ekor stake is only paid to the dealer if he holds one of the hands called 
lerus, and if a smaller hand is held by a player, then the dealer takes both kajiaJa 
and ekor (nienySlimg). 

A plaj'er who holds thirty exactly (except when he has three court-cards, 
htda) is said to be out {Imta). 

Any one except the player on the right of the dealer may cut. The player 
who cut* looks at the bottom card of those that he lifts, and if he thinks it is a 
lucky cut he accepts it and puts down the card he has lifted (j>engfral). 

The dealer then puts the rest of the pack on top of the cut and in his turn lift* 
a portion of the pack (jietigangkat) and looks at the bottom card. 

There are all sorts of names for different cajds and combinations of cards of 
various degrees of luck, and these aru quoted by tlie cutt<.r and dealer, each 
declaring his confidence in the luck coming to him by reason of the cutting or 
lifting of a particular card, 

( Tiang atnpal penghvlu ehtUmg. 

\ Cfiukup dengan gamhala-nia, 


Five of clubs 

Car of British Malaya. Cat 

Nine of diamonds ##. ... ... ... Bunga Tcachang raja hudiman 

( Oa^dk ea-Tcawan raja di-hilir. 

Ten of dubs ... ... ... ...I 8inggahmakanpedinda7ig rnasaJc, 

(. Masak pun lahi muda pun lahi. 

Ace of diamonds if cut, ... ... ... Buntut kris Baja Bandahara. 

Do. if in the hands of the dealer ... ( ^7* yatvmjalan sa'orang. 

( Satu pun tidak marabahaya. 

Two of diamonds ... 8emut ginting Che Amai pelak. 

Two of hearts ... ... ... ... Batang jamban. 

Six is an unlucky card ... ... ... Baun anam jahanam . 

Nine of hearts ... ... ... ... Haripanas kuhang her-ayer, 

A player does not hastily look at his three cards and learn his fate at once, but 
he prolongs the excitement by holding his cards tight together and looking 
alternately at the outside ones and last of all at the middle one, sliding out the latter 
between the two others little by little. Thus it is left uncertain for some time 
whether a card is an eight or a seven, a nine or a ten. 

A man to whom a court-card, an eight and an ace is dealt (if the eight is in the 
middle), on finding that he has eleven by the two outside ones, says, for instance, 
Handak kaki tiga, and then commences to slide out the middle card, hoping that it 
is going to be an eight, or at all events a seven (three pips on each side). This 
particulEkr hand is csJled lang aipui, because it is certain to carry off something. 

A man who has just held a winning hand will say, in expressing a hope of con- 
tinued good luck, ** Thnan handak pisang sarabu, eudah ea-hatang sa-hatan^ pula,** 
(The plantain called earahu is one which puts out fruit from every stem of the 
perdu about the same time, or one immediately after another.) 

CarimOIl Islands, in Malay, Pulo Xrimim, the name of two islands 
called by navigators the Great and Little Carimon ; situated towards the eastern 
extremityjof the Straits of Malacca. Mr. Cbawfubd says : — " The smaller island 
is about 2 miles in length, and high land throughout, the highest part about 500 
feet above the level of the sea. The larger island is about 12 miles in length 
and 5 in breadth, and its most elevated part rises to 2,000 feet. Both are of 
granitic formation, and the smaller island, and probably both, contain ores of tin. 
In a visit which I made to the Little Carimon in 1824, I procured the finest 
specimen of aUuvial tin that I have ever seen, a round mass of about 15 pounds 
weight, which had been very little rolled, for the surface was covered with 
perfect crystals of the oxide. The smaller island is uninhabited, but the larger 
has a population of about 4^0 Malay fishermen. Both form part of the Dutch 

Gasliew Apple (Ana^ardium occidentale,) — The Janggvs of the Malays. 
It is singular, owmg to the nut growing on the outside of the fruit. This nut 
contains a most acrid oil, which bums freely, and causes irritation if brought in 
contact with the mouth or any portion of the mucous membrane. The fruit itself 
is of pleasant flavour, but does not attract much attention. It is said to have been 
originially introduced from the West Indies. 

Cassia (Dyer's).— See Dyes, 

Castor Oil (Minyak jarah). — See Oils. 

CaSUarina Tree. — This is common throughout the Peninsula and is not 
tmpicturesque, resembling as it does the well-known fir. The wood, however, is 
practically useless, except for burning, and its brittle nature renders it a somewhat 
unsafe ornament to grounds in the immediate vicinity of a house. It flourishes in 
a sandy soiL 

Cat. — ^The domestic cat of the Malays has the same form, colour, and 
habits as the European, except in one respect, that the tail seldom exceeds three 


Descriptive Dictionary 


or four inehos in length, and always ends in a fcind of crook, a peculiarity, however, 
not ctinfiaed to it, for the same charauteriBtic belongs to the Burmeae cat. The 
origin of the Malayan domestic cat is equally obscure with that of the European. 
It is well known to all the civiliBed inhabitants. Its most common name through- 
oiit Malaya, with slight corruptions, is kuching, bnt aometimea it ta.kes its name 
from its err " meaou." " 

Cat, Wild. — This has not been described as an inhabitant of the Peninsula 
by any writer so far as I can ascertain, but in Province Wellesley I saw a female 
and two kitteua caught in the vicinity which were unmistakably apecimena of the 
true felis enlns. One great distinction between the wild and tame cat is that the 
former has a tail somewhat lar^r at the tip than at the base, while that of the 
domestic cat tapers. The markings are : ground-colour sandy grey with dark 
streaks, tigerwiae, at right angles to the spine. Slight markings on thi^ leg. The 
marks decrease in depth of colour as they approach the belly. 

Catty. — See Kati. 

Caves. — Some vast caves were discovered by Mr. Svebs, Superintendent of 
Polico, Selangor, near Kwala Lumpor in that Stat«, during March 1879. They 
contain thousands of tons of guano. A description is given in No. 3 (1879) 
Journal of the Straits Branch of the Koyal Asiatic Society, p. 116. 

Limestone caves also eiist at Beserah in Jalor, Patani, at Eota GlanHji 
or Klanggi, Pahang, which is the centre of a district possessing many similar 
natural formations, and at Ipoh in Eiinta, Perak. A full account of several caves 
is given in No. 9 J. S. B. R. A. 8., 1882, p. 163 ei seq. 

Cayenne Pepper (Capgieum annuumy Ckabei in Mahir.— No pepper 
from this plant aeeraa to be made in the Straits, but chillies of all kinds grow 
freely. The value of chillicH is about 45 BhiUinga per hhd. in London. They 
are generally called lada chirta by the Malays. 

Cemeteries {Kuhor) are distinguished by small najTow wooden head 
boards at the end of each grave. In the case of priests, sultans, or other 
important personages, tombs of some pretensions are erected. 

Census. — Sm Population. 

Centipedes (Jtalipau) are found in MJJaya as in most tropical countries. 
The largest specimens kiUed have come from Penang HilL 

Chabau. — District and V. in extreme E. of Malacca, the latter on the road 
to Nyalas and about 3 miles N, of Chin Chin Police station. 

Chain Armour, — See Mail Akmour. 

Chameleon {ISnggtUng), found in the Peninsula and adjacent islands, but 
in no particular wuy differing from the more Western speeies. 

Champaka. — The name of a flowering tree giving a beautiful jessamine- 
scented Hower. Tht-re are two varieties, yellow and white. 

Champakien,— V. on S. Bank of Pahang R., 3 miles beyond the delta. 

Champla. — A game resembling our "' beads and tails." except that the coins 
are thrown agaitiat a stone in place of into the air. 

Ghanang Botan. — A wicker ball used in a game resembling rounders. 

Chan Chu Kang. — V. and Police station, 9 miles from Singapore; a 
Goverumeut bungalow exists here having good accommodation, and the stream of 
the river has bceo embanked and covered over so as t« form an excellent bathing* 

Chandriang. — imp. V. in E.C. Perak at the head of a river of same name. 

Chandrong Klubi.— V. at S. extremity of W. range of hills. C. Perak, 
about S miles VV.S.VV. of Blanja. 


Cha of British Malaya. Cha 

Chandu. — ^Prepared opium. See Opium. 

Cliangfi. — ^The W. district of Singapore, V. of same name {g, v.). 

Chailgi. — The principal Government bungalow, V., and Police station in E. 
Singapore. ^The bungalow is well built and commodious and a good bathing-house 
is attached to the grounds. 

Changkat. — ^A hill, rising ground. 

Changkat Batak. — ^V. about 5 miles from the coast of Perak, opposite 
Pasir Itam I., at the mouth of Jarum Mas B. 

Changkat Dungla. — ^A place on the elephant track to Kinta, in Perak. 

Changkat Kledang. — V. N. of Caledonia Estate, Province Wellesley, 
19 miles 6 furlongs from Butterworth. It is one of the trigonometrical stations of 
the Province. 

Changkat Lela. — V. in S.E. Perak about 7 miles N. of bank of BemamE., 
and 4 miles from Slim. 

Changkat Bamu. — ^HiU on W. bank of Bemam E. at its bend S. 3 miles 
W. of R. Slim. 

Changkat Serdang. — v. at head of E. Sapetang, W.C. Perak coast. 

Changkol. — The hoe with which all agricultural and planting work is per- 
formed bj Klings, Malays, and Chinese in the Settlements and Peninsula. A long 
or short handle is fitted according to the work to b6 done. 

Charcoal {AraTyg Kayu) is universally used for firing. In the native states 
the destruction of valuable trees became so common that prohibitive measures were 
taken restricting the manufacture to timber of but little use for building purposes 
— ja6re especially in the tin-mining districts where it is used to smelt the ore. 

Charms aJid Amulets (Tanghil), T-These are much resorted to by the 
Malays, written charms being especially popular. A common charm consists of the 
tiger's claw or whisker, both of which are supposed to possess peculiar eflScacy. A 
singular instance of agreement between old English, Chinese, and Malayan super- 
stition under this head occurred recently in P. Wellesley, where a man was charged 
with having buried a waxen figure, stuck all over with pins, at the door sill of the 
complainant's house, with the intention of causing her to suffer pain in all the 
places where pins had penetrated the effigy. He was found guilty of conduct 
calculated to cause a breach of the peace ; but the complainant was privately re- 
monstrated with as to the absurdity of attaching auy importance to the act. It 
was, however, without avail. Interesting details regarding this belief are given in 
the " Folklore of China," pp. 82, 83. The Agmara Indians of N. America have 
a similar belief. Major McNais states that incantations were resorted to for three 
successive nights to cause the death of the late Mr. Bibch. 

A substsuice supposed to possess magical powers is the Chula — ^the name given 
to hard horns or hornlike parts of animals. (See also Invocations and Kantu.) 

Amulets are also formed of pieces of kunyit, hangU, and other substances 
strong on a piece of terap bark, and boimd round the neck, wrists, or waist. They 
are preservauves against demons, bad winds, and other evils generally. The chinkwi, 
a flower at a " wishing rock " in Klang, is reputed to possess the power of making 
the opposite sex follow and love the possessor. 

' Chasseriau Estate. — ^A large plantation situated between the E. Bukit 
Timah, Upper Kalang, and Upper Toa Payoh district, Singapore. Coffee, cocoa- 
nuts and tapioca. 

Chatori Main. — ^The usual Malay word for chess, which is, however, in 


Cha Descriptive Dictionary CM 

some districtB cftlled maxn. gajah, " the game of elephant." TLe game resembles 
our own, the following being the pieces ; — 

Rajfth . . . King. I Kuda . - . Knight. 

Mantri . Queen, Ter ... Castle. 

Gajah . . . Bishop. | Bedak or Eityat . Pawn. 

Check is mh. aod oheckmate mat. A eheas-board is }iajian chator. 

Chawat. — The strip of cloth passing between the legs and fastened round 
the waist worn by the Malayan aborigine tribes, as by the Hindus. It ia oftea 
formed of (erii/j bark, which ia simply beaten out t«> obtain the fibre. Amongst a 
sub-famUy of the Mentira — the Udai, who inhabit the Muar tributaries— the 
females wear the chaifat in the same way as the males. 

Chedong Dua.— V. on N. bank of R. Sembrong, N. Johore. 

Ghenai. — District in N. Patani, 

Chenaku or Blian.— The Sakei name for a man who is in reality a tiger 
(answering to the Wehr Wol/ of German superstiUon). A belief in lycantLropy is 
widespread amongst both Malaya and aborigines. 

Chendia Bemban.— v. at ihe source of R. Madik in E. Johore. 

Chengkal Bintang.— V, and hill in S. bank of Beruara E. just above its 
jimctioK wit.h tbij Sliui R., N. Selaugor. 

Chengkal Bintang. -Hill and V.. S. bank of Bemam B., 2 miles W. of 
Kwalii So m pang, N. Selaugor. 

Cheno or Chuno.—A V. on the Pahang R,. where it tuma S. towards 

Cheno.— Imp. V. on S. bank of E. Pahang just beyond ita turn E. in C. 
Pahang ; about 4 miles If.NiE. of Gnau. 

CheraS.— A. v. about 3 miles N.B. of Kajang in the S.E. corner of 

Chess (CluUur or tnain gajah.)—" The game of cheas is supposed to have 
beeu an invention of the Hindus, and, through them, to have been made known to 
the Malayan nations. This opinion, however, ia not supported by the t«rms of the 
game in the Malay lai^uage. Had it beeu received directly from the Hindus, these 
terms, as in other cases, would have been wholly Sanskrit. They are not so, for 
some of them are Persian, some native, and one belongs to the Telinga ; while those 
that are Sanskrit are but words long naturalized in other departments of the insular 
languages. It seems probable that the Malays, who alone are familiar with the 
game, borrowed it in uomparatively modem times from the Mahommedana of the 
Coromandcl Coast, who themselves had learnt it, directly or indirectly, from the 
Persians."* See Chatob. 

Chichak. — A lizard, of which numerous vjirietiea are found in the Peninsula. 
The commonest is the little house- lizard, much liked from its fondness for 
mosquitoes, and which utters a cry like tuk-tuk as it scampers joyously over the 
walls and ceilings. The Malays call it cAichak legor. Like most of its family, it 
has the capability of reproducing the tail should that become detached by accident 
or when attacked. But in nearly all cases two tails or a bifurcated appendage takes 
the place of the missing member. The compiler has ascertained this to be a fact 
by j*r3oiial experiment. 

Chigar Gala.— V. on E. bank of Perak R. juat below^Cw. Plus, N. Perak. 

Chigukantoh.-^V. at a point on coast of C. Dinding marked Tanjung 
Haatu on the Adm. Chart. 

Chiko-S^e Pkuits. 


of British Malaya. 


I ChillSi (Cbinese).— This word, whicb in the Malayan lajipuagea, in con- 

I funnity to its pmctiuo in all snob cases, is att adjective, is pronounced as an Italian 
' wduU proQounue it. When tlie country is alluded to, the Sanskrit word nttjti, or 
the native one, henua,, are required. It is difficult to deturmioe from what source 
the Malay Archipelago have derived a word now so familiar to them. They may 
have received it from the Persian and Arabian merchants who passed through the 
I Ardbipelago on their way to China, as early as the ninth and tenth cent^u^e8, or it 
I may be the Malayan pronunciation of the word T»\n, the ancient name of China, 
I north of the Yang-tse-kiang, received directly from the Chinese themselves. 
I That an early intercourse existed between China and the islands of the 

I Asiatic Archipelago is certain, but there is, at the same time, no ground fur 
I aecribtog a very remote antiquity to it. Ancient Chinese coins have been dis- 
I covered in various parts of the Archipelago; and as these, with the exception of 
I those of Java, are known to have beeu the only coined money of the Archipelago 
I before the arrival of Europeans, they are sufficient to prove the existence of the 
I latercouTse. Thus several such coins were dug up in 1827 from the ruins of the 
I aii(£vnt Malay settlement of Singapore, said to have been founded in 1 160, and 
I destroyed by the Javanese in 1252 of Christ. These coins have been deposited in 
I the Uuseom of the Iloyal Asiatic Society, and bear the names of emperors whose 
I deaths correspond with the years of our time, 967, 1067, and 1085. Besides this 
I evidence, which carries us back to the tenth centuty, Chinese porcelain of antiqau 
I forms — no longer manufactured — has either been dug up or found preserved as 
I heirlooms. The wild aborigines of Borneo, for example, preserve many of the 
I latter description ; and it is hardly necessary to add that the natives of the 
I Archipelago are ignorant of the manufacture of porcelain, but that it now forms, 
I and at all ascertained times has formed, a main object of the export trade of the 
I Chinese. In 1844, a singular discovery of pottery, glazed porcelain vases, was 
I made in Java, amidst flie relics of antiquity in a mountain towards the eastern 
I end of the island, at an elevation of 9,000 feet above the level of the sea, which 
I could hardly be other than Chinese. The name of the place in which the vases 
I were found, some of them broken and some entire, is Argapura, a word partly 
I Javanese and partly Sanskrit, and importing mountain palace or city. 
I Such testimony is unquestionably far more satisfactory than anything that 

I can be gleaned from the literary records of tlie Chinese, which, however, are not 
I wholly silent on the subject of the intercourse between China and the islands of 
I the Archipelago. In 1815 there were given to me, by a highly intelligent Creole 
I Chinese of Java, whose family had been for several generations settled io the 
I ialand. a volume printed at Fekin, in the reign of the Emperor Kanghi, which 
I contained some curious notices on the question. This work, now in the library of 
I the British Museum, attributes the first intercourse with a country, supposed to be 
I Java, to an era corresponding with the year of Christ 421, After a long interval, 
I it states that it was renewed in the year 964 ; a period, it will be observed. 
I corresponding with the date of the earliest coins already alluded to, and, respecting 
I such coins, it makes the following curious and instructive remark : — " In this 
I traffic they use the money of China, but of coinage older than the present times, 
I and the coin bears a value double what it does in China." 

I When the Portuguese first made the'u* appearance in the waters of the 

I Archipelago, they found the Chinese carrying ontnide with its emporia much in the 
I Hune way as they do at the present day. Albuqukkque, when he took Malacca, 
I found their junks lying in the roads; and Babbosa's statement, which evidently 
I refers to the condition of Malacca before its conquest, is so detailed and authentic 
I as to be well worth quoting. " There assemble," says he. "at the above city many 
I other merchants. Moor and Gentile strangers, in order to traffic with the ships of 
I China, which have two masts. These ships bring hither great quantities of silk in 
I hanks (raw silk), and mauy vessels of porcelain, damasked sitks, brocades, and 
I [?3J 


Descriptive DicHoimry 

s colours, They bring also coloured silk, much iron, saltpetre, fine 
silver, iimny pearls, large and small bankets, gilt fans, and incense. On the other 
hand, they take in return for these things, pepper, incense, eloths of Cambay, 
grained cloths (panni di grano), saffron, raw and prepared, coral, many cloths of 
Pulicat of painted (printed) cotton, cinnabar, quicksilver, amfiam (opiom), and 
other merchandise, with drugs of Cambay, among which there ia one which we 
know not, but which they call jiawcAou (puchuk), and another which they call 
cocAoM (Cutch, terra-japonicaj." 

It deserves, however, to be noticed, that while there is abundant evidence of 
the trade and shipping of the Chinese, there is none whatfiver of their settlement 
in Malaysia. Babbos specifies the difierent nations who were settled in Malacca 
under the Malajr govenunent — Javanese, Siamese, Peguans, natives of Bengal, 
Coroniandel, Qu]rai, Arabia, and Persia ; but he makes no mention of the Chinese 
as settlers. Babbosa's account of the persons and manners of the Chinese is taken 
from his account of China, given to him by others, and not from his own personal 
observation, which would have been the case had he seen them as settlers. It is 
wonderfully accurate, considerii^ that it is derived from native authority. 
" Bespecting," eaya he, " what is at present to be written, I have my information 
from four different persons (Moors and Qentiles), men worthy of credit and great 
merchaots, who had been many times in the country of China." After giving a 
very graphic account of the Chinese and their arts, which includes their speaking 
a language liko German, that is, a guttural one, and their wearing shoes and 
stockings like the Germans and other inhabitants of cold countries, be adds: 
"They are also great navigators, who go to sea in great ships, which they 
called giunchi (Malay jnnj. a trading vessel), of two masts, and built in a fashion 
different from ours. The sails are of matting, and also the ropes, There are 
many pirates and robbers amoog the islands and ports of China, notwitlistandii^ 
which the Chinese go to Malacca, and carry thither iron, saltpetre, and the like," — 
Babbosa in Eam'usio.* 

The emigrants from China are all from the four maritime provinces of the 
empire — Kwangtung, Fokien, Chekiang, and Kiangnan. Four-fifths of the whole 
number eome from Amoy and Swatow, and about a tenth part from Canton, the 
emigrants from the two more northerly provinces forming but a very small fraction. 
Nearly all the emigrants consist of the labouring classee — fishermen, artisans, and 
common day-labourers. They usually arrive at their places of destination in great 
poverty, and are obliged to mortgage their labour to their resident countrymen in 
consideration of their passive -money. 

Chinese emigration differs in two material resjiecta from all other emigmtion — 
that it consists mainly oC adult males, to the exclusion of women and children, and 
that it never embraces either the upper or middle classes. The settlers, whenever 
it is in their power, form connections with the native women of the country ; and 
hence has arisen a mixed race, numerous in the older Settlements, known to the 
Malays under the name of Feranakan ChUia, literally, " Chinese of the womb," 
that is, Chinese by native mothers. These intermarrymg, either among tbemBclvea 
or with native Chinese, a race of quadroons, and almost of Creoles, has sprung up, 
differing from the original Chinese — perhaps somewhat less energetic, but always 
possessed of more local knowledge. From the nature of emigration, the propor- 
tion of males to females is always great. In Singapore the males are to the 
females in the proportion of five to one. The result, of course, is that the increase 
of the Chinese population by natural means is very slow. The entire Chinese 
population of the Straits Settlements was in 1881 as follows : — Singapore, 72,t>71 
males and 14,195 females ; Penangand Province Well eel ey, 55,313 males and 12.507 
females; Malacca. 15,721 males and 4.020 females; total, 143,605 males. 30,722 
females : grand total, 174,327. The total number in the Peninsula is probably 220,000. 

The annual influx of Chinese emigrants into the Peninsula cannot be ascer- 

Chi of British Malaya, Chi 

tained ; but some notion of its amount may be formed from the number which 
lands in Singapore. This, on an average of years, is about 100,000, of whom about 
one-fourth settle in the island, the majority being sent on to Penang or dispersed 
among the neighbouring States. The number that return yearly to China from the 
same port is about 70,000, most of them resorting to it from neighbouring countries 
for the eunvenience of a passage. 

As the Chinese are, next to Europeans — and indeed, in many respects, before 
them — the most active and valuable agents in developing the resources of the 
Archipelago, it will be convenient to give some account of their employment. 
Here is an enumeration of them in Singapore, furnished by an intelligent cnief of 
their nation, in reply to queries put by the indefatigable editor of the Journal of the 
Indian Archipelago ■: — " The different trades and professions of the Chinese in 
Singapore are : schoolmasters, writers, cashiers, shopkeepers, apothecaries, coffin- 
makers, grocers, goldsmiths, silversmiths, tinsmiths, blacksmiths, dyers, tailors, 
barbers, shoemakers, basket-makers, fishermen, sawyers, boat-builders, cabinet- 
makers, architects, masons, lime and brick burners, sailors, ferrymen, sago manu- 
facturers, distillers of spirits, cultivators and manufacturers of gambier and of 
sugar, cultivators of pepper and of nutmegs, vendors of cakes and fruits, porters, 
play-actors, fortune-tellers, idle vagabonds (who have no work, and of whom there 
are not a few), beggars, and, nightly, there are those villains, the thieves.'' 

To this list must be added the general merchants and the parties engaged in 
the firming of all the branches of the public revenue, the last a department 
entirely in their own hands, and from which their superior skill and knowledge 
excludes all competitors. In the less populous parts of the Archipelago, such as 
the British Settlements, they may be said to occupy the largest part of the field of 
oommon labour, while in the more populous, as Java, their industry is generally 
restricted to what may be called skilled labour, as the manufacture of sugar and 
indigo, and the distillation of spirits. 

Chisa Grass. — See Fibres. 

Cllilicllielo. — ^A sambal made of shrimps. 

Cllilicllill. — V. in district of same name in extreme E. of Malacca. 
Nomerous tin mines exist in the vicinity, and a Police station at Pulau is within \ 
mile. The V. is about IJ miles W. of the boundary line between Muar and 
Malacca formed by the Sungei Chohong, a portion of the B. Kessang. 

ChinderOIlg Dangloh. — Y» on W. bank of Kinta B., 3 miles below the 
junction with it oi the Baya B., C. Perak. 

Chindras. — ^A V. in S. Johore, Negri Sembilan, the locality being auriferous. 
Some 18 years ago a company was formed to work gold at Chindras, but the diffi- 
culties of transport proved too great, and it came to nothing. Some seven hills in 
the immediate neighbourhood show traces of gold in fair quantities. 

Chinese Lantern (AbutHon indica), — ^A plant introduced into the Singa- 
pore Botanic Gkurdens from the East Indies. 

Ching. — ^V. about 5 miles N. of Malacca-town, on the high road to Tabu. 

Cllipan. — ^A cutting instrument mentioned in Malay annals, but no longer a 
▼emacular word. 

Chirana Petei or Puteh. — ^A small V. in the Tabu district, N. Malacca. 
A hot spring lies near it, and tin is found in the neighbourhood. 

Chitty. — The name of a Madrassee caste whose members are, as a rule, 
money-lenders. The absence of any legislation respecting interest enables them to 
impose exorbitant rates, and the poorer classes suffer severely from their extortions. 
The well-to-do have less excuse for falling into their hands. They are most 
anfavoixrably looked upon, but there are, of course, good as well as bad amongst 
them* and more than one instance of generosity has been exhibited by men sup- 



Descriptive Dictionary 

posed to invariably exa^t the uttermost Earthing from their debtors. Their heads 
are kept close shaved, and their dresa consiMta of a single cloth, with which they 
drape themselves sufficiently to meet poLce requirements. 

Choa Chu Kang. — v. on Bri E., W. Singapore, Tengah district. 

Chobong. — V, in Eembau, Negri Sembilan, about 6 miles N.W. of Sri 

Chocolate {Theohroma cacao). — The following i-emarka on this product 
appear in Mr. N. Gantlet's Keport on the Botanical Oardeus, Singapore, for 1886 : 
— " Some plants of Chocolate which stood for some years leaf-eaten, extremities of 
the brandies dead, and lootdng in a dying state, had, on the land coming under the 
control.of the Forest Department, a number of Darfup trees planted among them 
tor experiment. The Dadup trees have now grown to about twenty-five feet in 
height, and their branches having nearly met, the solar rays are prevented from 
striking the Chocolate plants directly. 

" The result has been that the latter have thrown off their lethargy and started 
into determined competition for light with the Dadwps, and have grown remarkably ; 
the insects have given up attacking the leaves, and robust health has returned to 
them, but on other plantations where the plants have had shade from their infancy 
they have mostly died." 

The Chocolate plant has proved very capricious in the Straits, whole planta- 
tions going off without any apparent cause, except the attacks of leaf-insects, while 
here and there a solitary plant will for many years survive its fellows and go on 
bearing heavy crops of fruit. It has been said that animals or plants located in 
large numbers together are liable to epidemic disease, which loses its grasp only 
after the individuals are thinned down to health- permitting numbers. There is 
doubtless such a law in nature. What seems required is a Knowledge of how far 
one can safely go without danger of calling its working into activity. 

ChondOUg. — v. on S. side of Muar E., Gemunchi, Negri Sembilan. 

Christianity. — it does not appear that any converts were made in the 
Peninsula until the conquest of Malae^'a by ALSuquERQUB, when the Portuguese, 
during their dominion of 130 years, made a considerable number. At present but 
few natives profess Christianity, Roman Catholic converts forming the vast majority. 
Most arrivals from Europe are Protestants, the large Eurasian population belonpng 
to the Eoman Catholic Church. In the Native States, the Christian religion is 
almost unknown. See Missions. 

Chu Chu Kang. — V. on Kranji E,, W. Singapore. 

Chuchu Kendsi. — Hairpins of gold or silver, sometimes very well made, 
and worn by well-to-do Malay women. 

Chula Naga. — (Lit. the Snake's Horns), called the Dragon's Horns or 
Asses' Ears in maps and charts. Bee Polo Tioman. 

Chumar. — a mining district in Perak, between Matang Fiidang and Jancore. 
Settled chielly by Ohintse who work the surface tin. 

Chunkul Permuli.— V. on W. side of a hill, 3,194 feet, just S. of the 
Kampar district, S.C. Perak. 

Chuno. — Village. See Chkito. 

Chupak. — A quart measure. See Weights and Measures. 

Chupa Bock. — Just below Tanjong Sarong, the W. extremity of Blakaug 
Mati I., S. of Singapore. 

Cicada {Riaug rlang). — Several species exist, including the lai^st known. 
Their strident noise is overpowering and most annoying to invalids. The l>odies 
measure about 3 inches in length. 


of BritisJi Alalaya. 

Cinchona {Cinchono, aacmmiia).- — Experiments Id the cultiTation of this 
tre<> appear to be fairly gucceseful, but too short a, time has elapsed eince they were 
commeBced to speak positively. In Java it proved a most profitable ciiltivation, the 
barb welling at evea better prices than South Amoiiuan. 

Cumamon (Cinnamomum »eylaniiicvm). — ^The kayu-manis, or sweet wood. 
of the Malays. The true cinnamon of Ceylon is certainly not a native plant of 
any pajt of Malaya, nor are the cinnamons of Cocbin-China and China. Most of the 
large ielands, however, produce one, or perhaps several species, with little aiMma, 
and consequently of little value. A cinnamon of this description is produced in 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Luzon, but is described as most abundant in Mindanao, 
Of late years, however, the cinnamon of Ceylon has been cultivated in the British 
Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, and as the climate is suitable, and the plant 
a hardy one, requiring but a moderate fertility of soil, it should seem to be one of 
the eiotics most lihely to succeed. Moderate success only, however, has attended 
the attempts to cultivate the tree in Singapore and other portions of the Straits 
Settlements. Specimens of the Wild Cinnamon (C inure') above referred to are in 
cultivation at the Singapore Botanic Gardens. 

Circumcision (eHiiat), — Tbis rite was introduced with the conversion of 
the Malays to Ma homme danism, and is confined to males- It generally takes place 
from 10 to 15 days after birth, and the name which the infant is to bear for Itfe is 
bestowed on it. 

Citron (lAmnn kerbau) (Cilrua mediea). — Several kinds of citron are found in 
the Peninsula, but the fruit is seldom offered for sale. It was originally a Persian 

City. — No word answering to this eiists in Malay. See Town and Villaoe. 

Civet. — In Malay this perfume is known by the native name of rase, but the 
Sanskrit one Jcastun, and the Arabic mlad-, corrupted jitbad, are also used as 
synonyms. The article is produced by two distinct species of Viverra. raai and 
ttiielka, which are kept in a half domesticated state for the purpose of yielding it. 
The first is a native of Java, and the last of the other large islands. The natives 
of mnk are great consumers of this perfume, not generally a*;ceptable to Europeans. 
See Rassi and Deldnduno.* 

Claymore. — A district of Singapore embracing the portion occupied by 
Ooverament House and other important European dwelling sites in the vicinity. 
The word is no longer used locally, but still retains its place upon the map. 

Clogs. — The Malay clog is kept to the foot by a knobbed peg which passes 
between the big and second toes. It is made of a white light wood. 

Cloth has been woven from time immemorial in Malaya, but the introduction 
of foreign goods has materially dimiuished the manufacture. That used for 
saronga is largely imported from Celebes (Bugis) and Palembang in Sumatra. It 
is doubtful if any large looms are employed on the western aide of tlie Penin- 
solft. See article on dress, which contains several details regarding the materiaJa 

Clove (Bunga Gkinghih) {CaryophiUam aromaticuvi). — The cultivation of the 
clove has so long been looked upon as a thing of the past in the Peninsula and 
Straits Settlements, that the fact of its being a regular article of export from 
Penang will be new to maoy. Both in that island and in Province Wellesley, 
it is cultiTated with success, but the trees are much shorter lived than in the Dutch 
posaessioUs. The Peuang product commands a slightly higher price in the market 
than its rivals. Mr. Cantlev says (Report, 1H86) : — " The clove-trees raised from 
Singapore-grown seed and planted in the Tanglin Nursery look remarkably healthy, 
both in swampy ground and on the hill-sides. They co\ild hardly succeed better 
anywhere than they are doing." 


Clo Desci-iplive Dictionary CoO 

Clown. ^-As elsewhere stated, almost the only form of etage-iilay common 
amongst tie Malays ia the puppet show, Playa are, however, sometimes given, and 
the clown is then almost always a member of the troupe. He is eaUed yr&n. 

C0£l1 {Arang iatuih). — Has been frequently found in the Peninsula, but n 
in paying quantities, and all used in the Settlements are imported. A veiu of 
autJiracit*, in conjimetioa with imperfect plumbago, was diseovcred by Col. Low at 
Pearl's Htll, Singapore, in 1846, but it did not exist in a workable iunouat. Traces 
of coal were also found in the reclamation cuttings at the same port in 1883. 

Oobra di Capello {Naja triptidians). — The Ular tedovg of the Malays. 
Four varieties of this deadly snake are foujid in the Peninsula and Settlements, 
vin., that with' an ocellated mark on tlie back of the neck ; a second with slight 
white marks at the edge of the hood and one (or two) wkite yiatches under the 
neck ; a. third all black ; and the fourth brown. Their eggs are frequently found 
in decayed bamboos. None of the " spectacled " Tarieties are found, and those 
named are all referred to the same species, though I should be inclined to s<ay they 
deserve distinguishiug names. All cobras haye three scales behind the eyes. 
Fortunately they never bite unless trodden on or otherwise annoyed. Two or three 
deaths only from cobra bite have taken place in the Settlements duriugthe past ten 
years. See Hahacsiad. 

Cook {Ayam jantan). — One species of the genus Gallua is found in the wild 
state in Ihe Peninsula. Nearly everywhere, even among the rudest tribes, the 
common fowl is found in the domestic state, and in this condition bears a close 
resemblance to the species called by naturalists GaUvs banleiva, which is the sole 
one of the Malay Peninsula. Most likely, this is the origin of the domestic bird 
of the Astatic Archipelago. The names by which it is known in the native lan- 
guages are the only clue to the history of its introduction and dissemination. In 
Malay it ie called ayam, equivalent to om own word " fowl." but Hpecially applied 
to the domestic bird when used without an epithet. The wild bird is expresBed by 
addixig the Malay word utan, meaning " forest." 

The Malay domestic cock is of the true game breed, full of courage, but 
inferior in size to the game cock of Continental India, which is lai^er than our own, 
and more powerful. Indeed, among the Malayan nations, there is no distinction, 
as with uB, into game and dunghiU fowls, all being of the first description. It, 
moreover, as to colour, sports less than with us. The OaUvg banhiva, or the 
imagined variety of it called the Malay gigantic cock, is supposed by M. Temmixck, 
who is followed by other naturalists, to be the source from which our European 
poultry are derived. This Malay gigantic cock 1 have never seen, nor do I believe 
that any such native variety exists. Neither does it seem to me reasonable to fancy 
that our poultry is derived from any Malay breed whatsoever, seeing that in the 
remote antiquitj? in which it was introduced into Europe, no communication what- 
ever is ascertained to have existed, direct or indirect, between Europe and the 
Asiatic Archipelago. The introduction of the common fowl into Europe is beyond 
the reach of all record, even in Greece, It is faithfully represented on the walls of 
ancient Etruscan tombs, and, even among the rude inhabitants of Britain, it was 
found nearly 2,000 years ago. All that is pretl.y well ascertaJued is, that it never 
existed in uie wild state in Europe or in Africa, or in any part of Asia west of 
Hindustan. Most of the advanced nations of the Asiatic Isknds are gamblers, and 
the favourite sbajw which gaming takes with them is cock-fighting, the only 
material exception being the Javanese. The passion for cock-fighting is impressed 
on the very language of the Malays. Thus there is a specific name for cock-fighting, 
one for the natural spur of the cock, and another for the artificial ; two names for 
the comb, three for the crow, two for a cock-pit, and one for a professional «x:k. 

Cock-fighting. — This has long been a favourite amuaemoot with th« 


COC of British Malaya. COC 

Malays, but is prohibited bj law in the British possessions. Spurs are used called 
^olok or iaji (^. v.), and the cock-pit is galangga7ig. The matches are conducted 
m the same way as was common at home in bygone years. The following 
curious ceremony relating to training the birds for fighting is related by the 
Abb^ Favbb : — 

" Opium haying been prepared, and a pipe, a candle, and all the other neces- 
saries to smoke having been brought in, the king took the head of the cock, passed 
his beak twice through the flame of the lamp, after which he made the animal walk 
six or seven steps, which was repeated six or seven times ; this preliminary cere- 
mony being ended, he dipped his fingers in the oil of the lamp, and rubbed the cock 
under the wings and upon the back, and then immediately commenced smoking 
opium : having inhaled the smoke of the drug in the ordinary manner, he blew it 
into the beak, the ears and upon every part of the body of the poor animal, which, 
though accustomed to that exercise, appeared not to take any peculiar pleasure in 
it. This being finished, the same ceremony began a second, and finally a third 
time, after which the cock was carried carefully to his ordinary place, and left there 
to pass the night imder the influence of opium. The desire I had to sleep on 
account of my indisposition made me see with satisfaction the end of this tedious 
ceremony. It appears that the way of bringing up cocks, by smoking opium, is 
much used by those of the Malays who are fond of cock-fighting." 

Cockles. — ^These aboxmd on the coast of the Peninsula. In the Muda dis- 
trict, Province Wellesley, enormous mounds of cockle-shells, 20 to 30 feet high, 
exist. How they came there is a puzzle. 

Cockroach (Lipas) Blatta Orientalis, — ^This disgusting insect is found in 
large quantities in nee and sugar godowns, and in Malaya reaches from 1| to 2 
inches in length. It is omnivorous, and will eat calomel with as much apparent 
relish and impunity as boots and shoes, paper, <&c. Nothing has yet been dis- 
covered which will exterminate them, except killing them in detail. As a rule the 
houses at the Straits Settlements are far less troubled with them than those of 

Cockup. — ^Probably a corruption of the name ikan JcaTcap, a species of perch. 

Cocoa (Cacao). — Not indigenous to the Peninsula. Cocoa-trees have been 
cultivated with some success in a few plantations, but no striking success has as yet 
rewarded the cultivators' efforts. 

Cocoa-nut. — The tree, par excellence, of Malaya. It is too well known to 
need description, vast plantations existing throughout the Peninsula and British 
Settlements. The trees are infested by two species of beetles which do immense 
damage, whole tracts of trees having, in places, been destroyed. The Malay words 
for cocoa-nut are Tda/pa and nyoh, the latter being used in the Northern Native 

A rare variety bears a nut, the flesh of which is red in place of white. Cocoa- 
nut in its dried state is known as coprah (q, v,). 

Cocoa-nut Beetles (Kumhang) — are two varieties of Coleopterous 
insects — the Rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes nasicomis, and Calandra jpalmarum, a 
weevil belonging to the section Chynchophora and family CurculionicUe, The per- 
fect beetle only of Oryctes nasicomis, attacks the cocoa-nut palm, the eggs being 
deposited and the grub& or larva hatched in paddy husk, paddy straw, cattle manure, 
stable litter, sugar-carie megas, dead cocoa-nut-trees, or any other refuse or litter 
of a giwiilar nature, where the grubs remain imtil they become perfect beetles, 
when they make their way out at night and fly to the nearest cocoa-nut-trees 
to make their attack. After alighting on a tree, the beetle makes for the 
butt end of the leaf on which it is, and bores through this towards the centre of 
the tree, passing through other leaves yoimg and not unfolded, flower-stalks and 



Descriptive Dictionary 


Buathes, till it reaches the central shoot, where it feeds on the cabbage. If left un- 
disturbed, or the tree is often attacked, it is sure to die. The only remedj is to 
estract the beetle by thrusting a stout iron barbed neodle into the hole it has 
formed, transfixing it and dragging it out. It is, however, a hopeless stru^le \a 
TOOtemi against this beetle if ^ere are any breeding-places left undisturbed any- 
where within a mile of a cocoa-nut jjlantation. All refuse, rubbish, or dead trees 
should be burned or buried at suflScient depth to prevent the beetle making use of 
them as breeding- places. Considering the great increase in numbers of this 
boelle during the last few years, and the great dama^ it has done to valuable 
property. Government should make stringent regulations for the destruction of this 
{test, and take precautions to prevent its breeding, or it may reach such numbers as 
to defy all hopes of its ravages being kept within bounds. 

Calandra Pabnamm. It is the larva or grub of this beetle which does harm 
to the cocoa-nut-tree. Its habits, 4c.. are not well known, but it is thought that 
the perfect beetle does no harm to the tree, merely flying from tree to tree to 
deposit its eggs in suitable places, probably in the crown of the tree between the 
young leaves. The gnib eats out the heart of the tree near the middle shoot until 
it arrives at a certain age, when it bores its way to the outside and makes for 
itself a cocoon of cocoa-nut fibres, from which it emerges as a perfect beetle after 
a certain time, and flies away to deposit its eggs on other trees and thus spread 
destruction. It is not usually so numerous or harmful as Oryctes natUomut. 

Cocoa-nut Oil. — The following notice of this article of local trade is 
of interest. It is quoted from the Indian Engineer : — 

" The importation of palm and cocoa-nut oils added au important, variety to 
the list of soaps, particularly of toilet soaps, the former being a useful and pleasant 
material, improving all soaps into which it enters ; which cannot, however, be said 
of cocoa-nut oil, as it retaiua a i-ancid odour which it Beeme impossible to 
remove, and which is to most people objectionable, so that it should be used 
sparingly. On the other hand, it has many good qualities, giving the soap a fine 
appearance, and in use giving a copious lather. It has also properties peculiar to 
itself ; thus, it saponifies only in strong lyes, and will dissolve in salt water, and 
is often called ' marine soap.' It will also retain a large percentage of water 
wilJiout impairing its soliditv or appearance. These properties it in some degree 
imparts to other soaps to which it may be added, and it has the means of much 
sophistication and adulteration, which has given to purchasers an idea of inferior 
quality, yet to some it Is a favourite because of the richness of its lather." 

Cocoa-nut Pearls. — The following remarks concerning these peculiar 
accretions are extracted from Naivre : — 

" During my recent travels." Dr. Sydney Hickson writes to a scientific con- 
temporary, '■ I was frequently asked by the Dutch planters, and others, if I had 
ever seen a ' cocoa-nut stone.' These stones are said to be rarely found (1 in 2,000 
or more) in the perisperm of the cocoa-nut, and when found are kept by the 
natives as a charm against disease and evil spirits, This slory of the coeoa-nut 
stone was so constantly told me, and in every case without any variation in its 
details, that I made every effort before leaving to obtain some Hpecimens, and 
eventually succeeded in obtaining two. 

" One of these is nearly a perfect sphere. 14 ram. in diameter, and the other. 
rather smaller in sine, is irregularly pear-sha|>ed. In both specimens the surface 
is worn nearly smooth by friction. The spherical one I have had cut into two 
halves, but I can find no concentric or other Markings on the polished cut sur&ces. 

" Dr. KiMMiNs has kindly submitted one half 1*> a careful chemical analysis, 
and finds that it consists of pure carbonate of limo without any trace of other 
suits or vegetable tissue. 

" I should be verv glad if any of your readers could inform me if there are ajiy 


COC of British Malaya, CoC 

of these stones in any of the Museums, or if there is any evidence beyond mere 
hearsay of their existence in the perisperm of the cocoa-nut." 

On this letter Mr. Thiselton Dyer makes the following remarks: — "Dr. 
Hickson's account of the calcareous concretions occasionally found in the central 
hollow (filled with fluid — ^the so-called ' milk ') of the endosperm of the seed of 
the cocoa-nut is extremely interesting. It appears to me a phenomenon of the 
same order as tabasheer, to which I recently drew attention in Nature. 

" The circumstances of the occurrence of these stones or * pearls ' are in many 
respects parallel to those which attend the formation of tabasheev. In both 
cases, mineral matter in palpable masses is withdrawn from solution in considerable 
volumes of fluid contained in tolerably large cavities in living plants — and in both 
instances they are Monocotyledons. 

" In the case of the cocoa-nut pearls the material is calcium carbonate, and 
this is well known to concrete in a peculiar manner from solutions in which organic 
matter is also present. 

" In my note on tabasheer I referred to the reported occurrence of mineral con- 
cretions in the wood of various tropical Bicotyledonoua trees. Tabasheer is too 
well known to be pooh-poohed ; but some of my scientific friends expressed a polito 
incredulity as to the other cases. I learn, however, from Prof. Judd, F.R.S., that 
he has obtained a specimen of apatite found in cutting up a mass of teak-wood. 
The occurrence of this mineral under these circumstances has long been recorded ; 
but I have never had the good fortime to see a specimen." — Quoted from the 
Singapore Free Press, 

COCOS IslaJlds. — Two groups of islands are known by this name. That 
best known consists of four islands on the western coast of Sumatra, but does not 
come within the scope of this work. The other group of the same name, lying 
some 800 miles S.W. by S. of Singapore in lat. 11^ 40^ S. long. 97° 10' E., is 
more correctly known as the Keeling Group, but is locally known as the Cocos- 
Keeling Group. Until 1886 it was attached to the Ceylon Government, but does 
not appear to have ever been visited by any official from that Colony. In Marcli, 
1886, it was proclaimed an appanage of the Straits Settlements. The following 
account of the island is condensed from the Report made by Mr. E. W. Birch, 
who, in August, 1885, was sent there by the Straits Government : — 

"In obedience to the instructions of His Excellency, I embarked on board 
H.M.S. Espoir, Lieutenant Commander Horace E. Adams, E.N., on the 10th of 
August. The weather was fine until daylight on the 20th, when we experienced 
sharp showers of rain. The wind fell with the rain, and so getting up steam again 
we pushed on and reached the Cocos Islands at 10.30 a.m. 

** We entered by the channel between Horsburgh Island (on the right) and 
Direction Island (on the left), and, after steaming slowly for about a quarter of a 
mile into the lagoon, anchored in smooth water of between five and six fathoms. 
Ships drawing not more than twenty feet of water can easily enter and occupy this 
anchorage, which has a coral and sandy bottom and affords good holding ground. 

" The islands present a much larger appeai'ance than a cursory glance at the 
chart or the perusal of Forbes^ lx)ok (* A Naturalist's WanderiDgs in the Eastern 
Archipelago ') lead one to expect. I cannot better describe their general appearance 
than by borrowing from the language of the Rev. E. C. Spicer, a naturalist whos(j 
researches Captain Adams was able to further by giving him a passage from 
Batavia to the islands : — * The group^ of coral islands, called the Cocos, form a 
roughly broken circle nearly approaching the horse-shoe shape common to coral 
atolls. The islands are of varying size, some being from one to seven miles in 
length and others a few hundred yards, while the smallest are simply moimds of 
ooml sand crowned by a few cocoa-nut palms. They are connected under very 
shallow water by the hard cement rock on which they rest, and which is formed by 

[81] o 


Descriptive Dictionary 

the disintegration, through the blowa of the heavy surf, of an enormouB quantity ■ 
of comU and marioe sheUs. Outside the islauda and nearly all round the group a I 
natural barrier protects the lagoon, aud seaward of this bar there is u sudden slope I 
into very deep water. The appearance of the exterior and of the intJ*rior o£ the 1 
islands is strikingly different. Towards the ocean the heavy surf breaks over the 
jagged rocks and washes large pieces ashore. The interior shores are quietly 
washed by a clear green shallow sea, and the smooth sandy beaeh forms a pleasant .1 
contrast to the green vegetation above it. The circle of the islands bounds a 1 
lagoon for the most part of very shallow water with pits of varying depth. The 
land is evidently rising and, at some distant time, will form a circular island i 
surrounded by a crater-like edge. The resemblance of the whole to a giant crater j 
is very striking.' 

" The islands are over twenty in number, they are for the most i>art very | 
narrow and, without any eiception, are thickly planted with cocoa-nut palms. The 
bea^h is covered with pumice stone which was washed ashore some five months or 
so after the Krakatao eruption in August, 1883. The sand is the whitest and 
finest I have ever seen, and under the microscox>e shows the most minute ahelly 

E articles, The clearness and buoyancy of the water in the lagoom makes eea- 
athing very pleasant, and, though sharks are said to abound, no accident has ever 

" Immediately after the E»poir was brought to anchor, Mr, Cbakles Boss, 
who, in the absence of his elder brother, Mr. Geobge Boss, is in charge of the | 
islands, called on us. He was accompanied by a cousin, Mr. Williau Boss. I 
briefly explained tie object of our visit, and Mr, Charles Boss repeatedly assured , 
me that he and the other members of the family would be happy to render every I 
assistance towards my inquiries. From the earnestness of his manner it was clear 
to me that our visit was a source of immised pleasure to him. He and some of 
the family at first thought that war had broken out, and that therefore a man-of- 
war visited them, but when I told them that the head of the family had applied 
at home for a grant, Mr. Chablbb Rosa at once explained that the laying of a 
telegraph cable from Batavia was their dream, and that they wished for definite 
relations with the British Government for the purposes of the cable. He 
corroborated his brother's statement that some old title-deeds were lost in a great 
fire that occurred in the island many years back, but I vras never able to obtain 
from them any description of what the old deeds referred to consisted. 

■■ The Boas family is one that shows no signs of being likely te die out. They 
are a remarkably heal thy- looking lot, and the brothers are fine muscular men of 
more than ordinary physique. The hard out-of-door life they lead is in itself 
healthy. They have been well educated and are quick and intelligent. They can 
turn tiieir hands to any kind of work, and take much trouble in teaching the 
people every description of handicraft. Their manners are extremely courteous, 
and what they call their ' rough hospitality ' is unbounded and thoroughly 

" The history of the islands, as I gathered it chiefly from Neh Ba^k, the 
oldest inhabitant, now in his eightieth year, is as follows : — 

" The Baja of Bandier made a present of the old man's mother (together vrilh 
ft number of other people, about two hundred in all) to Albiandek I^bb. Neh 
BahIe's father was left behind in Bandjer, but his mother accompanied Hake to 
Malacca, and there f^En BasIb was bom, After a stay of a few years in Malacca, 
Habe left with all his people, wandered ftver Borneo and Java, going finally to 
Bencooleu. In 1820, when Sir Stamforo Baffles was Governor of Bencoolen, 
Hake made up bis mind to go to the Cape, aud, as it was necessary that he should 
take hia followers there as freemen, he procured for all of them certificates of 
emancipation from slavery. Those of Neh BasIb aud of a girl, Dapbite. who 
afterwards became his wife, I have seen, aud attach a fac-simile of his certificate. 


Goc of British Malaya. Coc 

After a stay of nearly seven years at the Cape, Habe and liis followers came over 
to the Cocos Islands in 1827, and found them quite uninhabited. In the meantime, 
•.e., in 1825, the original Boss, the grandfather of the present proprietor, had come 
to these same islands, and finding them imoccupied had returned home to Scotland 
to induce people to come out and colonize them. When he returned in 1827, he 
found that Hase was there. Curiously enough, Habe had been brought there in 
a ship commanded by Boss's own brother, viz., the Melpomene, in which vessel Hare 
had a large «hare. The two factions lived on bad terms with each other, and 
though many of Boss's colonists left the place owing to its being already occupied, 
the Boss influence exceeded that of the Habe. Habe, an idle man of most 
eccentric habits, was gradually deserted by his followers, who, headed by Neh 
BasIb, went over to Boss. Finally Habe left the islands and, it is said, came to 
Singapore to die. 

" In 1854 Boss died and was succeeded by his son, J. G. Clunies-Boss. The 
islands, which had been from time to time called at by ships of various nationalities, 
received a formal visit early in 1857 from H.M.S. Juno, Captain Fbeemantle then 
took possession of the group in the name of the British Government and appointed 
J. G. C. Boss to be Superintendent. The Juno remained some three months, and 
the incidents of her visit are strongly imprinted on the memories of some of the 
Islanders. Before she left, a Bussian man-of-war called in and saluted the Euglish 
flag. I was so fortunate as to come across certain documents, of which I attach 
copies, which clearly show what was done at the time. In 1862 a terrible cyclone 
devastated the islands. In 1864 H.M.S. Serpent, a surveying ship, called there. 
In 1871 Mr. J. G. C. Boss died, and his eldest son, the present Superintendent, 
succeeded him. In 1875 another cyclone occurred. It was terrible in its fury. It 
killed the cocoa-nut trees on most of the islands and destroyed the houses of the 
I>eople and many of the brick buildings and factories of the Boss family. Three 
aneroids went past the lowest mark and stuck, the mercurials being dashed agaiust 
the wall and broken. 

" It is admitted that before 1857 the Dutch flag was flown on Cocos vessels 
trading with Batavia, and in one of his letters Mr. J. G. C. Boss states that he was 
a naturalized subject of the Netherlands, but no one will admit that the flag of 
Holland has ever been hoisted on the islands themselves. The Boss family dis- 
tinctly assured me that no other flag than that of England had ever been flown by 
them since 1857. This is corroborated by the older inhabitants. The inclinations 
of the family are decidedly British, and there is no reason to suppose that their 
assurances, in this respect, are open to the suspicion of a doubt. 

** The population of the islands is divided into two classes : — («) Cocos-bom 
Malays ; and (h) imported coolies from Bantam (Java). 

" The Census Statistics of past years were taken to Europe by Geobge Boss, 
but the following figures for 1874, 1880, and 1885 will show that the population is 
on the increase. It is the policy of the Boss family to reduce gradually the number 
of imported coolies, but they encourage the permanent settlement of these coolios 
in the Islands. 

Cocos-bom. Bantamese. Total. 

^OfTI ... ... ... 

XOOv ... ... ... 

iOwV ... ... ... 

In former years the coolies were convicts sent over for work in the Cocos by the 
Dutch authorities, but they were a turbulent set of men, and the last of them were 
sent away in 1875. This accounts for the falling off in the Bantamese population 
shown in the returns for 1880. 

" The present population may be summarized as follows : — 

[83] G 2 








loy ,, 


Coc Descriptive Dutionary Coc 


Widowed ... 
Children ... 


Widowed . . . 
Unmarried ... 




• • • 



. • • 



. • • 



• • • 







• •• 



• • • 



. • • 



. • • 




The registration of Births, Deaths, and Marriages is compulsory. All births 
and deaths must be notified to the head of the Ross family within twenty-four 
hours, and any failure to do so is punishable with a fine. In the case of marriages 
it is obligatory on the married couple to go immediately after the celebration of the 
marriage in the mosque, to the office of the Eoss's. They are accompanied by their 
parents, by the elders of the village, and by the Chief Priest, and the entry having 
been made in the register, is attested by the Priest and by a member of the Ross 
family. Divorces are also taken note of, an endorsement being made opposite to 
the marriage entry. 

" There have been one hundred and fifty-eight births since the Ist of January, 
1880. Of these, eighty-five were the births of boys and seventy-three of girls. 

" In the same period there have been fifty-seven deaths, thirty-three being 
males and twenty-four females. It is worthy oi note that of the number of deaths 
no less than thirty-five resulted from beri-beri. An epidemic in 1883-4 carried off 
twenty-four people. 

" There have been ninety-one marriages since 1855, of which number twenty- 
three have taken place since the 1st of January, 1880. Marriages are celebrated 
in accordance with Mahommedan law. Amongst Malays in our parts of the Penin- 
sula, it is customary for the parents to arrange the marriages of their children, but 
at the Cocos the European custom is imitated, each man being at liberty to make 
his own choice. If the woman gives him any ground to hope that his attentions 
are not displeasing to her, it is customary for him to make some little ornament or 
article for use with his own hands and present it to her. The usual present made 
is a little comb made of tortoise-shell and worn in the back hair. One pretty little 
girl was in possession of eight combs so presented to her. She presented us with 
two of them which had been given to her by lovers who had since proved faithless. 
No man is allowed more than one wife. 

** Divorces are by mutual consent, and are obtainable in the forms prescribed by 
Mahommedan law. Only two have taken place since 1855. 

" The exports of the place are copra, cocoa-nuts, cocoa-nut oil, b6che-de-mer, 
and mengkudu (a bark used for dyeing purposes). Cocos copra is said to command 
the highest price of any placed on the market, and the people attribute this fact 
to their patience in waiting till the nut falls from the palm instead of plucking it. 
From October, 1882, to the end of 1884, 1,527 tons were exported, at an average 
price of d£19 per ton. The actual quantity of nuts used to make up this quantity 
was close upon eleven millions. 


COC of British Malaya COC 

" Cocoa-nuts are also exported to Batavia and elsewhere at the rate of nearly 
jei 188. per thousand. During 1883 and 1884 half a million were so exported. 

" Cocoa-nut oil is manufactured in three qualities: — (a) hand-made cold-drawn; 
(6) hand-made cooked ; and (c) machine-made oil. The first quality (a) commands 
a price varying from .£31 to <£31 10s. per ton ; the second quality fetches from 
^0 15s. to <£31 per ton ; and the inferior quality (c) from <£29 to <£30 a ton. In 
all, of all three qualities, about two thousand five hundred piculs are exported 
annually. Eighteen piculs (Dutch) equal one ton. 

" BSche-de-mer has not been shipped for some years, but the seas abound in it, 
and, on the return of Mr. Geobge Eoss, it is expected that the trade in this 
respect will be re-opened. The average price in former years was about J^\ 17s. 6d. 
per picul. 

" The price of mengkudu is said to vary very muct. The last shipment fetched 
about <£2 per picul. About sixty tons are exported annually. 

*' All produce for the European market is called for once a year by a chartered 
vessel. Produce for Batavia is sent up in the family schooners. Cocoa-nuts are sent 
to Batavia, cocoa-nut oil to London and Batavia, copra generally to Hamburg, once 
to Liverpool and once to Lisbon. 

" All provisions are obtained from Batavia, one of the Cocos schooners making 
a trip for this purpose once a month. The imports include rice, sugar, flour, tea, 
coffee, tobacco, sago, pepper, gambier, gum benjamin, green peas, clothes, and tur- 
meric. These stores are all kept by the Eoss family, and are sold to the natives on 
any day of the week that the people ask for them, except on Saturdays and Sundays. 
Anything special that the people ask for is ordered and sold to them. This year, 
for the first time, the Eoss family tried the experiment of getting out a shipment 
of stores, Ac, for the Islands from London. They did so to the extent of .£5,000 
worth. The invoices had not yet arrived, and the goods were not yet unpacked, but 
the shipment contains clothing, house and cooking utensils, crockery, cutlery, glass, 
mechanics' tools, guns, fishing-rods and tackle, and all manner of articles of use. 

" The principal imported article of consumption is, of course, rice. This is 
served out to the people every Monday. It is calculated that each individual con- 
sumes one pound per diem, and each family is allowed to buy to that extent. Some- 
times the schooner may be delayed by stress of weather or other causes and then 
the supply of rice may fall short. Whenever this happens (which it is said very 
rarely to do, but which was unfortunately the case when 1 was at the Cocos), the 
rice IS served out sparingly, and each person can only buy half the allowance, but 
then he is only compelled to work three days a week, all extra work at such times 
earning extra pay. The measures used for meting ou the rice are made out of and 
called * bamboos.' One bamboo may be taken to be the equivalent of one pound. 

" Five bamboos of rice are worth E^ in copper. 

" Seven bamboos a week is the quantity allotted to Bantamese coolies according 
to their contracts. 

" Ten bamboos (the largest measure) =E. 1 in copper. 

" A rupee in copper, i.e., Cocos currency, is taken to be equal to two-thirds of 
a silver rupee. 

" The surrounding seas literally teem with fish, and the natives are most expert 
boatmen and fishermen. They use the large and the small nets known to Malays 
in the Straits, namely, the jaring and jala, but their chief skill lies in harpooning. 
It is very rare to see a man miss a shot with the harpoon, the accuracy with which 
they throw being little short of marvellous. On one occasion two or three of us 
were wading through coral shoals on our way out to a boat anchored in deeper 
water when a largish fish suddenly darted past us, and quick as thought a Cocos 
man who was walking by me went after it. The chase was exciting. We could 
see the flashes of the fish as it darted backwards and forwards and as it turned 
baulked by the man, who kept on cutting it off at angles. Finally, it went through 


Coc Descriptive Dictionary CoG 

a mass of sea-weed, and we had metde up our minda that it had escaped, wheo 
the man hurled his harpoon and returned with his prize — a fat ' beard-fish,' bo 
called from the fact of its haTiIl^; two liarbs hanging from its lower jaw, Green 
fishing is exciting work, some of the large green fish making great play. A member 
o£ our party caught one of these fish which weighed exactly thirty pounds. The 
parrot fish, of a beautiful greenish 'blue colour, abounds, and there are fine varieties 
of the red and grey mullet. 

" No fishing stakes or weirs are allowed — a useful regulation, which gives tlie 
poor man an equal chance with his richer neighbour. 

" As I have said before, all the islands are thickly planted with cocoa-nuts. In 
the Settlement aad West Islands the space between the trees is kept clear, and the 
appearance is more that of a plantation, but in the other islands aU the nuls. leaves 
and rubbish are allowed to accumulate. Two or three times a year a working party 
goes over, picks up and husks all the nuts, and then leaves the refose. sometimes 
burning it. The rotting away of all this rubhiah, which is assisted by the working 
of small ants, forms a good manure for the trees. In some of the islands a regular 
undergrowth grows uji, and in sonie, such as Direction Islands, the wild and very 
sweet papaw grows luiuriaotly. 

" The cocoa-nut trees are not stepped (monkey-laddered) here as they are every- 
where else- The fruit has a very thick husk, the nut itself being small and in some 
cases quite diminutive. The kernel is very thick, and though the nut does not give 
much water it can produce more copra and oil than much larger nuts. 

" The nuts assume all sorts of fantastic shapes, the moat remarkable being the 
homed cocoa-nuts, which haveescrescenceslike ram's horns growing outside the husk. 
The branching palms on West Islajida arc very remarkable. 

" The natives draw awy«r from the palm, but no loM^ is allowed to be made hy 
them for their own use ; it used to be, but it led to much druukenuesa, and Mr. 
Geobqk Bobs had to forbid its manufacture. 

" Soap is made by phwing ashes on a perforated board, and by pouring on 
water which dissolves the potash causing it to trickle through. It is then mi»od 
with cocoa-nut oil, is tested by hand and boiled till it becomes thick, when it is cooled 
down in a pan. 

" Vinegar is also made. It is merely toddy put into a bottle, corked down and 
left to stand for a fortnight. 

" The Cocos process of making hread is very simple. The flour is placed in a 
large tray, salt is sprinkled over it, and toddy of two kinds (aweet and bitter) is 
added in smalt quantities by means of a ladle. All is well mixed, and in a good 
sticky state, is beaten on a table sprinkled over with flour; it is then raised in both 
liands high above the head and banged down over and over i^jju on the table, aud 
when well beaten is put into moulds. At the end of three hours from the time the 
process commenced, it is placed in the oven and baked. 

" Since 1874 eighteen ships from Australia have called for water, which is put 
on board at a charge of ten shillings per ton. In 1879 four of these ships came in, 
but as a rule only one calls in each year. The last ship that called arrived on the 
17th of July, 1884. The Islanders can put about forty tons of water on board a 
ship in a day. They used to have a flume eighty yards long with cast iron pipes 
runti ins from Settlement Island into the sea to carry the water, but it was destroyed 
in the 1875 hurricane and has not been repaired since. 

" The Bantamese cooties are eugsgcd by the Boss Agent in Batavia, and they 
receive what is called a Sea-pass to enable them to proceed to the Cocos. 

"Tbeii' engagements are for such terms as they agree to, generally for t«n 
years, but in a few cases they have engaged for three years only. They receive an 
allowance of seven bamboos of rice a week, firewood, cocoa-nut oil, salt, aud medi- 
cines free. They are allowed small plots of land and get the materials to buitd in 
the same way as the Cocos-bom. They may take cocoa-nut« for their own use from 



of British Malaya. 


South Island at anj time between noon on Saturday and sunset on Sunday, and 
they may fish wherever they like. Their pay is Es. 10 a month for nutting, and 
they must for this husk four hundred nuts a day. For other work they are paid 
Bs. 8 a month. Three Bantamese have been registered as naturalized Cocosmen, 
having expressed their determination never to leave the islands. Four others have 
been in the islands for over twenty years. Seventeen more have lived there for 
more than fifteen years. Thus it will be seen that no less than twenty-four men 
out of a total of forty-seyen have over- stayed the terms of their engagements. It 
is not at all uncommon for them when their agreements have expired to go back to 
their country with a free passage and to again return on the same terms. 

"There are actually forty-two able-bodied coolies at work, and of these 
fourteen have credit balances with the Boss family ranging from 20 to 254 guilders. 
The above facts establish pretty clearly the conclusion that the Bantamese may be 
looked upon as likely to become permanent settlers. When once married they 
generaUv make up their minds to stay in the islands with their families. 

" The matrimonial customs of the Bantamese are peculiar. They have to send 
to Batavia for wives, whom in many cases they have not known before they come to 
the islands. No Cocos-bom will intermarry with the Bantamese, or * coolie ' as 
they are called, so when a coolie wants a wife, he goes to the Boss family and asks 
that one may be imported from Batavia. In some cases, when the men have a good 
credit balance lodged with the Boss's, they take an advance and go and choose their 
wives. As a general rule, however, the Boss's send to their agents for the women in 
such number as they are required, and on tlie arrival of the schooner with the 
women, the applicants for wives make their choice, and, after celebrating the 
marriage, make the necessary entry in the register. Their private life is not so 
moral as that of the Cocos-bom, but there is not much serious crime. Eleven years 
ago some of them made off with one of the island schooners, but they were re- 
captured. None of that gang are here now. Fifteen years ago one of them killed 
his wife and was sent to Batavia for punishment by the Dutch authorities. 

"I had a long quiet talk with their P^nghulu, Satipan, who first came here in 
1868, returned to Batavia in 1880, and came back to the islands after a short 
absence. He is in every way contented, and has no complaint to make either on 
his own account or that of any of his people. 

" The currency of the place is paper money, stamped notes of sheej)skin signed 
by the head of the Boss family. They are of six values, viz., \ Bupee, \ Bupee, 
B. 1, Bs. 2, Bs. 3, and Bs. 5. 

" The wages paid for labour are at different rates in guilders, some of which 
are as follows : — A trained blacksmith /12.50 a week ; a carpenter from /4 to/7.50 ; 
a mason /6; coxswains of boats and overseers /6; boatmen /3.50; nutters, who 
must collect and deliver the nut husked, /I for everj' five hundred cocoa-nuts. 
Bantamese contract coolies, able-bodied men working at nutting, /lO a month ; 
second class or weak coolies /8 a month. Washing is done at the rate of /I for 
twelve pieces. 

" From inquiries made amongst the natives, I take these rates of wages to be 
put at the maximum rate. 

"The records kept of thermometer readings for 18/4 give the following 
results : — 









« >• 



. 77 
. 75 
. 77 
. 74 


.. 88 



July ... 

. 76 



. 76 



Lowest Highest 
Temperature. Temperature. 

.. 74 ... 85 

74 ... 85 

72 ... 86 

T^ ... 86 

1^ ... 86 

.. 74 ... 86 



Descriptive Dictionary 



to 29.98 

July ... 

.. 29.85 

to 29.98 


„ 29.97 


.. 29.85 

„ 29.98 


„ 29.93 


.. 29.82 

„ 30.00 


„ 29.90 


.. 29.00 

„ 29.99 


„ 29.98 


.. 29.00 

„ 29.92 


.. 29.98 


.. 29.74 

„ 29.99 

" The barometer varied as follows in 1884 : — 




May ... 
June ... 

"It is easy to believe that the islands are most salubrious, and the statistics 
prove this. The only diseases feared are beri-beri and dropsy, and the former is 
much dreaded. The outbreak of ] 883-84 was caused, it is supposed, by the clear- 
ing of one of the islands, and the only treatment found to be efficacious is to send 
the sufferers to the North Keeling Island, where they are well cared for and put 
under a course of drinking a certain mineral water, in which they have great faith. 
The North Keeling Island is looked upon as the sanatorium of the place. 1 attach 
a copy of the analysis, made by the Dutch medical authorities, of this mineral 
water, and I have brought a small cask full of the water with a view to its being 
analyzed by our medical authorities. 

" The south-east monsoon is considered the coolest and healthiest time of the 
year in the Cocos, the months of June, July, and August being considered the 
best. They are accompanied by fresh breezes and frequent rains, and, if the 
weather that we experienced is a criterion of what they get every year at this time, 
I can only describe it as delightful. September, October, and November are very 
dry. Winds very variable, and beri-beri and diarrhoea are feared during these 
months. December, January, and February are looked upon as the cyclone 
months ; they are very stormy and treacherous (especially December), fine days 
being followed by ugly weather and vice versa. Thunder and lightning with 
violent gusts of wind and heavy showers make the people very anxious about their 
shipping and boats, and the cocoa-nuts suffer to an appreciable extent. The 
weather experienced in March, April, and May is said to be much the same as that 
of Se])teml)er, October, and November, but sickness is not so much dreaded in the 
earlier as in the later months. 

'* I visited the Guard House, which is just outside Boss's house. It is a sort of 
Police Station, but there is no proper Police Force in the islands. Every night 
watchmen are placed over the Settlement. For this purpose the village is divided 
into three divisions, and there is a bell in every division which is rung to turn the 
different watches. These watches begin at 6 p.m. and last till 6 a.m. Each watch 
lasts for three hours, and the first watch, i.e., that which is on guard from 6 to 9 p.m., 
also takes the last watch, i.e., that from 3 to 6 a.m. The duties of the watch are 
to go round from one end of the village to the other and to check the watches of 
each division, to examine all boats at anchorage, to inspect all house-fires, and put 
out all fires in kitchens. Lights are allowed in houses, and, in fact, the coolies 
(Bantamese) never sleep without lights, but no kitchen fires are allowed except in 
cases of sickness, which are at once reported by the watchmen to the Doctor who 
goes to see the cases. 

" In the Guard House public notices are posted. There is one warning people 
against stealing boat sails or any articles from their neighbours' boats or houses, 
or from receiving any stolen property. The penalty for offending in this direction 
is laid down as follows : — For the first offence $25, for the second offence $50, for 
the third offence deportation, to be accompanied by a letter to Batavia branding 
the offender as a disreputable character (tanda yang hangsat). 

" There was also a notice laying down certain sanitary regulations rendered 
necessary by ravages of beri-beri. All houses and gardens are to be kept clean, 
and everything is to be buried deep and at some distance away from the sea-beach. 
An Inspector is to go round and examine the premises of the people, and if they 


Coc of British Malaya. Coc 

are found to be dirty they are forthwith to be cleansed and all expenses 
incurred thereby are recoverable from the occupiers. There is also a further 
penalty calculated in proportion to the state of dirt in which the premises are 
found to be. 

"The Cocos-bom men are fine specimens of Malays; being muscular and 
hardy. They are great at boating and fishing, and they are not as indolent as our 
Straits Malays, being, as they are, compelled to do a certain amount of work. The 
women are a remarkably nice-looking lot, dressing well and carrying themselves 
very upright. 

" In Mrs. Boss's house the servants are all girls, and are called * Baboos.' 
They are six in number. Two are cooks, and four look after the children and wait 
at table. There are also two sempstresses. They are Cocos-bom, and are taken on 
when quite little children and taught. They move about noiselessly and are most 
attentive. When they marry they leave the service of their employers. Many of 
the natives eat with knife, fork, and spoon. They have mattresses and curtained 
beds spotlessly clean ; they spread white tablecloths on their tables, use a brush and 
comb, have little ornaments for their tables, and decorate the insides of their 
houses with cuttings from illustrated papers and cartoons from Vajiity Fair. It is 
left very much to the women to attend to the arrangement of the insides of the 
houses and to the cooking. The houses are, taken all round, much better built 
than Malay houses in the Straits. They are built nearer the ground, the 
foundations are thick cocoa-nut stems, the sides are made of the mid-ribs of the 
fronds of cocoa-nuts and the roofs of the fronds themselves. The whole a2)pear- 
ance is one of great compactness and neatness, and the most striking feature is the 
great tidiness in trimming the insides of the roofs ; this j^resents a most finished 

" The language spoken here differs in many words from the Malay of the 
Straits. The people sometimes failed to grasp a word or two when 1 spoke to 
them, or vice versa, but it was quite simple to make oneself understood, and any 
word that was strange to them was easily made intelligible by a little explanation. 
I attach a small glossary showing the principal differences I came across. I am 
sorry there was not time to j)ay more attention to the subject. A curious custom, 
I have not met with elsewhere, obtains amongst these islanders. When a man 
becomes the father of a son, he is no longer called by his own name, but is 
familiarly known by that of his eldest son, with the prefix * Pa ' added to it. Thus 
the Chief Priest, whose own name is Sama, has a son named Satli, and is now 
always called Pa-Satli. 

" Each native of the place is allowed to build a house and get the materials 
free so far as the cocoa-nut tree provides these materials. Cocoa-nut oil and fire- 
wood are also given gratis. Each person is allowed a plot of ground 100 x 20 
yards, and all cocoa-nut trees inside the ring-fence they put up are theirs. Each 
family may take cocoa-nuts for their own use free from charge at any time between 
noon on Saturday and sunset on Sunday from any of the islands except Horsburgh 
and West Islands and part of South Island. They may fish anywhere they like. 

" Poultry is of course ^jlentif ul, all the people keeping fowls and ducks. They 
do not, however, strike one as thriving particularly well, with the excej^tion of tliose 
kept by some of the Eoss family. These latter are crossed with some Dorking 
fowls brought out from home and make a good breed. 

" One noticeable thing is an affection from which most of the fowls suffer. 
Malays would at once explain it by saying they were * sakit angin ' (sick from the 
air), and no doubt this is the case. Their walk is of the most groggy kind, and I 
fancy the strong breeze always blowing over the island has a good deal to do with 
it, exercising, as it must do, a baneful influence over young chickens. 

" In some of the islands fowls have been turned loose and have become quite 
wild. In Direction Island, for instance, there are about 200 fowls so turned out. 


Descriptive Dictionary 


Some little thatclied huts are built for them to rooet in, aad co<roa-DUt-leave<l 
basketB ore provided for their uest^. They are very elij and wild, fly like phuasauta, 
and have regular breeding seasona, 

■' In Horsburgh Island there are aome 30 or 40 deer. Thoy were originally 
brought from Java and Sumatra, and the Rosa famdy amuse themselves by shooting 
them now and again. They are stalked, not driven. When hard pressed, they will 
take willingly to the wa,ter, and in some cases havti been known to swim out to tho 
barrier, which k some considerable dialance from the island. They greatly 
resemble the Sambur deer met with in the Straits. 

" There are about thirty sheep on Settlement Island ; they belong to the 
natives, who are very loth to part with them. We auceeeded in buying one for 
SQven rupees. 

■' Turtle are brought every trip of the schooner, which puts in to Gome islands 
out of Batavia, where the erew are landed to catch them. They ai-e kept in the 
turtle-pond on West Island, being preserved there for the use of the Ross family. 
In Horaburgh Island there are also a few i-abbits imported by the Ross family ; 
and landrail, a very pretty grey and brown speckled species, abound. They run 
very fast, fly if pressed, and afford much the same sort of shooting ae quail. 
Jungle fowl are found on most of the larger islands. 

■' FoEBEB gives a full account of the sea-birds which are found in great number 
on the Islands. He accurately describes their extraordinary habits. The two most 
intereating are, without doubt, the large frigate-birds and the beautiful little white 
tern. In North Keeling Island tbey are knocked down by the islanders (who make 
regular trips there in fair weather to get sea-birds) with a long polo and a long 
brass chain at the end of it. 

" There are no suakes in the islands, and centipedes, scorpions, and tarantulas 
are but rarely met with. 

" Little or no vegetable gardening is done either by the Boss family or the 
natives, and this is, to say the least, Eiurprising, as the sod and climate are good, 
and as vegetables would so pleasantly relieve the monotony of food in the Cocoa. 
Pumpkins grow welt and everywhere. There arc not many fruit-trees in the 
islands, and what there are are common to the Straits, such as bananas, ]mpaws and 
guavas. There is one sjiecimen of banana which, as the Koes's told me, is peculiar 
to the CocOB. I have not tasted it elsewhere, and it is a very good plantain of 

g-treee in the garden of 
i most enjoyable. Unfortunately 

}me trees of which in the 
is found in great quantity 
itirely of it, and a capital 

medium size with a very thick skin. There i 
Boss's house. They do well, and their fruit ^ 
for us, they are not common to the Straits. 

" A species of orange-tree with a very small berry, e 
Malacca Stadt House enclosure are known to many of ut 
on Settlement Island. Uost of the hedges are made e 
hedge it makes. 

■' The rose and honeysuckle are much cared for, and the latter growa very 
luxuriantly. There are not many flowers, but some of the Oriental flowers found 
in every garden in the East, such as the HilUeua and Four-o'doek flower, are of 
course met with. 

" On the way from the village to the Ross's house there are numerous very fine 
trees of catuarhia planted by the grandfather of the present family. 

"The useful woods of the islands are twelve in number. They nay be 
described as follows : — 

1. Klapa 

2. Mibong ... 

3. Mengkudu 

4. E&nuning, 

5. Jambu 



A palm. 

BsJk used for dyeing porposea. 

Rosea jambosa. 

Coc ^f British Malaya. Coc 

6. Melati Titan. 

7. Latchi Makes good furniture. 

8. Nyamplong. 

9. Warn Eope is made from the bark. 

10. Grongang\ fA kind of ironwood, used for 

11. Grongang/ \ boat-building. 

12. K&ju Biirong Very heavy, and sinks in water. 

"To give an idea of the extent of some of the smaller islands and some 
description of those that have not been mentioned in the earlier portions of this 
report, I will mention two walks I undertook. In the first walk, as Mabk Twain 
would say, I made use of a small Eob Eoy canoe, a beautiful little boat built by 
one of the Soss's in watertight compartments and cased in cork ; but on the second 
occasion there was no possibility of using the canoe as the water was so shallow for 
a long way out into the lagoon that I had to walk and wade all the way. We 
landed from the Espoir at the nearest end of Direction Island (Pulau Tikus, i.e.. 
Mouse Island) and walked through the island. It is about 1| miles long and is 
over ^ mile broad in some parts. The barrier comes close up to the back of the 
island, and the surf breaks with great force over the bar at the further end, forming 
a deep and wide pool between it and the lagoon. We paddled over into shallow 
water and then poled along, keeping quite close to the barrier. The sandy bottom 
was simply littered with b^che-de-mer of all sizes and colourings. We saw several 
fish, and one of the two boatmen harpooned one in the most marvellous manner. 
He must have been a big fellow, for his struggles shook the harpoon about with a 
fair amount of violence. Finally he shook it off and got away. In a small canoe 
it is not reassuring to have two men standing up, one poling and the other throwing 
harpoons at fish, but these men went through these feats without unsteadying the 
boat. We passed alongside Pulau Pasir (Sand Island), a tiny islet with five cocoa- 
nut trees on it, and landed and went over Pulau Bras (Eice Island), marked on the 
Chart * Prison Island.' It is quite round and is covered with white sand, evidently 
silted over some large rocks, as the sand is over thirty feet high in some places. 
There are some forty cocoa-nut trees growing on it. At the back is a large barrier 
of coral, inside the great bar, and the beach is simply covered with pumice. We 
next went to Pulau Gangsa (Goose Island), marked on the Chart 'Alison or 
Burial Island.' There we landed, and my companion made some sketches illustrat- 
ing the mode of burial customary with these islanders. We then crossed over to 
Settlement Island (Pulau Nonia, Married Woman Id.) This ended the first walk, in 
the course of which we must have covered five miles. 

" The next day we sent our canoe on to South Island, and we walked through 
the following islands and islets, wading through the intervening patches of sea and 
coral beds. We started at 8 a.m. and did not complete our journey till 1.30, having 
gone fully 11 miles. All the islands were covered with cocoa-nuts, and are in their 
order : — (1) Pulau Kechil (small) ; (2) Pulau Ampang (weir) ; (3) Pulau Blekoh 
(crane) ; (4) Pulau Kembang (flower) ; (5) Pulau Bangka (a man's name) ; (6) 
Pulau Pandang (a palm-tree) ; (7) Pulau Gray ; (8) Pulau Siput (shell) ; (9) 
Pulau Jemb&tan (bridge) ; (10) Pulau Labu (pumpkin) ; (11) Pulau Bundar 
(round) ; and (12) TJjon^ Pulau D'Kat (the nearest extremity), which adjoins 
South Idand. All these islands arc gradually becoming connected. 

" It was a source of much disappointment to me that we were imable to visit 
North Keeling Island, which is the largest of the islands, and which is said to 
contain much that is of interest. It is some fifteen miles to the northward. The 
Boss's would not pilot us over at first, as they said the surf was breaking very 
heavily at the time, and during the last two or three days of our stay I was laid 
up and unable to make an attempt. 

** I made it a point to hold conversations with the principal natives upon the 


Descriptive Dictionary 


subject of the adtuiniatration of the ialaEda. It wils as difficult to find out from 
them wliat one want«d to know iis it is to find out anything from a Malny. It was 
only by dint of making repeated guesHea and by finaJly gucasing right, that I 
elicited anything. Prom only one native did I hear any seriouB grumblinp, and 
the impreesion that I formed of him as being a discontented man was aft<.>rWttrdB 
eoufinued by some stories that were told me of hia disappointment at not being 
made the head PenghQlu. At the same time hie yrievanoea in some respecta were 
not imaginary, and are pretty generally shared m by the other islanders. They 
include the following points : — 

(a) The high price charged for all provisions. 

(6) The rate of eschange at which paper money ia converted into silver. 

(c) The non-e»iefeace of any small shops in the islands. 

((') The prohibition placed on all correspondence with [leople outside the 

(p) The want of education. 
I was assured that all provisions were charged for at very dear prices, and that 
purchasers could get nearly twice as much for their money in Batavia. No petty 
shopkeepers are allowed by the Kobb family, but the natives we very aniious to 
get them. At present the question of money and of buying and selling provisions 
is an absolute monopoly. The Ross family have the game entirely in their own 
bauds, the money used would not be received in payment or bo exchanged by any 
one except by the Rosa's themselves, and no vessels would be allowed to go and sell 
provisions or stores at the island ; if they did very few would be able to buy of 
them, and even those to a very small extent, as none other but hard cash would be 
accepted in payment. Of course I point4.'d out that the Boss's must make some 
profit, that it was their acLooners, with a well-paid crew, that made the vovagca to 
get provisioua, that it was their money laid out in buying the stores, and that they 
ran alt the risks : but at the same time I could not close my eyes to the arguments 
of the nativea that it was bard on them to make a double profit out of them, first 
by chaining high prices, and secondly by depredating their money. One instance 
was cited to me more than once, viz., that of a man who, when he left the islands 
to settle elsewhere, had saved Ea. 2,000, and, when he exchanged it for silver, only 
received from Mr. Koss Kk. 1,339. or so. 

"The not allowing the natives to coirespond with the outside world is not, I 
think, fair. No doubt it ia done to prevent the holding out to the islanders of 
inducements to leave the Cocos, but it might be done away with. The Koss's 
schooners are the only mail vessela, and so again they are masters of the situation. 
I was told by one of the family that the natives could write to whomsoever they 
liked, but the complaints made to me on the point wera so numerous that I am 
satisfied there is some ground for them. 

" Formerly there was a system of education, but when the last schoolmasU-ra 
left it ceased. It is essential that education should be introduced. There are two 
hundred and sixty children in the islands, and the Chief Priest finds it difficult to 
get the people to pay the attention to the observances of the Mahomniedau law and 
religion which is ao diligently paid by most Malays. It is clearly the result of 
their not having been educated. It would be well if the services of a good Malay 
teacher could be placed at the disposal of the Koss family, 

" On the last morning of our stay, a very interesting ceremony took place, Mr. 
Sficeb baptizing Mrs. Geoeoe Koss. Mrs. Edwin Robs, and eight children. 

" On the 28th, having completed my inquiries, we left tbe Cocos Islands in 
H.M.S. Egpoir to return to Singapore. Before doing so I wroti? a iett«!r to Mr. 
CoABLEB Koaa, and it was signed jointly by Captain Adams and myself, thanking 
him and the utliur meml>ers of the family for the extwme kindness and courtesy 
extended to ua during the whole of our visit, Nothing was left undone by any 


Coc of British Malaya, Com 

of them that could have been done to help to make my inquiries as searching as 

" Captain Adams took some twenty photographic views and groups. 

** (Sd.) Ernest Woodford Birch, 

" Second Assistant Colonial Secretary, S, S, 
" Singapore, I6th Septewher, 1885." 

We may add to the foregoing that the tree-climbing crab (Burgas latro), com- 
monly known as the Eobber Crab, and supposed to be indigenous only to the 
Seychelles, is found in these islands, two or three fine specimens having been 
brought back by Mr. Birch. 

Ooffee {Kahua), — Both the Arabian and Liberian plants have been culti- 
vated in the British possessions, the latter being most successful, alt|j^ough the 
sanguine hopes entertained some years ago have in few cases been verified. Coffee 
is still upon its trial, although it undoubtedly thrives in certain localities. Johore 
and Sungei TJjong have been tried, as also Selangor and Perak. The following 
notes on the different varieties appeared in Mr. N. Cantlet's Eeport : — 

"Arabian Coffee {Coffea ardbica.) — ^The Arabian coffee planted in the 
Nursery looks healthy, but grows slowly. Hybridization may probably re-establish 
it in cultivation. 

" Bengal Coffee (Coffea hengalense). — The growth made by Bengal coffee does 
not look promising ; the plants are still small, however, and may not show their 
true character. 

"Liberian Coffee (Coffea Zifcmca), from W. Africa, is becoming an established 
product of the Straits, but its proper cultivation is far from being properly under- 
stood. Drainage is too little attended to by some ; others, by starting the plant in 
very rich compost, change the character of the roots to an extent that unsuits them 
for penetration of the natural soil. When these errors and some others get 
corrected, the adaptability of the plant for cultivation here will then show itseK in 
its true character. Plants of this coffee are under various treatment in the 
Experimental Nursery, but it would be premature at present to detail these. I may 
state, however, that the plant will not bear manuring in the ordinary way when in 
fruit ; manure should therefore be applied in liquid form, or as top dressing, when 
given to encourage the swelling of the berries. When the soil is disturbed around 
tlie plant when in fruit, a large number of the berries wither and die, owing to the 
destruction of rootlets in the manuring process, and which renders the act a loss 
instead of a gain. 

"Marogogepie Coffee (Coffea sp.). — Three plants of the coffee known as 
• Marogogepie,* and very favourably reported on some little time ago by the 
Brazilian Minister of Agriculture, were received from Kew during the year and 
have grown with less vigour than the Liberian kind, but with almost double that 
of Arabian coffee (Coffea ardbica). The leaves are somewhat larger than the 
Arabian kind, so that the plant seems from its growth to approach an intermediate 
form between Coffea liberica and Coffea ardbica, and is not as yet affected by the 
disease. Should it prove as well adapted to our soil as Coffea liberica does, keep free 
from disease, and have a distinct cropping season, it will no doubt supersede all 
other kinds in the Straits. The plants in the Singapore Botanic Gardens came 
originally from Mexico." 

CoflBn (Long), — The Malay coflBji is an oblong box without bottom, which is 
removed when the corpse is placed in the grave. 

Compass (Padum%n). — The compass, for nautical purposes, is, at present, 
used by the principal native traders of Malaya. In the Malay languages, the name 
for the magnet, and for the comj^ass and its divisions, are almost exclusively native 


Descriptive Dictionary 


words. That for the magnet is haiii-hranx, or 6e«-6ni»i, literally " powerful stone." 
or "powerful iron." The compass is called fa'adomo.'n or jWiiwwn, a word, of 
which the Javanese word dom, " a needle," seems to be the radical part, the com- 
pound signif jing " place of the needle," or " object with a needle." The Malay 
compass ia divided into sixteen parts, twelve of which are multiples of the four 
cardinal points. For the cardinal ^Kiints the different nations have native terme ; 
but for uantical purposes, those of the Malay language are used throughout,* 

Concliology. — Malayan c;oui;holo(fy has by no means received all the 
attention it deserves. And although men like Drs. Asches and Hunoebfobd have 
done much to exploit the rich hunting grounds of the Peninsula waters, they have 
doce but little to communicate their discoveries to the public. Singajiore is a well 
recognized " shell collecting centre." Although most of the. sheila usually seen are 
of well-known types, there must be many species yet new to science. The large 
majority gf those offered for sale arc brought thither by Celebes and other traders, 
and the tyro has to guard against imposition, the edges of imperfect specimens 
being carefully ground away so as to delude the unwary. 
* It would, of course, be impossible to do more in the space at command than 

give a sketch of the principal families represented. We shall, however, mention 
those which even the casual visitors may acquire with a little trouble. Beginning 
with the Nautilus, both ^. pompUius and N. wmbilicatug are met with. Of Mukex 
a large variety offers, the delicate if. tennispina being often obtainable in perfection. 
Ppepcba, Tkiton, Banella, Fdsub. Fcloae, Buccikcm, Ebubma, and Nabsa, all 
occur amongst the specimens offered. Fine eaamplea are obtainable of Mela and 
VoLUTA. Two or three very handsome M:tra are at times met with, as also 
Margimella. Oliva abound. Of the remaining principal orders, Columbella, 
Terebka, Pleubotoma, Contfh, and Stbomaes (both these latter in great variety), 
CTFfi(EA, Cassis. Doliitm, and Omistus are constantly found. SoLABnnn, and at 
times the delicate Janthiha. or violet snail, can be got, as also specimens of Tdk- 
EiTBLLA, LiTTOBiNA, Cbbithium, PoTAMiDEs, and AsrPiTLLAaiA. Of Nebitab there 
is no end of varieties, the rocks around Singapore at low water being covered with 
brilliantly coloured specimens. Nbbitina, Tcbbo, TBOcnrs, Haiiotis, Fissubella, 
Patella, and.BuLLA close this portion of the hst, which omils, however, many but 
sparsely represented. 

Of CrcLOSTOMA, Helix, and BcLiutrs no great variety esista, and it is probable 
that the united species found in the Peninsula do not amount to over forty in 
number ; Dr. Trail, in 184?, reported finding twenty-three species in Singapore, 
several kinds of Helix and Ctclostoma inhabiting the depths of the forest. 
Bivalves abound in every portion of the coast, from the large Tridacka, Chama, 
and Abba to the less imposing Mytilds, Venus, Cakdicm, Solkh, Ac. Very hand- 
some specimens of Spondylub, Pecten, and OsTBKA, with large Pinna, may conclude 
the list of bivalves. We must not omit to mention that the curious- looking Asfeb- 
oiLLCM is a Malayan habitant. 

A list of all the shells known to exist in Singapore and its vicinity in 184? 
will be found on pp. 239 et eeq. of Vol. I. J. I. A. No very large additions have been 
made to it since, but Lahabck'b classification therein adopted is now seldom 
adhered to. 

Cone Hill,— &'pe Seal, Butff. 

Coney Island. — 7\ miles S.W. by W. of W. harbour entrance. Singapore. 
The site of the KafHcs Lighthouse {q. v.). 

Consumption {Baiok kring), — By no means unknown to. but not so preva- 
lent as might be expected amongst, the Malays in view of the damp nature of their 

Copper. — No ores of this metal have been found in the localities dealt with 


of British Malaya. CoW 

in this work, though they exist in other portions of the Malayan Archipelago. The 
Malay word tembaga is derived from the Hindus. 

Copra. — The interior of the cocoa-nut divested of the shell and dried. It 
furnishes a clear oil used both for cooking and burning. 

Coral Reefs. — In 1848 a respected medical man in Singapore devoted con- 
siderable time and trouble to writing a series of articles in the J. I. A. to prove that 
these were a special cause of fever. He certainly adduced numerous facts in 
support of his theory, but the questiou has passed out of the region of practical 
hygienics, many of the localities . he referred to having become free from febrile 
diseases to any marked extent, despite the continued existence of the reefs. It 
may, we think, be conceded that they increased the chances of illness when com- 
bined with other fever-producing causes ; but there is not sufficient evidence to 
show that, independently of other causes, they are now likely to produce attacks. 

Corals. — ^Beautiful varieties of coral exist in the Malayan waters, and large 
quantities are constantly on sale at Singapore for reasonable prices. A monograph 
on this subject has yet to be written. Lovers of the beautiful in Nature can spend 
a pleasant hour or two by visiting at low water the Cyrene Shoal, and other coral 
banks in the neighbourhood of Singapore. The coral animals display the most 
brilliant colours, conjoined with immense variety of form, and present a scene of 
extreme beauty. 

Oond is much used by the Malays for burning into lime. 

Correspondence between personages of Eoyal rank in Malaya is a matter 
of much ceremony. A priest is usually selected to write the document, the tenor 
of which is agreed upon in council, and to this the Eajah's seal is attached in 
different positions according to the rank of the party addressed. A messenger 
whose importance is decided by the same considerations is then chosen, and one or 
more prahus or elephants (according to the passage by sea or land) is prepared. 
The letter is brought out and ceremoniously deposited with its bearer, music and 
banners accompanying it. A similar ceremony obtains at the place of destination, 
boats or elephants being sent (after notice) to receive the document.* 

Cosmetics. — These, though plentifully used by the Chinese members of the 
fair sex in Malayan countries, are but little availed of by Malayan beauties. A 
preparation of rice dust, called hedah, is sometimes used as a whitening powder, 
and bottles of a preparation imported from Arabia, and known as mai, furnish a 
darkening liquid applied to the eyes. Generally speaking, however, the use of 
cosmetics amongst the Malays is rare. Amongst the Chinese the well-known articles 
of native toilet are used in Malaya as in China itself. According to Dr. Williams 
(Middle Kingdom, Vol. II, p. 41), white paint, rouge, and charred sticks form the, 
articles of toilet used by Chinese belles. Henna is grown and occasionally used 
by those of Arab descent. 

Cotton is not indigenous to the Peninsula, its place being taken by a large 
deciduous tree known as the kabu, or cotton-tree. H^ie shrub has, however, been 
introduced and was planted by two American planters near Bukit Mertajam in P. 
WeUesley, and by the Hon. J. M. Vermont, now manager of Batu Kawan Estate. 
The soil was not, however, found sufficiently suitable to justify further experiments. 
Its native name is Jcapus. Kapas Bengalis Indian cotton. See Fibres. 

Cotton-tree. — The pods of this tree produce a cotton equally good looking 
with the tree cotton, but too short in staple to be of commercial value. It is com- 
monly used for stuffing beds, cushions, Ac. 

Cowry Shells. — The Cypra moneta of naturalists, is found throughout 
Malaya in considerable quantity, but the cowry seems never to have been used for 
money among the Indian islanders as it has immemorially been by the Hindus. 
The Malay name, however, is Sanskrit — heya — and is also one of the synonyms 
which express duty, impost, or tolL 



Descriptive Diciiojtary 


Coyau. — A measure of capacity applied to boats. A coyan is about 2 tons. 

Crab (Ketavi or Kepiting). —Seyerai hundred species, mostly of small size, 
oxist. but no scientific catalogue has as yet been published. 

Creepers. — Numerous flowering plants of this description abound in the 
Malayan jungle, several species of convolvulus being included. The most striking 
of these is one known loi^v as the " Morning glory." Other handsome plauta are 
the " Butterwonh " and "itfoon flowers " (flowering only at night). Ariatolochias 
(imi>orted from Borneo) flourish well. 

Crocodile.— For the distinctions between this reptile and the alligator, see 
the latter, The crocodile inhabits both fresh and salt (or at least brackish) water. 
The species common in the Malay Peninsula is the Crocodilu* poroiua, or Indian 
crocodile. The Gavial or Gangetic crocodile is said to be found there also, and I 
purchased the akull of one killed iu Singapore, but whether native or imported I 
could never get satisfactory evidence. The ears and throat of the crocodile are 
closed by automatic valves when under water. The eggs are about the same size 
OS those of a goose and resemble thin porcelain in look and hardness. Several 
deaths occur annually from these creatures. A Government reward is given for 
their destruction according to size, in the British and Protected Territories. 

Three varieties are recognized by the Malays — the buaya gonro, huaya hatalt, 
and fci/.oyrt tembai/a. They are usually captured with bve bait, such as a fowl, 
beneath whose wing a large hook is attached by ligatures. Au untwisted rope 
made of gamuty palm fibres (which get between the reptile's te«th and so cannot 
be bitten through) is attached to the hook and made fast at the other end to a tree, 
the fowl being picketed to a peg on the bank. The crocodile swallows the fowl 
whole and, after attempting to swim away, is usually baiiled ashore by those watch- 
ing him, and at once despatched. The bnaija katak, or " frog crocodile," is con- 
sidered the most ferocious, but there la little to choose between the three varieties. 
The most attractive bait, according to native ideas, for shooting crocodiles, b a long 
used mosquito curtain from a woman's bed. Dipped into the water at the end of a 
pole it is certain to attract any reptile in the vicinity and so afford a good shot to 
Uioso on watch for it. 

In Perak the following names are given to the teeth of the crocodile : — 

The front teeth hail ttl&ing. 

The middle teeth ... ... ... ... ... opa ildia. 

The back t«eth eharik kapan. 

The kail gil&anif is a small fish-hook which is used without a bait for catching 
the tSlttang, a small fish rather larger than a sardine, a fish it somewhat resembles. 
Men seized by these teeth only have, so say the natives, a fair chance of e8i»i>e. 
Apa ddia may be translated " What iwwer :■ " i.e.. '■ How can I ? " A man seized 
by these teeth, though escape is said to lie still possible, has very little chance. 
Ckarik kajmn may be translated " tear off (a strip of white cloth for) the shroud. 
All's up." The poinl«d stick, with bait attached, to attract the rpptJle, is called 
jiUkntig. Tf it catches the jaws rightly they cannot lie closed, and the reptile falls 
mi easy prey to the hunter. (N. A Q., with No. 17 J. S. B. E. A. S.) 

Croton Oil. — Sw Ou.s. 

Crotons. — This beautiful family of plants flourishes as well in the StraJta 
Settlemeut-s as iu its native habitat, which is almost exclusively the South Sea 
Islauds. Some 70 or 80 spcciea are now cultivated, adding much to the beauty of 
lawns and gardens. Not being indigencous, we must refer readers to other works 
for lists of the species introduced. Oddly enough, until a few years ago. when Iho 
plant was placed in the Botanical Gardens at Singapore, only one siwcimen of Croton 
tigtium. which produces the well-known oil of medicine, was known ti> oiist iu the 
Colony — at the Pauper Hospital—and this was accidentally destroyed. During 


of British Malaya. 


1883, a rage for crotons sprang up in Siam, and buyers o^ered as much as $100 
for choice plants. Even now handsome varieties occasionally fetch good prices at 

Crow (Gagak). — The Malayan species differs in no way from the familiar 
bird at home. 

Crustacea. — ^No part of the world produces Crustacea in greater abundance 
than the coast of Malaya, and a lar^e field is here opened to the naturalist — one, 
too, as yet unexplored. The genume name of crabs in Malay is Jcetam, and of 
lobsters udang gcUah, but the term vdang is also applied to shrimps, prawns, and a 
large number of yet undescribed species partially mailed and of sizes varying from 
an inch to a couple of feet in length. Of crabs alone, the writer has seen some 200 
varieties, and nothing short of a monograph would do justice to the subject. 
Many species are beautifully marked, and when mounted and varnished form 
attractive additions to a museum. Two handsomely marked species of lobster are 
known respectively as udang and vdang rimau. Certain sorts are known as 
helangkas, keronchaJc, mumong, &c. The cray-fish is, by the way, unknown in this 
part of the world. 

CubebS {Piper Ovhebs). — ^As with most matters relating to experimental culti- 
vation, I am indebted to Mr. Cantley for the following remarks : — " Experiments 
with cubebs on a small scale seem to show that the plant prefers a shady moist 
situation. Plants exposed to the full sun grow much more slowly. The cultivation 
of cubeb plants does not receive the amount of attention in the Straits it deserves. 
The crop pays well, but for the present the monopoly of its cultivation remains in 
the hands of the Ihitch, through apparently no other reason than a want of enter- 
prise on the part of planters on this side of the water. In Johore the plant grows 
remarkably well, bearing heavy crops of fruit, but details of its cultivation as 
practised in Java are still a desideratum." 

Currency and Exchange of the Straits Settlements.— Prior to 

1867, when the Colony was an Indian Dependency, accounts were kept in 
Government and Sicca rupees, and Spanish dollars and cents. After the Govern- 
ment of the Settlements was transferred to the Colonial Office (April, 1867) it was 
enacted by Ordinance No. IV. of that year, that the dollars issued by H.M. Mint 
at Hongkong, the silver dollars of Spain, Mexico, Peru and Bolivia should be the 
only le^ tender within the Colony and its dependencies. In January, 1874, the 
American trade dollar and the Japanese dollar (or Yen) were added to the above 

The following table will give an idea of the relative qualities of the principal 
coins included above : — 


weight in 


Farts Pure 

Hongkong Dollar 
Old Mexican DoUar 
New Mexican Dollar 
Japanese Yen 
American Trade Dollar 







Parts Alloy. 


The Hongkong dollar is no longer coined, and is only occasionally met with in 
any auantity in the Straits ; the Carolus (Spanish) dollar is even more rare, and, 
togetner with the American trade dollar command such premia as to almost 
exclude them from every-day commercial transactions. Mexicans and Yen are 
commonly used throughout the Colony, but the former being at a premium of a 

[97] H 

, .^iififc S*uztonary Cut 

■ u i^,» >: .oikAidered as practically the local 

..'. .J.j<M.-:U£ Stacks and Islands the Yen is not 

>v . -.-ALiilv iKis* current as the Mexican dollar, 

>;ii-4.tA.i>:. .'U 30th XoTember, 1886, unanimously 

Li,.'. L> .- 

• ( 

aio> l'.-»iiucil it will be to the interest of trade in these 
..i.:ea»iou of British influence in the adjacent 
. '.iit existing foreign currency be demonetized and 
l>riti*h dollar, weighing 416 grains and of 900 j>art8 
L aI'.ov, whioh shall be the sole legal tender throughout the 


>\\ • l..l:.\ lidieulties pointed out by financiers at Home, especially in 

■ * . '.•vul uiiut capable of supplying necessary requirements of the 

V ' ' ci>: uj short notice as demands may now be met from China and 

■'. . ' !*.^ ^.iLScut condition of things, the adoption of the above resolution 

I: '1 'v». !L ■•iititeuiincod by the Home Gfovemment, for the present at any rate. 

'■'iv -i->6i..liarv ooiu8, consisting of silver 50-cent, 20-cent, 10-cent, and 5-cent 

. . i-t manufactured at Home, and are legal tender to the extent of two 

I 11:1! s. Ooi'por coins representing 1-cent, ^-cent, and ^-cent pieces, and from the 

.nil' s..>m\v, are legal tender to the extent of one dollar only. 

Ot i\w local Banks, the two having note issues are the Chartered Bank of India, 
\ IS. i.thuiii, aud China and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, with 
■v'.:i'!hcr a total amount in circulation of about $7,500,000 throughout the Settle- 
iinMiU. Against this, a reserve of coin has to be maintained of at least one-third. 

It would bo impossible to follow the many fluctuations which have occurred in 
I lie i^oKl vahie of tno dollar during the last few years, resulting in a decline to 
Ih'Iow 2;'f\. The silver question is at this moment under careful consideration by 
tho Uovorumeut ; a strong party is in favour of a British dollar. 

Ourry. —As in India, the curry forms a standard dish amongst the Malays. 
Oil.' .>f the principal ingredients in a " Straits curry" is cocoa-nut milk mixed with 
tlu' scraped nut into a pulp. Turmeric is largely used, and the pods of the moringa- 
tivi' I'onii a common ingredient. Two sorts of curry, known as "black" and 
'• white." usually appear at foreign tables, but the intermediate varieties are too 
iutiuitti fv>r dcUiiled description. The generic name in Malay is guU, 

Oustard Apple (Anoiia reticulata). — Usually regarded as indigenous to 
tht» IVuiusula. Very good specimens are obtainable during the season, the best 
bi'iug i'ouud in the North of the Peninsula. It is the hiiah nona of the Malays. 
The bpecimeus in the Singapore Botanic Gardens were obtained from the West Indies. 

Cutaneous Affections. — Cleanliness is much neglected amongst the 
Malays, and it is not usual to bathe children as a regular custom ; their diet is also 
eut.irt»ly ncglei^ted. The consequence is that unwholesome food and the dirt they 
arti allowed to revel in induces an eruption of boils or small cancers called puru, 
which spreads over the whole body, rendering the children most loathsome objects. 
The o|*iuiou that dirt and unwholesome food causes puru is derived from the natives 
theiuHidves. Some medical men come to a different conclusion, and impute the 
disease* to syphilis in the parents. This is contraverted by the fact that children of 
tht^ lu^althiest are attlicted by the disease, and but few escape. These cancers are 

"'' ''' ' ------ • ^ ^- itothi " - '• 

^ will ( 

u — --, - -. placed .- 

been tried in seviTal cases, and it j)roved an infallible cure. 

The disease is probably contagious, and many children contract it from their 


Cut of British Malaya. Dan 

oompanions. It is singular that, without any remedies, the cancers gradually dis- 
appear as maturity advances, leaving their victims scarred for life. 

Pew Malays are to be found with clear skins. Turn sometimes leaves white 
scars, and when very deep set cramps the fingers and toes and renders them useless, 
giving the afflicted a leprous appearance. 

Malays were greaUy prejudiced against vaccination ; and although apothecaries 
are sent to each district annually to perform the operation, but few brought their 
children forward. Matters have somewhat mended in this respect, however, of 
late years. [J. D. Vauohan in J. I. A., Vol. XI.] 

Another, called siypa, resembles leprosy, and is probably a species of 
that disease. It seldom spreads over th^ body, but is confined to the palms of the 
bands and soles of the feet. It is not considered contagious. 

A loathsome disease called 'hora'p is very prevalent among fishermen. It 
spreads over the whole body, and presents a scaly appearance ; it appears of an 
irritating nature, for those afflicted incessantly scratch themselves, and when the 
scales fall off the disease is considered infectious. Exposure to sea- water, and diet, 
which consists principally of salt fish, mollusca and blubber, may conduce to the 

Itch, or hudAsy is not common. 

Leprosy and elephantiasis are rare ; when they do occur, the afflicted are not 
put aside, but their neighbours and relatives associate with them as intimately as 
ever, and no bad results occur. 

Cuttl6-fish. — This is a common object in the native markets, Chinese 
being aJmost the only buyers. It is eaten both fresh and dried. In the latter case 
the ink-bag is cut away, and all impurities having been removed by water, the 
animal is submitted to pressure and then dried in the sun. Bundles of one catty 
each are tied up and placed in cases holding ten catties or more each for export. 
Ociwpi and Calamaries are reputed to attain an immense size in Malayan waters. 

Cyrene Shoal. — Shoal in the fairway of vessels making Singapore from the 
N. and W. It presents a brilliant appearance at low water, being covered with 
live corals and shells, many of the most brilliant colours. It is a favourite hunting 
ground for conchologists. 

Dadap. — -^ beautiful flowering tree used in coffee plantations to shelter the 
young plants : flower a brilliant 'scarlet. 

Dahl (Oajanus indicus), — A sort of small bean which is the principal diet of 
Kling coolies. It grows well in the Straits, but as yet has always been imported 
by estate managers from India. 

Eaminar. — ^A resin produced by certain large forest trees ((?am?nnra), chiefly 
merafiH, merawan, and hahw. It sometimes exudes so as to form lumps, either on 
the trunk or beneath the surface, to the weight of ten or twenty pounds. Incisions 
are also made in the bark whence the gum is collected. It is pounded up and filled 
into palm sheath tubes called upei, about IS inches long, which are sold at a low 
rate as torches. In some parts of the Peninsula it furnishes the only means of 
artificial light. A very clear and transparent dammar known as mata-hiching is 
obtained from the chengal tree and is used in making incense. 

Damansarah. — imp. v. and PoHce station on the N. bank of Klang E., 
7 to 8 miles above the Klang Eesidency, Selangor. 

Danan. — Small v. just below the bend of the Endau E., N. at its junction 
with the Sembrong, N.E. Johore. 

Danau Serah. — v. on W. bank of Johore E., about 8 miles from Johore 

Dancing. — ^^ Nautch. 

[99] H 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 

Cato Dalong, Kramat of.— in Naning territory, N. Malacca Much 
regarded by the nativee, who make pilgrimageB thereto. 

Cato Kramat. — V- on S.W, outskirts of Penaug-town. 

Daun Tiga Lei.— A Malay game of cards. Each player has three cards 
dealt him ; the a^es count best, then the court cards, Nine is next best, ten beiug 
omitted, and so oa. A full description is giTen in the J. S. B, E, A. S. «a6 uoce, for 

Dayang. — A maid of honour, attendant at a palace. 

Dea. — A hill in Jumpol, Negri Sembilan (not marked in map S. A. S.), 

Dea. — The name of a hill between Pila, in Kembau, and Johol. 

Debt-Slavery. — This still eiists in the Native States, though mueh modi- 
fii'J wherf British influence has been in the ast'endant. The debtor lives with his 
civditur. who is bound to clothe and feed him. but the results of his labour — 
whether money, fniit, building, or anyt.hing else— enure to the creditor, A debt by 
a married man binds his wife and children ; and in like manner, if a debtor marry, 
the husband or wife become eitra securities for the bond. Debt-slaves are on the 
whole well treated, but in eases of desertion considerable brutality has often been 

Deer. — Two large, aad.four species of small, deer are found in the Peninsula, 
besides the fcuftj rvxa, or " hog-deer," which, however, is not a member of the same 
order. The large species are : the sambur {Rota, ariatotelig), a rather savage animal, 
larger than our own red deer ; and the axis (A. maculata) or spotted deer. Of the 
small or Moschine species, the kijang is the largest ; next to this comes the najmh ; 
the third in size is the lanak; and the smallest is the pelaiidok or true pigmy deer. 

Deer-catching. — " This pastime," (says Mr. VAUOHiN in Vol. XI., J. I. A.. 
whoBu remarks wo quota in full), "is one the Malay delights in. After a rainy 
night, deer may be easily traced to their lair by their foot-prints, and as they 
remain stationary by day the hunters have ample time to arrange their apparatus. 
When tho bidiug-placc is discorered, all the young men of the kampong assemble, 
and tho followiug ceromouy is performed before they sally out on the expedition. 
Six or eight coils of rattan rope about an inch in diameter are placed on a triangle 
formed with three rice-pounders, and the oldest of the company, usually an ex- 
perienced sportsman, plcu^s a cocoa-nut shell filled with burning incense in the 
centre, and taking sprigs of throe bushes, viz., the jeUaiang, eapufiie and tajnJxin 
plants (these, it is supposed, possess extraordinary rutues), he walks mysteriously 
round tiie coils, beating them with the sprigs, and erewhile mutters some gibberish, 
which, if possessing any meaning, the sage keeps wisely to himself. During the 
ceremony, the youths of the village look on with becoming gravity and admiration. 
It is believed that the absence of this ceremony would render the expeditjou 
unsuccessful, the deer would prove too strong for the ropes, and the wood demons 
frustrate their sport by placing insurmountable obstacles in their way. Much £uth 
appears to be placed in the ceremony. Each coil referred to above is sixty to 
seventy fathoms long, and to the rope running nooses, made also of rattan rope, are 
attached abcmt three feet apart fmm each other. On reaching the thicket wherein 
the deer are concealed, stakes are driven into the ground a few feet apart in a 
straight line, the coils are then opened out and the rope attached to the stakes, two 
or three feet above ground, with the nooses hanging down, and two of tho party 
conceal themselves near the stakes armed with knives for the purpose of despatch- 
ing the deer when entangled in the nooses. The remainder of the hunters arrange 
themselves on the op[>osite side of the thicket and advance towards it shouting and 
yellio g at the top of their voices. The deer, startled from their rest, spring to their 
feet and naturally flee from the noise towarids the nooses, and in a short time are 
entangled in them. As they struck to escape, the concealed hunters rush out and 

Del of British Malaya. Din 

despatch them. OccasionaJlj the fight is prolonged till the major party arrives, 
and then the noble creatures soon fall beneath the spears and knives of their 
assailants. The animal is divided between the sportsmen. The writer has often 
partaken of a tit-bit, but never relished the flesh, it being generally too fresh. A 
breed of deer has spread over Penang from a tame herd that one of the former 
Governors released on his leaving the island." 

Delendung. — ^A small species of civet found in Malacca. Its graceful 
appearance has gained it the scientific name of Iiinsang gracilis. It is not common, 
and the following account of it is from Wood's Natural History : — " The general 
colour of the fur is a moderately deep grey, and upon the back are four very large 
saddle-shaped stripes of an exceedingly dark and rich brown, extremely broad on 
the spine and becoming very narrow on the ribs. Along the sides run two rows or 
chains of similarly coloured markings. The lower band extends from the cheeks 
to the flanks. The legs are finely spotted, and the tail is covered with alternate 
rings of grey and dark brown. The creature has been termed prionodon or * saw- 
toothed* on account of its curiously shaped teeth, which preseut a jagged or 
saw-like appearance. It is destitute of scent pouches." 

DeniSiin. — Fever. The commonest form is that called Beinam Jcapialhi by 
the Malays, equivalent to the Java or jungle fever of medicine. This is indigenous, 
but very few cases occur amongst Europeans unless they have unduly exposed 
themselves to malaria. Practically this disease does not obtain amongst the foreign 

Demam Kora. — Intermittent fever. Not imcommon, but seldom fatal. 

Dendeng. — The Malay name for the jerked beef of commerce, that is, of 
animal muscular fibre, preserved by drying in the sun, nearly the only mode of 
curing flesh practised. Dendeng is made of the flesh of deer, oxen, and buffaloes, 
and by the Chinese of that of the wild hog. It is a considerable article of native 

Desa. — "This word, taken from the Sanskrit, signifies *the country,' as 
distinguished from * the town,' or rather from the seat of government, and it is 
also a synonym for a 'village.' It occurs, not infrequently, in the names of 

Devilj The (iblis). — The Mahommedan spirit of evil. 

Diamond. — in Malay, intan ; found only in Borneo, and consequently an 
article of trade alone in the Peninsula. 

Dibble. — This is usually represented by a pointed stick which serves 
sufficiently well for the purpose of planting rice, &c. 

Dili.— V. on the E. Tukun, a petty W. affluent of E. Kinta, C. Perak. 
Dindillg. — -^ partition or wall. Binding hertam, the woven hertam or 
reed of which the walls of Malay huts and houses are often formed. 

DindingS, The.— A group of islands, of which Pulo Pangkor, the largest, 
and Little Dinding are the chief, and a strip of land on the Peninsula, about 22 
miles in extreme length by 10 in width, and situated on the Perak coast about 80 
miles from Penang in lat. 4° 20' N., long. 100° 40' E., is thus named. It was 
nominally imder Uie Perak administration till 1886, when it was transferred to 
that of the Straits Settlements. The accounts of Eevenue and Expenditure are 
incorporated with those of Penang. There is a police force of 28 individuals 
under a European Inspector, and a public hospital. Pepper, padi, and tapioca are 
the chief products. Tin, though existing, has not yet been found in paying 
quantities, but may be after exploration. Communication with the outer world ib 
as yet irregular and unsatisfactory, but a small steamer professes to run regularly 
from Penang. Turtle is abundant on the coast. 



Descriptive Dictionary 

Pulo Paogkor was UeU by the Duteh from 1670 to 1690, when thty occupied 
MaWxa. Tte ruins of their fort and factory still exist clotie lo the shore. 

The foUoM-ing is an arconnt of the Dindiug Island )mbUshed by Daxfieb, the 
weJl-kuown navigat<>f, in 1688 : — 

" This is a small island lying so nigh the main that ships pasaing by cannot 
know it to be an island. It is pretty high land, well watered with brooks. The 
Btuuld in blackish, deep and fat in tJie lower ground, but the hills are eomewbat 
rucky. yet in general very woody. The treea are of direre sorts, many of which 
are good timber, and large enough for any use. Here are also some good for 
ma«t« and yards ; they being naturally light, yet tough and semi^able. There is 
good riding on the east side, betwi^en the island and the main. Ton may uome in 
with the sea breeze and out with a land wind, there is water enough, and a securu 

" The Put«h, who are the only inhabitauta, hare a fort on the east side, i-losc 
by the sua, In a bending of the island, which makes a small cove fur shiiis Lu 
ani^'hor is. The fort is buUt four-square, without flankers or bastious, like a 
hoiuo ; every square is about ten or twelve yards. The walls are of a good thick- 
ness, made of stone, aud carried up to a good ht-ight, of about thirty feot, aud 
covered overhead like a dwelling-house. There may be about twelve or fonrtoeu 
guns ill it, Bouie looking out at every square. These guns are mounted on a strung 
jflatforui, made within the walls, about sixteen feet high ; aud there are steps on 
llio uuUide to ascend \a the door that opens to the plaUorm, there being no other 
way into the fort. Here is a Governor and about twenty or thirty soldiers, who 
all lodge in the fort. The soldiers have their lodging in the platform among the 
giiiiH, but the Qovemor has a fair chamber above it, where he lies with some of tho 
ofBcers, Alwut a hundred yards from the fort, on the bay by the sea, there is a 
low timbered house, where the Governor abides all the daytime. la this house 
there were two or three rooms for their use, but the ehiefest was the Governor's 
dining-room. This fronted to the sea, and the end of it looked towards the fort. 
There were two large windows of about seven or eight feet square ; the lower part 
of them about four or five feet from the ground. These windows were to be left 
open all the day to Jet in the refreshing breeze, but in the night, when the Governor 
withdrew to the fort, they were closed with strong shutters, and the doors mode 
fust till the next day. The continent of Malacca, opposite to the island, is pretty 
low champion land, clothed with lofty woods ; and right against the bay where the 
Dutch fort Btjinds, there is a navigable river for small craft. 

" Tlie product of the country thereabouts, besides rice aud other eatables, is 
tut«nug, a sort of tin ; I think coarser than ours. The natives are Hal&y&n, who, 
as I have always observed, are bold and treacherous; yet the trading people are 
affable and courteous to merchants. 

" These are in all respects, as to their religion, custom, and manueT of living, 
like other Malayans. Whether they are govonied by a king or raja, or what other 
maimer of govi'rinueut they live under, 1 know not. They have canoes and boats 
of their own, and in these they fish and traffic among themselves : but the tin trade 
is that which has formerly drawn merchant strangers thither. But, though the 
country might probably yield great quantities of this metal, and the natives are not 
only iuclinable, but very desirous to trade with strangers, yet are they now 
restrained by the Dutch, who have monopolized that trade to themselves. It was 

Erobably for the lucre of this trade that the Dutch built the fort on the island; 
ut this not wholly answering their ends, by reason of the distance about it and 
the river's mouth, which is about 4 or 5 miles, they have also a guard-ship com- 
monly lying here, and a sloop with 20 or 30 armed men, to hinder other nations 
from this trade. For this tuttinag or tin is a valuable commodity in the Bay of 
tiengal. and here purchased reasunablv, by giving other couuuoditiea in exchange : 
neither is this commodity peculiarly found hereabouts, but farther northerly lUao 

Dis of British Malaya, * 

on the coast ; and particularly in the kingdom of Qucda there is much of it. The 
Dntch also commonly keep a guard-ship, and have made some fruitless essays to 
bring that prince and his subjects to trade only with them ; but here, over against 
PuIq Dinding, no strangers dare approach to trade ; neither may any ship como in 
hither but with consent of the Dutch." 

Diseases. — in the Malay language the same words express disease and 
pain. The most frequent word in the Malay language for this purpose is Bokii, 
The ordinary diseases to which the natives of Malaya are subject, are those arising 
from malaria, namely, fevers — remittent and intermittent — and dysentery. Tlie 
epidemics are small-pox, measles, hooping-cough, and Asiatic cholera. The last 
was introduced in 1820, three years after its first appearance in Bengal. This, 
therefore, they owe to ourselves, as more than three centuries ago they did syphilis 
to the Portuguese and S^muiards The Turkish pest has never reached them, any 
more than it has other countries east of Persia. Cholera appears in a milder fonu 
than it does on the Continent of India, and strong remedies resorted to immediately 
on being attacked seldom fail to cure. On its aj>pearance. Government distributes 
medicines throughout the country. A pill prepared by a former Civil Surgeon of 
Penang (Dr. J. Kosis) proved eminently successful, and few cases of death 
occurred wherein it was administered; the failures may be attributed to the 
prejudice Malays entertain against spirituous liquors; strong stimulants were 
ordered to be given with the pills, and when patients refused to drink them they 
invariably perished, but all those that conquered their objection and drank the 
stimulants recovered; the pills were placed at all the police stations and a 
correct account kept of the number of cases attended to and the number of those 
that recovered or died ; one out of ten was about the number that died. Leprosy, 
the disease of filth and barbarism, is common to them as to other Asiatic nations. 
InflammatoiT diseases, and tubercular ones, are less frequent than in temperate 
and cold regions, but the inhabitants are by no means exempt from them. Diseases 
of the skin are very frequent, more especially among the fish-eaters of the coasts. 
In the mountainous parts of the country, goitres are to be seen, and this, to6, close 
to the equator, and in countries where there is no snow. 

. In so far as concerns their native inhabitants, there is no reason to believe 
that the Peninsula generally, is in climate less salubrious than other parts of the 
world. Every place that is tolerably dry, and, above all, well-vcutilated, is 
healthy ; while localities even when dry, but not well- ventilated, are sure to be 
unhealthy. The town of Singapore, although a part of it is built in a salt marsh 
and on the level of the sea, is as salubrious as any tro})i(*al coimtry, because 
thoroughly ventilated by land and sea-breezes, by the north-eastern monsoon, and by 
occasional squalls from the west. 

Divi-divi.— See Dyes. 

Divination. — A practice precisely analogous to the Sortes Virgillayue, 
" pricking the bible," &c. is reported to by the Malays. A Koran or a book con- 
taining a selection of sentences and words is taken, and the would-be diviner cuts 
into it with a kris. The sentence marked by the kris point is interpreted to suit 
the wants and wishes of the party interested. 

Diving. — ^The Malays are excellent divers. Major McNaib, in his " Perak 

and the Malays," relates an instance of a man actually nailing a sheet of copper to 
a ship's bottom, coming to the surface after driving each nail, his movt^iuents 
below being visible through the clear water. Whether this story be apocryphal or 
not, the diving fraternity are remarkably clever in recovering articles lost over- 
board. At Singapore a number of Malay youngsters surround in-coming and 
out-going steamers offering to dive for coins, and are very dexterous in securing 
them before they reach the bottom. 

Divorce (Telak or Cherei), — As in all Mahommedan countries, divorce in 



Descriptive Dictionary 


Ualaya is easy. Informing the wife three timea at iutervaU of two or three daya 
that ahe ia divorced (thia a^ords her time to cuosult her frieade aod call witaesseB 
if she chousea) ta sufBcient. But if a man deairea to divurce her iuataater, he must 
solemnly pronouiw* her ao nine timea before two or more credible witnesses. If 
there be due cauae the busband can recover the Ui kaicin, or dowry, and expenses 
from her family, and aucli casea are frequently brought into our courts, though it 
dues not apped.r that magistratea have any juriadiction beyond that which 'custom 
has supplied. 

Mr. Vadohan, in Vol, XI. J. I. A., haa the following remarks ; — " If a man ia 
diaaatisfied with hia wife and wiahes to put her away, he has only to tell her ao, 
using the word tela/c, or divorce, at the same time in the presence or witneasea." 

Should the man change his mind after giving the telak once or twice, the wife 
is not at liberty to leave him, but should he repeat the word three times the aepara- 
tion must take place, and they must not reside together again unleaa the woman 
be married and divorced from another man, or left a widow. 

Words are not necessary to a divorce : it is sulGctent for the husband to give 
the wife throe artiolee of a similar nature, such as. three cents or three pieces of 
wood, three pebbles or three lumps of earth, and the divorce is rendered as binding 
as if written or spoken. 

Three months and ten days is the period allowed for a man to consider the 
subject, after giving the telak less than three timea. At the end of that time, 
should he have changed bis mind, he may take hia wife bock, in the presence of 
wituosses, If he does not, she Is at liberty to marry again. 

The case of the woman is far different : if abe be inclined to leave her 
husband the process is not quite ao simple if the man object. Should he object to 
give tdak, ahe is obUged to go to the Kali and aue for a divorce. The Kali issues 
hia summons for the husband to attend, and ahe ia forced to atate her reasona for 
seeking a aeparation and prove them before he can divorce them. Three cauaea 
e couaideredjuatifiable reasons for sanctioning a divorce: — 

Firat : — Ill-treatmeut on the husband's part towards the wife. 

Second ; — If the husband refuses to support the vrife ; and 

Lastly : — If the man is an imbecile and incapable. 

All those chaises must be substantiated before the Kali, and as those 
individuals are aometimes not over- scrupulous, a few dollars effect the woman's 

Divorces are so easily accomplished, that the most abominable licentiousness 
is promoti'd, and the Hue feelings that characterize the uuion of the sexes under 
the Christiau dispensation are unknown." 

Amongst the Chinese, divorces according to native customs may take place 
for barrenness, adultery, refusing to serve parents-in-law, eicossive loquacity, 
theft, jealousy, or chronic disease, such as leprosy^all on the part of the woman. 
There are, however, three exceptions in her favour : — first, if she have mourned 
three years for a father or mother-in-law ; second, if the husband was poor when 
bo uiarrioil and haa become rich ; and, third, if the woman's parents have died 
36 her marriage, so that she has no home to return to. In case of her 
deserting her husband, she may receive 100 blows with a rod and be sold or given 
away to another ; if ahe eIoi>es and marries another man, she may be atrangled. 
Divorcea, however, are rare amongst the Chinese of the Peninsula and Straits. 

Doctor (IMAuw or Bomo). — No skilled physicians exist in Malaya, the so- 
called individuala being on a par with the witch-doctors of history. 

Dog. — The dog is found in Malaya, in the half-domestic state in which it is 
seen in every country of the East, except China, Tonqoin, Cochin-Chiua, and the 
islauda of the Pacific, in which it ia kept for food. Some of the rudest tribes alone 
use it in hunting. It is the same prick-eared cur as in other Asiatic countries, var;- 

Dol of British Malaya. Die 

i^g a good deal in colour — ^not much in size or shape — ^never becoming wild, but 
always the common scavenger of every town and village. Its origin is as obscure as 
in other parts of the world. As the wolf, the fox, and the jackal do not exist in anj 
part of the Archipelago, it cannot, locally at least, have sprung from any of these. 
There is, however, one species of wild dog in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, 
Borneo, and Java, which some naturalists have called the Canis sumatrerms, and 
others Cania niHlans; and from this the half -domesticated dog may have sprung, 
although there is certainly no evidence that it has done so. At the same time, 
there is none that points to a foreign origin. A wUd dog exists in Napal, and a 
variety of it in some of the southern parts of Continental India — ^the Canis 
primaBvus ; and this seems by far the most likely to have formed the stock from 
which not only the half -domesticated dog of Malaya, as well as those of Hindustan 
itself and the neighbouring countries have sprung, but even all varieties of the 
European dog.* 

Dollar. — See CuBBBNCY. 

Dragon-flies {BUalang garum) of brilliant colours are found through- 
out the Peninsula. 

Drama (Main mayongy generally Wayang), — The more advanced of the 
nations of the Archipelago have the rudiments of a drama, the origin of which, it 
is certain, from the terms connected with it, and from its subjects, was in Java. 
There exists, however, no written dramatic performance in the form of a dialogue ; 
and, indeed, the actors do not, except occasionally a few sentences, speak at aU, so 
that the plays are really pantomimes. A practised artist, called the d*dlang, reads 
the story before the audience, which the performers act in pantomime. Men per- 
form both male and female parts, and usually in masks. Jesters or drolls (hcuAvd 
and haiiol) are introduced on the stage without any observance as to time or subject ; 
and a band of music, consisting of the usual staccato instruments, which make a 
wild and plaintive music, is played throughout the performance. 

Another kind of acting substitutes a sort of puppets for living actors ; these 
puppets consist of pieces of leather richly painted and gilt, and always represent- 
ing the same personages, celebrities of ancient stoir. They are put in motion 
behind a screen of white cloth, having a lamp behind, so as to resemble the 
figures from a magic lantern. The same master of the revels, the d*alang, moves 
the figures, and furnishes the dialogue or story, something after the manner of 
Punch. Of all these performances, the buffoonery is by far the best part. [The 
above remarks, condensed from Cbawpubd, apply to the majority of the native 
plays exhibited, though of late years Malays have given performances which do 
not owe their birthplace to Java.] 

The Chinese reproduce the plays common in China. The dialogue is in a high 
falsetto, and generally in an archaic dialect not understood by either performers or 
listeners. Farces, however, are in the vernacular. The dresses are extremely 
gorgeous and of high value. The stage has no accessories, and is partly occupied 
by the musicians, who make a deafening noise with cymbal and drum, varied by 
that of ear-splitiing flageolets and flutes. These performances are often paid for 
by wealthy men, as a treat to the neighbourhood, the stage being erected on some 
convenient plot of ground. The Klings appear to have no theatricals, properly so 
called. See Theatbicals. 

Draughts (Apit-apit, chatoo, or dam), — Both draughts and chess are termed 
main ehcUar, and the draught game much resembles our own. Unlike the Chinese, 
however, the lower class Malays seldom indulge in games of this sort. 

Dress. — -^ mere outline of this subject will suffice to give the reader a 
ceneral notion of it. In the hot climate of the Asiatic islands, the trees of the 
forest most probably furnished the raw materials of the first scanty clothing of its 
inhabitants, and that would consist of a mere covering for the loins. The fibrous 



Descriplive Dictionary 

inner bark of some trees fumiahes, even at< preeent, among the more cinliEed 
ncrs, a main portion of the dreaa of the poorer trlafises. Cotton, bowerer, has 
immeiDoriallf formed the staple of the clothing of all the moi« adtanced races. 
Silk was found to form a pioilion of the dress of the upper classes on tlM firet 
arrir;^ of Europeane, imported, wrought or raw, from China ; and since a direct 
iot«rcourBe with Europe, woollen cloths hare been made use of to a t«t omisider- 
able eitent bj the same elasges. 

Among the more firilizcd nations, the most important portion of dreas ia that 
which covers the lower portion of the bodj, and this ia the same for both aexee. 
It consists of a short web of elutb of silk or cotton, or a mixtnre of the two. aewn 
St llie sidea, and forming a sack open at both ends. Its usnal Malar aam g - «arnitj 
— which lit«ntll7 signifies a case or shealli, has reference to its aw. Tliis is loosely 
■Mored hj tucking the upper end into \\a own folds, or by a girdle. This kind of 
Iiettitviat forms generally the only dress of the male sei of the working cIsshm, 
and within doors of all classes j and on this account we find the e«rly Portttgursu 
writers always representing the Indian islanders as " going naked from the waist 
upwards." Thu da-xs for the Upper portion of the body comsistA of a jacket 
coming iwluw tbo hips, called in Malay bc^'u, and the classes in easier t-inramstatm-s 
w(.t.-tr Uiidor it a tight vest with a single row of buttons. The head ia always b&rv 
witli the women, but the men cover it with a small handkerchief — tafidan^n, 
lit^.-rally " hftud-wii>er." This is evidently an imitation of the torbao, the Persian 
naii)4! for which — rf^t»(re — is only known to the learned. The Javanese, indeed, 
down even to the arrival of the PortuRuese, seem to have used no head-drees, 
for Bakbusa informs ua that the people of this nation, whom he met at Malauca, 
" won! nothing on the head, but had their hair cither arranged with art, or 
crotijwd." TrouBcrs are occasionally uaed under the tarong by the richer classes, 
and thin porljon of dress, like the imitation of the turban, seems lo have been 
iKirrowcd from tbe Arabs, as is implied by its Arabian name— ^anwi— corrupted 

Buoh ia, generally, the dress of the more advanced nations of the llalayau 
An^hipitlago ; but there arc some diatiactions of national coatume, which cuasist 
chi'^lly in the manner of wearing the hea*i- handkerchief, and in the pattern of the 
(■loth of which the dress is made.* Thus far C'bawftibd. But as the auhiect of 
(IrcNS Heerns desorving of rather more notice than he haa accorded it, the following 
extracts from an nrticle in the J. 1. A. are added : — 

" Till.' nartini/ may he said to he the gown, in ita simplest form, that Is. of 
the Niuui' width throughout and divested of all the additions from the waist 
upwardit. From licing nearly as long as the person, it forms in itself a complete 
cnvelojie, as Its name indicates, and is with the women, and often with tbe men, 
the only nrtJule of Oress worn in the house and kampong on ordinary occasions. 
It forms also thu stoeping dress of both sexes. In early morning the men may be 
m-en stjinding in th" trramtn half torpid from the cold, with the arms folded in the 
uarung which hiings down to the feel, leaving nothing visible but the head and 
nerk, whieh are dnvwn down upon it. In the midtOe of the day, and generally 
when mil, in dimjiahille, it in worn fastened at the waist, the oporaliou of a moment. 
Ill adjiiNting it, it in rxtended by the hand in front and to the left till it embmcp« 
till! iHtritcm elomjly biihincl. It is then made to meet at the left haunch, so as to 
I'lifohl the body tightly, and the top of the remaining or loose half is gathered 
together iutio a kmit, in front, over which the liorder of the part ne»t the person is 
drawn «) lui to confine it firmly. The lower end hangs to aliout the middle of the 
calf. The women fasten it in a different manner. When in deshabille, they 
^mcrallv wear it puckered and fastened immediately l)elow the armpits, and reach- 
ing to tte aukh>. At night it is worn either louae or wrapped round the whole 
person, including th" head, according as the weather is close or chilly. Such are 
tbe modes iu which the varong is worn in and about tbe house. We must pass to 


of British Malaya. 

tlie other articlos of dross before we cao explain how it is vrom abroad, or when 
viaitor§ are received. 

Cotton iiLTOiiiji of the best quality, observesMr, Swetteuham, are imported from 
Celebes, aad are known as sarimg Bugig. Kaiii balak aru tlie ■" painted " cotton 
taronyt of Java, made by " stopping out " the puttem with wax. The sarong plekat, 
a commoner sort, is imported from CoromandeL Silk sarongs come from Palem- 
bang, Mentob, and Basa Bara, in Sumatra, Borneo, Trin^anu, and Eelautan, 
Singapore and Penang also producing them. Those made in Singapore are called 
Kain maeloli, while those woven with ailk and gold thread are termed Kain sungkil. 
A tarong of one pieue of cloth is called sa 'Ura/tig, a join much diminishing its value, 
in which case it is called berkamjioL When first dyed it is known as malau kojii, 
but otherwise as maiau leeki. 

The next iwrtion of the men's dress is the »eMar or shiar, which is a kind of 
trousers or drawers, wide at the top, where it is fastened round the waist by a run- 
ning string or tali getvar, and closer at the legs, where it extends to about a hand's 
breadth below the kuees. It is invariably worn abroad and frequently at home. 
It is made of a thicker aud stronger cloth than the saroti^. There are several kinds 
of the common seluar, such as the »duar Ache, or Achencse eluar, seluar Arab, Ac. 
Hiu Chinese wide and loose trousers, seluar Ckiiia, when of silk, seluar loehu^a, are 
scHaetimes worn. A less common sebtar is one which reaches the ankle, seluar gadoh, 
much worn by the Malaya of Singapore, or Oraiu/ Silai ; it is wide at the feet. The 

S roper long trousers, seluar paiijaiig, narrow at the feet, are much used by the orang 
ia' or Malays of Sia' in Sumatra. They are sometimes buttoned at the Feet. 
Auother, the seluar pend^^ terminates about the middle of the thigh, and is little 
used save by the Bugis, most of whom wear it exclusirely. 

The bdju is a jacket of which there are several varieties. The baju sikat, which is 
the must common, reaches to the waist, is loose, open and without button in front, 
has sliieves terminating a hand's breadth above the wrist, and a. nia, or collar, two 
to thre<.' inches in height. The baju chari Linga has sleeves fitting closely to the 
arm, reaching to the wrist and with a loose silt cuff reaching to the knuckles. The 
bajuptsa siihht' or baju iutop imam, is similar to the last, but has an additional 
pieco on the right, whidi buttons over the left side, by five or sis buttons of doth, 
stone or gold, according to the means and taste of the wearer. It is always buttoned 
dotte. The baju tamjam kamehing is a long gown reaching to the ankle, open in front 
aud with buttons at the cuff, as the name implies. It is only worn by old men 
wbeii they attend the mosque, or on occasions of ceremony. The haju ^trob is a 
vest or shirt worn beneath the proper baju, festt-aed in front by a row of buttons of 
gold, jewels, Ac., and without collar or sleeves. The use of tlus vest is chiefly con- 
fined to ptTsons of wealth and station. The haju ayit kurajig is in the form of a shift. 
that is without auy opening in front, save a small slit at the throat to admit of the 
head pa«iing through, and which is fastened with a button. It has sleeves but no 
collar. The btyu kurong bila tiija has three indentations in the collar. The kurtmg 
ehkah mutigsang has a stiff collar with buttons. It is much worn in Kedah, but in 
Sugatiore by a few of the principal Malays only. The baju lahitangihi or baj-apoco 
resembles the baju ayit save in being sleeveless, and having a band within the slit 
at the breast where it is fastened, thus allowing the sides of the slit to remain 
open. When the sleeve terminates at the elbow it is called baju mwn/yil. In both, 
a triangular piece projects over the shoulder. The baju haskSt haa a wide additional 
[neoe of cloth on each side ; one of these lappets is fastened fay a row of strings 
within the other below the armpit on the right side, and the other fastened in a 
nmilar manner over the preceding on the left side below the armpit, It has a collar 
about two fingers' breadth broaS. Tliis baju ia much worn by the Malays of 
Malacca, who appear to have adopted it from the Klings, as in other Malay 
conotries it is not genei'aUy used. It is sometimes made without sleeves, when it is 
called hatkJU la betangSn. The haju sadaria is a loose jacket with a small collar, a 



Dre Descriptive Dictionary Dre 

row of Dumerous sntall buttons or knots of thread, wide eleevea with cuffs reachiag 
to tho knuckles, braided at all the edges and embroidered, sometimes with silk or 
gold thread, on the breast and cuffs. This hajn is also sometimes made aleeveless. 
The ha^v, findlpuin. or hirsinjah is the name given to auy of the open bajus wheu the 
borders are lined with silk. 

The baju sadaria has a pocket, whit-h the other bajas properly want, but the 
Malacca Malays have pockets in aU their jackets save the kiiron^. A peculiar kind 
of pouch or piifBe, gJmhht, about a foot long and two inches broad with a alit in the 
middle, ia much used, chiefly for conveying money and gold, by the Malays of Muar 
and Fodang and by the Sumatran people in the Peninsula, but occasionally also by 
other Malays. It has a loop at. oue end, and a string ending in a button at the 
other, by which it is fastened roimd the waist. 

The teljiar, earon-g and baju are the essential parts of the Malayan costume, 
and common to all. When the seluaT ie worn, the sarnwj is generally shortened, so 
as to expose the ends of the seluar. At other times one side is tucked up and 
thrown over the right or left shoulder, leaving the other hanging on the opposite 
side to the knee {ulepang'), or it is folded on the breast and left hanging down lliu 
back, in the faahion of a plaid or shawl {mmperkan). Penghulus. and other men of 
some station, assert their claims to respect by wearing it in a peculiar manner, that 
is, gathered in folds at each side, which are made to project {kain icambajig), when 
at oue side only {m&nchong serong). In the omba fift-aZitn, which isafemalc faahion, 
the folds are made to stand out still more and in front, so as in walking to assume 
the billowy motion which the name indicates. When it is desired to have the arms 
and legs entirely diseuga^d, aa on a journey, the sarong is gathered up and folded 
rouod the waist. It also enables the Malay to bathe so as to perform his ablutions 
effectually without any exposure of the {.erson. A dry garong is then thrown over 
the wet one, which is dexterously slipi>ed off without coming in contact with the other. 
The »arong is thus the most convenient aod convertible of all garments, forming, 
as occasion may require, dressing, bathing, or sleeping govm, kilt, plaid, shawl, 
girdle, and, as will appear, head-dreas. 

A general but not an essential article of dress is the hangleong, a waist-cloth or 
saah of cotton or silk, from 9 to 14 feet long, which is folded round the waist, the 
ends being concealed. 

The head-dress is a,jveta.r or kerchief about two feet to tour feet broad, which 
is folded as a small turban. In front, above the brow, it is folded neatly so as to 
have the appearance of a fillet, the ends crossing and being adjusted and fastened 
behind. One end is left loose and Ijuig over the crown oE the head. In the palmy 
days of Malacca and Johore the same attention was probabljr given to the manner 
of wearing the kerchief which it still receives at some eiistmg Malay courta. such 
as that of Sitt', Few Malays in Malacca and Singapore are now acquaint^'d with 
these fashions, and it would perhaps be difficult to find Malays, not immediate fol- 
lowers of the families of the SuHan and Temenggong, who could explain their names. 
The Panglima's mode ia called tilla nmmbang juntSi krali, and is generally used by 
the Temenggong. Two comers are freed from the folds ; one is brought forward 
and concealed between the fillet and the brow, and the other is made to project 
like a bom or tuft. When both horns are concealed it is called klongsong bttnga, 
which is Tuanku Alli's favourite mode. The gvlong gua has a single comer intro- 
duced between the fold and the forehead, and pulled down an inch or two over the 
brow. The g^long pidth. has the loose end neatly arranged so as to cover the head 
like a rumpled cloth cap. The lang minyonsimg angin has two projecting tufts aud 
one of the ends hanging down behmd towards one shoulder. The dayang pvlai^ 
patu^il ia the gitoiig pideh reversed so that tbe fillet ia behind. All these uLodes 
require the kerchief to be starched, or rather stiffened with kanji, to give them full 
effect, The akuU-cap, kopia or nojigko. ia worn by some. The thick aud stiff 
varieties are kopia Arab or alfia of silk, kopia. Suruli of cotton, kopia BaUivn of 


Dre of British Malaya. Die 

gold thread, locypia BUahas with alternate stripes of different colours, kopia sudu 
8udu with a raised border behind, and kopia roixLU made entirely of rattan. The 
thin kinds are the kopia hlanga, similar in shape to the preceding, and the kopia 
kape kape, which covers the whole head, leaving only the face exposed. The h^ia 
Bugis is thicker than these but soft, being made either of the pith of the rUdm 
plajit, or of tangH from China. Both are dyed black, and the latter has a border 
of silver foil. The turban (sirb&n, tirhdn) is only worn by haji4i and old persons. 

The aaputangan siri, or siri handkerchief, is held in the hand and sometimes 
thrown over the shoulder. In one corner a simpol^n, or gidibong siri, or piece of 
cloth, is tied, which contains a t^a siri, a small box holding siri, a small receptacle 
for tobacco, generally made of patidan leaf, and the tampat kap rUn or p^kaporan, a 
small brass cup, but often merely a leaf, containing moist lime. The sibe, which 
is longer than the saputangan, is worn on the shoulder by hajis, and occasionally by 

A kind of very small handkerchief, or yellow cloth used by the attendants of 
kings, is called kain wali, and a long one tUampdn, The salampei is a yellow hand- 
kerchief, sometimes ornamented with gold, which the great officers of state wear 
thrown over the shoulder at royal feasts, burials, <&c. 

The chapal or kaus are sandals used by the wealthier and more respectable 
men, but unknown to the poorer. The cheirulla are an antique kind of slipper 
only worn by a few on days of ceremony. 

With the exception to be mentioned, the only distinction between the dress of 
the higher and wealthier and the lower classes consists in the difference of quality 
in the materials. The form of the different articles is the same for all, and hasi 
remained so from time immemorial. A Malay who now varied the form of any 
article would be encountered by universal astonishment and ridicule. 

The materials of dress vary according to the means and taste of the wearer, 
and there is no prejudice against the use of any kind of cloth whatever. The 
favourite sarong is the Bugis, which is stronger, finer, and more expensive than the 
manufactures of other countries. It is always striped and according to different 
patterns, in both respects resembling the Scotch tartan. It is not dyed, but woven 
of threads of different colours. The darker are preferred, and the most tastefully 
coloured is considered to be a mixture of a fine black and white, which is the most 
rare and expensive of all, from the difficulty of procuring a fine black colour. A 
sarong in which red predominates is the favourite dress of the greaJk mass. The 
sarong p&lekai is the finest and thinnest of all the sarong cloths, and its colours are 
also the most beautiful. Its use is principally confined to women. The ordinary 
material is cotton, but silk sarongs are common, although they are only worn on 
fall-dress days. They are very seldom worn by men. The most choice and expen- 
sive are made of cloth either wrought entirely of gold thread (songket), or having 
it inwoven in stripes, flowers, &c. (h^tabor) all over, or merely at one end (hekapala). 
Cotton cloth sarongs are sometimes adorned with flowers of gold-leaf, applied to 
them with gum (bep^rada mas or tiltpo). Sarongs manufactured in Europe are 
now extensively used from their cheapness, although they are very inferior in 
strength and beauty to those made in the Archipelago. The haju is commonly of 
white cotton cloth of various degrees of quality and texture. But coloured 
chintzes, black doth, <&c. are in much use. Those who can afford it, and many of 
the young nobility whenever they appear in public, wear hajus of woollen cloth, 
velvet, and other fine materials on great days. Their hajtis are also frequently 
embroidered with gold thread or made of cloth of gold. Those worn by brides 
and bridegrooms, and on festive days by children, are sometimes ornamented with 
flowers made of solid gold, which are sewed on (Jbalu herpakaiikdn mas o. 
herhunga mcu). 

In Malayan countries the use of certain kinds of cloth, either universally or 
within certain limits, is confined to the royal family, and prohibited, under severe 



Descriptive Duiionaiy 

penalties, to all othera. The crime of wearing yellow cloth, unlesB with the eiprees 
liceDse of the Baja, is pimiahable with death. Within the precincts of the w>ixrt 
it IB unlawful to wear cloth of a fine teiture, eufh iu< musliD, witiiout a similar 
license, and the breach of the law subjects the wuarcr to a fine, or to have the doth 
torn from his person and be driven out iguominiously. The Malay historian of 
Malacca relates that after Sultan Mahomed had embraced Islamisna, he established 
many rules for maintainiug the dignity of the Malacca court, and defining ite cere- 
monies and uaagea. It was he who first made Ordinances respecting yellow things 
(^ihtntnjfan) prohibited, The people were not allowed to wear them, not even a 
haodterchief, nor were they allowed to make of this colour fringes to the hangings 
of a room, or large pillow-cases, or mattresses, or any envelope, or any kind of 
manufactured articles or house omameats, or anything else whatever, save gar(mg», 
bajvt, and diutarg. 

Dress of Womkn. — The women, in additiou to the earong. wear a baju similar 
to the baju ayii, but reaching lower. This is much used by the Malays of Singa- 
pore. In Malacca the baju IniTimg is worn. It reaches to a little above the ankle. 
Its cuffs are fastenfd with buttons of gold and sometimes of diamonds. It is of 
black cotton cloth, but when in full dress thb is exchanged for a silk one, of which 
the colour varies. The bajujipan is generally made of chintz and is open in front. 
It is fastened over the breast by two and occasionally three brooches {krogang). in 
the form and material of which the wearers show their wealth and taste. They are 
generally of gold, one being round, with flowers embossed {butiga tauto) on the 
surface or cut in {bunt/a pahat), the other (IcrofiaTig ati ati) shaped like the leaf of 
the ati ati plant, and also adorned with flowers. Instead of the surface being 
wrought into flowers, it is sometimes studded with diamonds. Breast-pins are 
rare, and as the name fyawH-w) indioat<;s. of very modem use. The under-vest, or 
bodice not quilled (chott joli), is an Indian article of dress very rarely used by 

Pockets are not used by women, but some have, on the left side of the waist, 
an imltiition on a small scale of the ompau oniversally worn by Bugis men, and 
which is similar to the sporran of the Scottish Highlander. 

The head-dress, or elendang, is a piece of coloured cloth, about nine feet long 
and three feet broad, folded on itself aud thrown over the head and shoulders, two 
comers being drawn in front on one side of the shoulder, and there held by the 
hand on thar side, so as, when pulled tight over the face, to conceal it entirely, 
while the other hand is interiwsed on the other side between the iace and the cloth, 
and coustantly employed in keeping it open, to the ejrtent which the lady cousldcre 
proper. The young, when walking in a public place, leave only a sufficieut opening 
for the eyes ; the old are less scrupulous, and leave the greater part of the faoe 
exposed. A sarong is very often substituted for the slenAang. 

Ladies' shoes are unknown to proper Malayan habits, but in many places the 
kamt leodo. or slipper, often embroidered, is worn. 

The ornaments of the female dress, in addition to the brooches already 
mentioned, are the ehucho or pacha aanijgol, or hair-pius of gold, by which the hair is 
fastened when folded on the head in the shape of a shell, as it generally ia. The 
head is usually a globe, leaf or flower-shaped, but there sometimes rise from it a 
number of spiral stalks of gold wire supporting Sowers and leaves, which tremble 
on the slightest motion of the bead, whence this oroameut is called ehucho, tanggot 
liginlar. Jewels are often set in the centres of the flowers. The folds of the hair 
are also sometimes studded vnth gulden najls, paku paku, or pcJcu aariggol, the beads, 
which alone are visible, being neatly figured and the body being generally of silver. 
In Naning the hair-pin baa a large head, and is called ehucho kimdJli. The glossy 
black hair of the Malayan ^rl ia sometimea further adorned by the buitga tunting. 
a thin lone of ^old, two tu three inches in length, supporting a row of flowers 
similar to those of the chueho eanggol lieyini3r. 

Dm of British Malaya. DuC 

The iali pinding is a band or cincture, by which the sarong is fastened round 
the waist. It is about two inches thick, made of cloth, silver, or gold, and fastened 
in front with the pinding, a large clasp of silver or gold, some inches in breadth. 
It is sometimes, when of metal, made in links, and sometimes in one piece, verj fine 
and flexible. 

The hrahu are small earrings of gold, sometimes with a diamond set in them. 
A larger kind is called subang ; when the hrahu has several diamonds or other 
stones it is hunang hunang sakabun. Before marriage and the birth of the first 
child, anting anting, or pendants of gold — called tamge when loop-shaped, and chin- 
chin when ring-shaped — are suspended from the hrahu. Solid pendants, orlet, 
sometimes of £amonds, are worn by those who can afford them on great occasions, 
such as marriages. 

Four rings of gold are generally worn on the left hand, two on the little finger 
and two on the next. These rings have sometimes diamonds. Bracelets, gilang 
tangan or pitam, of gold are frequently but not generally worn, and armlets, ponto, 
are seldom seen save on the persons of brides. A handkerchief held in the hajid 
completes the costume of the fair sex. 

At the toilet, combs, generally of Chinese manufacture, and cocoa-nut oil, are 
the only articles used. Cosmetics are very rarely resorted to, save in the families of 
royal and noble persons, and although the men occasionally use rose-water, rose oil, 
chindaua oil, majrao oil, <&c., the women never do so. f^lowers, such as the rose, 
ehampaJca, and kanangga, are occasionally, but very rarely, worn in the hair. Their 
use is generally considered to denote an unbecoming manifestation of vaiuty or 
desire to attract attention. It is, however, a custom much in vogue with the Sakeis. 

Dbess op Children. — The dress of children is similar to that of their elders. 
Until the age of about five years they wear the harut (a large bandage). Until 
this age the children of the poor in country parts often run about naked, the 
females having a small heart shaped plate of silver or gold, called chaping, fastened 
by a string where the sculptor, from a similar motive, sometimes places a leaf. 
Idttle silver globules with grains inside, karonchong, are sometimes fastened by a 
string round the ankles, and make a tinkling sound when the children are in motion. 
They are disused at the age of two or three years. 

On holidays and days of ceremony the children are gaily dressed. The boys 
wear little skuU-caps ornamented with golden flowers, and the girls the kopia herehor, 
which hangs down behind the kolur, which is similar to the kopia. From their 
necks are suspended, by silken or velvet strings or ribbons, gold buttons, doko or 
broad pieces of gold with ornaments, those of the girls being crescent-shaped, and 
those of l^e boys with an irregular curved margin, tangkal, or amulets, small pieces 
of gold, square-shaped for boys and crescent-shaped for girls. The ginipei arc 
small round pieces of gold suspended by gold chains. Bracelets are worn — thin 
and flat for the girls, and round for the boys. The kuku harimau (tiger's claws) is 
a small piece of gold into which the points of two tiger's claws are fixed, the ends 
being shod with gold. The mane are gold beads worn at the wrist. Earrings and 
pendants, and bangles or anklets, gilang kaki, of silver, adorn the girls. 

Drugs. — A large number of plants are supposed to have therapeutic virtues, 
but the subject has not yet been dealt with by European scientists. Dinigs with 
metallic bases are almost unknown, but certain poisons, animal, vegetable and 
mineral, are familiar. 

Drxun (Oendang, rebana; great drum used only on special occasions navhat), 
Malayan drums are of simple design, with no means of tightening the heads. The 
r^na has only one face, and the gendarig either one or two. They are more 
correctly tambourines. 

Duck. — ^A species of duck has been immemorially domesticated by the more 
ciyilised nations of the Archipelago, but the bird is unknown to the ruder. Of the 



Descriptive Dictionary 


time or mauDer in which it waa first introduced, it is impoBsible to form any reason- 
able conjeeture. The name for the domestic duck in Malay is iifk. That it ia not 
derived from any native wild species is certain, since no large wild dock eriata in 
the western islands of the Archipelago ; and, indeed, no wild duck at all except a 
teal, called by the Malays tnalmw, the Ana* arenata, or dendroygna of naturalists, 
a bird that is sometimes kept in t«aleries, but has not been, and is probably not 
capable of being domesticated. The Malay name for the domestic duck, it may be 
remarked, extends to the cultivated languages of Celebes and the Philippine islands, 
from which it may be conjectured that, like the common fowl, the dog, bog, and 
buffalo, it was introduced into Celebes and the Philippines by the Malayan nations, 
who are so well known to have frequented them immemorially as traders,* 

dlgong. — The Helieore dugon// of naturalists, is an inhabitant of the shallow 
aeas of Malaysia, but it is not numerous, or at least is not oft#n caught by the fisher- 
men. It is the duyntig of the Malays, which naturalists, mistaking a, j or y for a g, 
have corrupted into dugang. During my residence in Singapore, a few were taken 
in th0 neighbourini; shallow seas, and I can testify that the flesh of this herbivorous 
mammifer is greatly superior to that of the green turtle.* 

Duku.^A round fruit about the size of a lime, and containing a sweetish 
firm piilp in lobes like a mangost^eu. It is generally liked by Europeans. 

Duraka Juni.— A V. about 4| miles from Butterworth, Province Wellesley, 
on the Bukit Tengah road. 

Durian. — (See also Fruits.) The ihtrian grows on a large and lofty forest 
tree, somewhat resembling an elm in its general character, but with a more smooth 
and scaly bark. The fruit is round or slighlJy oval, about the size of a large cocoa- 
nut, of a green colour, and covered aU over with short stout spines, the bases of 
which touch each other, and are consequently somewhat hei^onaJ, while the points 
are very strong and sharp. It is so completely armed, that if the stalk is broken 
off, it is a difficult matter to lift one from the grouud. The outer rind is so thick 
and tough, that from whatever height it may fall it is never broken. From the 
base to the apex five very faint lines may be seen, over which the spines arch a 
little ; these are the sutures of the carjiels, and show where the fruit may be 
divided with a heavy knife and a strong hand. Tlie five cells are satiny white 
within, and are each filled with an oval mass of cream-coloured pnlp. imbedded in 
which are two or three seeds about the size of chestnuts. This pulp is the eatable 

Eart and its consistence and flavour are indescribable. A rich butter-like custard 
ighly flavoured with almonds givea the best general idea of it, but intermingled 
with it come waits of flavour that call to mind cream-cheese, ouion-sauc^, brown 
sherry, and other incongruities. Then there is a rich glutinous smoothness in the 
pulp which nothing else possesses, but which adds to its delicacy. It is neither 
acid, nor sweet, nor juicy, yet one feels the want of none of these qualities, for it is 
perfect as it is. It produces no nausea or other bad effect, and the more you eat of 
it, the less you feel inclined to stop. In fact to eat durians is a new sensation, 
worth a voyage to the east to experience. When the fruit is ripe, it falls off itself, 
and the only way to eat durians in perfection is to get them as they fall ; and the 
smell is then less overpowering. When unripe, it makes a very good vegetable if 
cooked, and it is also eat«n by the Dayaks raw. In a good fruit season, large 
quantities are preserved salted, in jars, and bamboos, and kept the year round, 
when it acquires a most disgusting odour to Europeans, bul the Dayaks appreciate 
it highly as a relish with their rice. There are in the forest two varieties of wild 
durians with much smaller fruits, one of them orange -coloured inside ; and these 
are probably the origin of the large fine duriana, which are never found wild. It 
would not, perhaps, be correct to say that the durian is the beat of all fruits, because 
it cannot supply the place of the aub-acid juicy kinds, such as the orange, grape, 
mango, and mangosteen, whose refreshing and cooling qualities are so wholesome 


Dnr of British Malaya. Dye 

and grateful ; but as producing a food of the most exquisite flavour, it is unsur- 
passed. If I had to fix on two onlj, as representing the perfection of the two 
classes, I should certainly choose the durian and the orange as the king and queen 
of fruits. The durian is, however, sometimes dangerous. When the fruit begins 
to ripen it falls daily and almost hourly, and accidents not unfrequently happen to 
persons walking or working under the trees. When a durian strikes a man in its 
rail, it produces a dreadful wound, the strong spines tearing open the flesh, while 
the blow itself is very heavy ; but from this very circumstance death rarely ensues, 
the copious effusion of blood preventing the inflammation which might otherwise 
take place. The old traveller Linschott, writing in 1599, says : — " It is of such an 
excellent taste that it surpasses in flavour all the other fruits of the world, accord- 
ing to those who have tasted it." And Doctor Paludanus adds : — " This fruit is 
of a hot and humid nature. To those not used to it, it seems at first to smell like 
rotten onions, but immediately they have tasted it they prefer it to all other food. 
The natives give it honouraole titles, exalt it and make verses on it." When 
brought into the house, the smell is often so ofEensive that some persons can never 
bear to taste it. — Quoted from Wallace's " Malay Archipelago." 

Elephants, tigers, and rhinoceroses are said to be extremely fond of this fruit, 
the hard shell offering no difficulty to their formidable jaws. The Peninsula 
Malays aver that the best durians come from Sungei Bakap in Province Wellesley. 

Durian Daun. — ^V. in Malacca 1^ miles from Sungei Bharu in the Sungei 
Bharu XJlu district. 

Sabatang. — imp. v. in S. Perak at the junction of the Batang 
Padang and Bidor Rivers. It was the residence of the Laxamana, but has ceased 
to be of importance since the founding of T. Anson. 

Durian Timggal. — important v. in district of same name, C. Malacca, the 
site of a Police station. The V. lies on the high road from Malacca to Machap, in 
the centre of numerous tapioca estates, and just outside the W. edge of the old tin- 
mining district, about 10 miles from Malacca. An affluent of the Malacca river 
flows through the V. 

Durian Tunggal. — ^District in C. Malacca with V. of the same name. A 
tin mine was opened here in 1840 by Mr. Westerhout and a Chinaman, but it is 
no longer worked. 

DuSUn. — In Malay means a village ; and also the country distinguished from 
the town. It is the native synonym of the Sanskrit jyesa, 

DnSUn Datoh.— V. on W. bank of Perak R., C. Perak, just S. of Teluk 

DuSUn Kapar. — v. on the boundary line between Pulau Sebang district, N. 
Malacca, and Km district, S. of Eembau. 

Dutoll. — The Dutch intercourse with the Peninsula proper was confined to 
the establishment of factories in Perak, Kedah and Junk Ceylon and the capture 
and occupation of Malacca in 1641, which with some vicissitudes continued until 
its final cession to us in 1825. The best account of Dutch enterprise in these 
places is probably to be found in Newbold's " Political and Statistical Account of 
the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca." Particulars tare given under the 
heads of " Malay Peninsula," " Malacca," &c. 

DyOS. — Foreign dyes have so largely superseded native products that the 
latter are scarcely met with in places where foreign influence extends. Rod, blue, 
yellow, brown and black are obtained from various leaves, barks and roots. For 
red, the barks of the tengah, kamudu, aamah, hakoro, nyiri and hetut, and the root 
of the menghudu are used ; for blue, nila, or indigo, and daim tarom ; for yellow, 
the seeds of the $a^a serang (boiled), or the chips of the kayu kudrang ; for brown, 

[113] I 


Descriptive Dictionary 


manpove barb ; and for black (which is in reality only an intense blue), the leaves 
of the larom. 

The following remarks under this head are quoted from Mr. N.Castlkt's Report 
for la86 :— 

"Indioo {Initigofera tintioria). — Not yet under cultJTation by EuropeanB 
here, but largely ciuttvated by Chinese, The plant eucceeds equally well OQ hill 
and swamp. 

" Dm-Drvi {Cm»alpinia eoriaria) is a new product for the Straits. The plant 
has shown satisfactory growth. At the late flower show, Mr. Allkjj' exhibited some 
pods from plants grown on his estate, and which seem quite equal to Indian pro- 
duce. Its cultivation will no doubt bo found profitable. 

" Abkotto (Bixa oralliaa) haa found apparently a congenial home in the Sb^ita, 
and grows with all the vigour of its native habitat. It yields abundance of dye 
which might surely be profitably utilized. 

" Dtebs' C&aau. (Catgia aurienlala). — This plant is quite at home in Singapore 
soil, and its profitable cultivation is believed to be possible. It was introduced 
from the East Indies. 

" Other Dyes. — ^Among other unutilized dyes, the growth of which leaves 
nothing to be desired, may be mentioned Givtalpinia enppan, fibraurea tinetoria, 
Heivna, Phytotacca, At." 

Eagle (Raja wall). — A species la known in Malaya, but is more probably 
allied to the condor. 

Earring {Antiitg anting, oi si&aiuf}. worn as with us. generally of silver, but 
Hometimea of a gold and copiier alloy. 

Earthquake (OSmpa). — The Malay Peninsula is happily eiempt from earth- 
quake risitutionii, attbougb Duti:h Malaya is perhaps more liable to them than any 
other portion of the earth's surface. See VoLCiNo. 

Ebony (Kay a arang) is found in the Peninsula, but is not an article of trade. 

Eclipse. — ^e names for an eclipse of the sun or the moon are all that is 
known about eclipses by the Malays. The word for an eclipse is the Sanskrit one, 
gerhana- An eclipse of tho sun is, therefore, called gerhaiia-maia-ari, and of the 
moon gerhana-btUan, in Malay. But eclipses of both luminaries represent them ae 
" siek," and so we have mkit-Toata-ari and sakit-buJan, " sickness of the sun," and 
"sickness of the mooii." An eclipse of the moon is also expressed by the native 
phrase biilaii-makaTt-raiih, — the moon eaten by the dragon. The word rauh is 
Sanskrit, and the name of a monster supposed to aim at devouring the moon. 
During the eclipse, the rice-stampers are clattered in their mortars, in order to 
frighten the monster from his meditated mischief.* 

Egg-plant {Drinjal Kony), largely grown, and generally procurable in the 

ElapS. — The most formiilable venomous snake known, found in the Setllc- 
menta and Peninsula. See Hahadkta^d. 

Elephant (Gajah) (the name of tho animal and of the bishop in chess). — 
Tho elephant is found in abundance, in the wild state, in the Malay Peninsula, 
es[ieciully towards its northern portion. Whether the elephant of the Malay 
Peuinsula be the same with the Sumatran, or vrith the comniou Asiatic, or whether 
it be different from either, is a point which has not been ascertained. 

Both the elephant of Sumatra and of the Peninsula are, says Cbawvukd, like 
the Asiatic species, and aa the African once was, amenable to domestication, In 
the northern States of the Malay Peuinsula, more especially in Kedah, they are, in 
fact, domesticated and employed as beasts of burden ; and in Sumatra they were 
ouce tamed and used by the langs of Achin for parade. From both countries they 


Ele of British Malaya. Ele 

are occasionally caught, tamed, and exported by the Telingas to the Qoromandel 
coast. For the purposes of court ceremonies or for war, the elephant was found by 
the Europeans, on their first arrival in the Archipelago, in places where they no 
longer exist. Thus, at the capture of Malacca, the king and his son, each on their 
elephants carrying a wooden tower, charged the Portuguese, and in the pursuit of 
the fugitive king after the capture, mention is made by the Portuguese historians 
of the taking of seven elephants. Till about 40 years ago elephants still roamed 
in the Malacca jungle. But about that time they disappeared, having apparently 
found their way to the as yet undisturbed jungle of N. Johore and Pahang. 

It seems highly probable that the natives of the Archipelago were ignorant of 
the art of taming the elephant until instructed by the Hindus. This is to be 
inferred, not only from the prevalence of Sanskrit names for the elex)hant itself, 
but from matters connected with its domestication. The usual name in Malay is 
the Sanskrit one, ga^ah ; and, indeed, adds Mr. Crawfurd, it was long before that 
I myself found out that it had a native one. This is her amy although now obsolete. 
Among the terms connected with the domestication of the elephant that are 
taken from the Sanskrit, are the elephant-driver, or attendant, gdhala-gajah, 
literally " elephant groom," hdlanggu, the fetters, and kusa, the driving-crook. The 
names of the tusks of the decoy elephant, and of the elephant trap, are, however, 
pure Malay. The animal is now found wild almost exclusively in Kedah, but a good 
many are employed in Perak and the adjoining States. Mr. W. E.. Maxwell, 
C.M.G., in a contribution to Notes & Queries S. B. R. A. S., 1885, makes the 
following remarks : — 

The use of the elephant has, however, diminished in the Peninsula, and is 
likely further to diminish as the country is opened up, unless the Indian system 
of stabling the tamed animals and feeding them in captivity is adopted, instead of 
the Malay practice of turning them out when not wanted for work, to shift for 
themselves in the jungle, simply hobbled by the forelegs like donkeys on an Englisli 
common. This, of course, means destruction to crops of sugar-cane and Indian 
com if there be any within reach, and becomes an intolerable nuisance in cultivated 
districts. Under Malay rule, elephants were in use in Malacca, and d' Albuquerque 
describes the King of Malacca in 1511 as fighting on an elephant in defence of his 
town. In Province Wellesley, too, when it was part of Kedah, and even after the 
cession, before roads were made, these useful animals were formerly employed. But 
in both these provinces elephants have long ceased to be seen. 

In Kedah, Patani, and in parts of Perak, elephants are still valuable, and indeed 
an indispensable means of transport, and the natives of these States possess a good 
deal of information, some of it reduced to writing in small treatises, on the subject 
of the trapping and taming of elephants and their treatment in health and disease. 
Travelling at different times in the first and last of the three states above-named, 
I have noted down the words of command used by elephant-drivers, and now sub- 
join them. The majority of them are not Malay, but may be corrupted Siamese. 
The words used in iedah and Perak are not the same. 

He further adds the following vocabulary of the words of command used in 

driving elephants : — ^ 

^ Perak. 

Tee-tee Stand still ! Keep quiet ! 

Tukuh-tfihuh ... Go back! Move backwards ! 

Dee-dee ... ... Come close ! (Used in calling the elex^hant.) 

Hee-hee Gk)on! 

Umb4 Go to the right ! 

Khmg Go to the left ! 

Kohoi'lcohoi ... Go slowly! 

Chin Go carefully ! (Used where the road is slippery, or going down 

a steep bank, or through a deej) swami>.) 

[115] I 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 




Hoh'koh ... 


Paha Jdong 
Chd4t ... 














• • • 




Koi, hot, 




• • • 


Pull down ! (Used in directing the elephant to remove any 
stick or branch obstructing the path.) 

Push ! (Used in ordering the elephant to push down a per- 
pendicular obstacle, as a post, or tree, or stump.) 


Approach! (Used in ordering an elephant to go alongside 
of a Malay house or pelantar. He will bring his head 
close if riap is said. For the hind-quarters the order 
is Biap huntut,) 

Kneel down ! 

Kneel down lower ! 

Get up'! 

Keep clear of timber on the right ! 

Keep clear of timber on the left ! 

Let the howdah slip off! (The gambala is on the ground.) 
At this word of command the animal lowers his hind 
quarters and lets the rengJca slip over his tail. 

(Employed to make the elephant stop switching his tail and 
striking the occupants of the rengka with it.) 

Put the right foot into the hobbles (aengkdla). 

Same for the left foot. 

Lift the foot ! (To have the aengJMa taken off.) 

Don't ! (Used when the elephant takes up water or saliva in 
his trunk and sprinkles his sides with it.) 

Let go ! (Used when the animal squeezes the gambala* s legs 
with its ears, behind which he sits.) 

Boll! (in the water). An elephant being bathed will roll 
when told to do so, and will get up when hanghet or tah is 

(Used in driving an elephant home if, when the gambala has 
found him, he is too dirty and muddy to be ridden. He 
will go straight home in front of his gambala at this word 
of command.) 

Let go ! (Used when an elephant, objecting to have the tcdi 
Ht (rattan rope passing under the bellv) fastened, puts up 
one of his forelegs and presses it agamst his body to pre- 
vent the rope from being pulled tight.) 


Go on ! ••• .«• ... 


Stop ! ... ... ... 


for right or left). 

Kneel down! 

Get up! ... ... 

Move aside ! (to avoid a 

Come close ! 

Pull down ! (a branch ) . . . 


Take care ! {e,g,, in cross- 
ing a bridge) 



Chee, Cham. 


Dao (same 







Feel ! (with the trunk)... 
Climb! ... ... 

Stoop down ! (head only, 

to let a man get up) 
Lift up one leg! (to let 

a man get up) 


Don't whisk the tail ! ... 


Salaam ! (by lifting the 



Swim ! ... ... 












Ele of British Malaya. Ent 

Ejlophant Hill. — ^A limestone hill in Kedah containing a stalactite cave, 
the roof being about 70 feet high. Many of the stalactites are of grotesque form, 
and when struck emit a sonorous tone. The floor is covered with bat's dung. 
Many of the side passages are as yet unexplored. It is known to the natives as 
Gunong Geriyang. 

BlepliailtSi Speed of. — it does not appear that the fastest elephants in 
the Peninsula, at the u»vxil rate of speed, exceed 2^ miles per hour. They can, 
however, go at a trot which tries a horse to keep pace with. 

Elephantiasis {Uiimit). — This abhorrent-looking disease, whereby the 
lower limbs become unnaturally distorted to elephantine dimensions, is by no 
means uncommon in the Peninsula, but is found amongst Asiatics only, and more 
frequently amongst Klings than Malays. It is accounted a species of leprosy, and, 
like that disease, is as yet incurable. It sometimes, but rarely, attacks other 
portions of the body. 

Emigration. — Strictly speaking, there is no emigration from the Peninsula, 
though, for legal purposes, Chinese who arrive at Singapore and pass on to 
Penang or the Ihitch territories are accounted emigrants and protected by 
stringent legislation. 

Enas or InaS, now one of the small Negri Sembilan lying on the N. border 
of Johol, a Mt. of the same name being included in its area. Curiously enough 
the name does not appear on any published maps, and the only reference to tiie 
locality I have been able to find is an account of a tour from lu alacca to Pahang 
by Mr. Charles Gray in 1827. It is specifically referred to in Mr. Lister's 
report on the Negri Sembilan (q. v.). 

Enggar. — v. on E. bank of Perak R. 4 miles N. of Kota Lama, N.C. 

Entomology. — Although numerous works treat of the entomology of the 
Mal^ Archipelago, no monograph has appeared dealing with that of the Peninsula 
and British Possessions only. Wallace mentions collecting 700 species of beetles 
(including 130 kinds of Longicoms) in Singapore alone. There would appear to 
be still a large field for research, although the more magnificent species of 
Coleoptera, Ac, are to be found in most cabinets. Amongst the Hemiptera, fine 
specimens are found of the FulgoricUe, or lantern flies, Cicadidx, and Cimicidw, or 
tree bugs, which are most brilliantly coloured. Of the Neuroptera, the Mantiche 
and LihellulicUe are the most prominent, while the Termitidx, or white ants, abound 
here as in most tropical countries. The Termes hellicosiis^ however, which builds 
the large hills, common in South America, is unknown. Of the Coleoptera, very 
fine examples abound, that which attracts most attention l)eing the cocoa-nut 
beetle, which plays immense havoc with the trees, and, on well-managed plantations, 
engages the services of several " beetle-catchers," who find continuous employment 
throughout the year. Another pest is the sugar-cane beetle. The most prominent 
of the order of Hymenoptera are the boring bees, who bore long cylindrical holes 
into timber to form a nest, each individual occupying its own hole. The female, 
which is nearly twice the size of the male, has no sting. 

Of the Lepidoptera {Kupu kujm), one order has been 8X>ecially dealt with in 
Mr. Distant's work upon the Bhojfalocera of the Peninsula. The Heteroceka, or 
moths, have yet to be described. Various species of Sphiiigidw (Sphynx moths) 
abound. Of Myriapoda, the sub-order Chihpoda is formidably represented by 
enormous centipedes, sometimes reaching ten inches in length. Arachnids 
are well exemplified by brilliantly coloured field s])iders, and a species of Mygale 
which feeds on the larger insects or small birds, while the? Scorpionid^. aie large 
and venomous. Several insects are referred to at length in their alphabetical 


Bnt Descriptive Dictionary Fas 

BntOSOIt. — A common complaint amongst the Malays, wlio use a decoction 
(if ihii iimlo i><iiiicgmimte.troo as a vormifugo. 

BplphitOSi <>r i;rtM^{>crs, abound in the Malayan jungles, and consist, in 
hufiM'fouii (:ait(*fi. of fragrant orchidaceaa of singular and beautiful forms. 

Kffi* — 'I'UiTc iM no evidence to show that the Malays had any era, native or 
f*»r«5il|ii, IxjfortJ Wmx adoption of the Hejira. They seem, however, to have had a 
mAixx ywr, and to have rt>ckoniHi in it by the reigns of their kings, the number of 
yi^j^fodf (m<;ti reigu k>eiug always specified in their annals. Thus, although the 
IMf^lj^yM of MalaiH^a did not adopt the religion of Mahommed until the year of 
(itiiiot 127(1. we tUul them alleging themselves to have founded Singapore in 1160, 
4hit ^iviuy vanoui* iutt^rmediate dates, which they could onljr have arrived at by 
*M«{iiMiiii4g bai'kwainlH, with Uie duration of their princes' reigns as their guide, 
Miiliitfii, iudiM)di wliich in not improbable, that the era alluded to was that of 
Hrtlivaii4, Imnowed from Java.* 

BulO« -V^' **J* ^K* shore of Kelantan about 8 miles N. of entrance of 
TiiuggM-uii U. 

Bxoh(U(l([0.~^^'t^^ Currency and Exchange. 

Bx^OUtlOUB amongst the Malays are thus carried out. The condemned 
jiMVtiiiii iu made to stuud up with the shoulder bare. The executioner with his Arw 
titfMtiU lu)himl him, and at a given signal places a small wad of cotton-wool between 
Ihu tihiMilihu' l)lade and collar bone. The point of the hri^ is placed upon this, and 
with a ttiuMna jerk the weapon is driven downwards direct into the heart. Death 
jti (if courHt' iustautaneous. The object of the cotton-wool is to absorb the small 
(juautily (if hlood which spurts from the wound. 

EiXOticS. — A list of exotics cultivated in the Singapore Botanical Qurdens, 
many of which are also to be found in private gardens, is given in Mr. Cantlby's 
** FiiMt of the Principal Economic Plants in the Forest Experimental Nurseries," 
for I 't^'t^iS. Ah the Question is so often put — " Is this or that indigenous ? " the list 
will bo found useful. 

False Msrbukit. — (Marked Berbukit in the Admiralty Chart). 432 feet 
high, tlio S. extremity of a chain of hills in S.E. Johore, about 8 miles N.N.W. 
of Point liomania. 

False Parcelar. — Hill 936 feet high, 5 miles from the coast of Selangor, 
about 12. J miles N.W. of Klang. 

Faria Y Sousa. — " This Portuguese writer was bom in 1590, and died in 
1(541). The work which connects him with the history of the Asiatic Archipelago is 
his • Ania Portuguosa,' which is the Portuguese history of India from itscommence- 
iiieut ill 1497, to its virtual termination in 1649. This work is posthumous, and 
written in Spanish. It is a hasty compilation, of which neither the facts nor 
rcaHoningH are reliable ; and the author is, in every way, greatly inferior to the 
tuirlitn* historians — Babbos, Couto, and Castanheda — who lived nearer the most 
important events, and had better sources of information. There is an English 
translation of the ' Asia Portuguesa,* dedicated to the Princess of Modena, second 
wife of James the Second."* 

FaStSi FeastSi ^uid Festivals (Malayan). — The Malavs being Mahom- 
uiedans, they observe the same dates as their co-religionists elsewhere. 

Hamthan, OB Month of Abstinence {Baian PtuUa), — This is the month 
speeiallv set apart each year by the followers of Mahomet for religious abstinence. 
From the morning after the new moon (of Ramthan) is observed until the first 
appearan(M) of the next new moon (ShawaJ), the various members of the body must 
be kept in rigorous prohibition. The fast begins daily from the time the light 
borders the eastern horizon and lasts till the stars are clearly observed in the 



of British Malaya. 


heavens in the evening ; and to taste food or drink, to swallow spittle or to bathe 
during these hours would be to render the sacred ordinance null and void. 

Feast of Bbeaking of Fast (Kdri Edya), — This Feast is celebrated on 
the Ist day of the month Shawal, which is the month following Kamthan. Mussul- 
mans on this day are required to bathe, put on new clothes and give alms, according 
to their circumstances. During the day they attend prayers at the mosques, after 
which they give themselves up to pleasure and rejoicing. 

Feast of the Saceifice (Hdri Bay a Hadji), — This Feast is held on the 
10th day of the month Zil Hayjah, in honour, it is said, of Abraham's intending to 
offer up Ismail, who, according to the Mohammedan creed, was chosen as the offer- 
ing to the Almighty, and not Isaac. 

The offering thus made is commemorated annually by the sacrifice of cows, 
sheep, goats, and other animals. It is the belief of the Mohammedan that animals 
sacrificed at the Feast will be present to give assistance in the perilous trial which 
awaits every soul after death, viz., the passage of the bridge Al Sirat which spans 
(according to the Koran) the abyss of Hell, and is represented to be finer than a 
hair and sharper than the edge of a sword. The path, though beset with many 
obstacles, will be crossed over with ease and safety by the faithful, but the wicked 
will miss the narrow footing and plunge into the fathomless gulf that yawns beneath 

There are other fasts and festivals observed by strict Mohammedans through- 
out the year, but the foregoing are those of any importance. They are not made 
pretexts for holidays when in European employ, nor does even the observance of 
these above noted in any way interfere with domestic arrangements so far as 
European masters are concerned. 

Ferns. — Few natural orders of plants are Ixjttcr represented within the 
districts embraced by this work than that of the Ferns. Many species are indige- 
nous to either the Settlements or Peninsula, which, in this respect, compare 
favourably with almost any other area under our influence. The following list has 
very kindly been placed at my disposal by Mr. N. Cantley, the Superintendent of 
the Singapore Botanical Q-ardens, and has been retained in the published form for 
two reasons. Firstly, the Malays have but few specific names for plants of this 
family. " PoJcoh Pahu,** or the ** nail plant," is the generic term applied to all, and 
but few vernacular names distinguish between the large number of specimens found. 
Secondly, the English names are equally few, and offer but little guide to the 
would-l>e collector. It has, therefore, been judged best to print the list in the form 
so generously furnished, forming as it does a portion of a forthcoming work on the 
Malayan Flora : — 

English Name. 

Scientific Name. 

Amphicosmia alterans 
AlsophUa latebrosa 

Tree Fcni 







Adiantum Parishii . . . 
„ capinuB veniros 

it caudatum... 













Maidon Hair 








Original Habitat, 

Penaug, rare. 
S. S. and Native States. 
Ponang and Sclangor. 
Guuong Sonoy, Perak. 

S. S. and Native States. 
Peuang, rare ; Gunong Bubu, 

Mount Opliir and Guuong 
Bubu, Perak. 

Perak (new species). 

Perak Hills. 


Low's Pass, Perak ; Ponang. 




Descriptive Dictiotiary 












SoiEtTTiFic Name. 

Aiiplemum Babavenium 
fcen^um ... 
(alcatam ... 
ncMTBale ... 


maorophyllum vi^ . urophyllum 
refiectum ... 
uitidum ... 
Athyrium maclooarpum 

,, drepanopbylluixi 
Ajuibogoaiuiu cordiioliuxa 
Aotiuoptoriii dichotama 
ABpidiuJoa vastiun 

variolosujw ... 
polymorph! um 
„ diioujrreufi .. 
Ajcjrotftlcbum aureuun... 
Noriwil ... 
AiiUopbyrum ruticulatum 
Aijgiopturiti uvocta 
Jiiaiiua JniiigiHti 
Jiiucbuum borrulatum 
oriuutalo ... 
(/yalbua Hruuoim 

M Hakori 
OiboUum HaromuU 
ObuilauUiuM tonuifolla 
M fragilU ... 
M varTuiiM ... 
I, arguntia ... 
M farluoMa ... 
(iaiupUii'ia biaurita ... 

., |)atunM 
'wiaUiitidriti Uialiutroiduu 

EsTGLisE Kame. 
. Spleen Wort 








hUiiianii attuidiiiiiieM . . 
hiiiiUb(aMtiMa Muadra ... 
huvallia U'l|))iylla 



Shield Fem 


Paku Laut 


Cave Fem 



Horn Fem 

Hare*8-foot Fem 


Obiginal TTawttat. 
BtxaitB genezally. 


fitiattE generally. 
Gnnong Kebon, Paiak. 









Sungei laang, Perak. 
Strailis, in moist plaoes. 



Straits genenJly. 



Straits, in tidal streams. 

Gunong Riam, Perak. 

Gunong Riam, Perak. 


Bukit Timah, Singapore. 

Straits generally. 



Gmiong Kebon, Perak. 

Singapore, Perak. 

Straits generally. 


Common in ditches 

Malay Islands. 
Straits and Perak. 
Perak, Penang. 



of British Malaya. 



Davallia tricomanoides 










elegans var. ooniifolia 
Diplazimn pallidum ... 
lanceum ... 
latifolium ... 
Didymochlssna lunulata 





Dictyopteris Barberi ... 
„ polyoarpa 

n heterosora 

„ difiormis 

Dipteris Horsfieldii 
Drynaria coronans 
„ splendens 
„ propinqua 
„ Linnsei 
Dr3nnoglossium piloselloides 
Elaphoglossum conforme 
„ Norrisii 

„ viscosum 

Gleichenia circinata ... 
flagellaris ... 
vulcanica ... 
Gtoniophlebium molle . . . 

Goniopteris frolif era ... 
Gymnopteris subrepanda 
„ repandmn 

„ spioata ... 

„ quercifolia 

„ Linnseanum 

Hymenophyllum javanicum 
„ Smithii 



English Name. 
Hare*s-foot Fern 


• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

Paku Kawan 



Oak Fern 

• • • • • 

Filmy Fern 

• • • • • 


Obiqinal Habitat. 

Straits generally. 

Straits generally. 


Straits generally. 


Straits generally. 




Thaipeng, Perak, and Gunong 




Klian Kinding, Perak. 

Gunong Bubu, Perak. 
Mount Ophir. 
Penang Hill. 






Straits generally. 



Mount Ophir, Gunong Bubu. 

Straits generally. 


Penang and Perak. 


Straits generally. 

Gunong Kebon, Perak. 



Gunong Bubu, Perak. 


Bukit Timah, Singapore. 

Penang and Singapore. 


Descriptive Dictionary 





• I 


llymenophylimn Nusii 

parvifolium ... 
Blumoanum ... 
lluinata hotorophylla... 
,, angufltata 
,, parallola 

,, podata ..« ••• 

1 foinidictyum Fiulaysonianum 
HolminthoHtachyB zoylanica ... 

KaulfuHHia aoBculifolia 
J lOUcoHtogia parvula ... 
nodosa ... 
immorBa ... 
hlndHuya oultrata 

jHsotinato ... 

dlvoi'goiiM ... 

lunuKlnoBa ... 
., Walkonu 
J<lt<mroo)iia InoiHa 

,, niarglnaia 

JmHtrua ooniifolia 




ualoaraium ... 

uraclloHoons ... 







tonorioauliB ... 
Loxogrammo involuta 

„ avonia ... 

Lygodlum oiroinatum 

diohotum ... 
NoandatiB ... 
HoxuoHum ... 
hytjixliuni Jaiumioum... 
,, pniyMiaohyum 
Matniila |titniliiata 

Ml(ii'iiltt|ila pliiimia ... 

English Name. 







ii|t(i)uti(«iit vari ])olypodloido8... 

• • • 

• ■ • 

• •• 

• • • 

OfiioiKAi* Habhat. 
Penang and Singapore. 

Straits and Perak. 


Singapore, Penang. 


Gonong Bnbn, Mount Ophir, 

and Malacca. 

Straite generally. 





Straits generally. 


Straits generally. 



Straits generally. 




Sungei Liang, Perak. 

Straits generally. 







Straits generally. 


Waterfall, Penang. 

Mount Ophir, Gunong Bubu, 

Straits generally. 




of British Malaya. 


SoiEHTEPic Name. 

Miorolepia platyphylla 

„ nirta var. speluncaa 

Mesoohlsena i>olycarpa 
Meniocium tripnyllum 
„ salioifolium 

„ simplix ... 

Nophrodium aridum ... 
fastum ... 
Nepheolepis exaltata ... 
volnbilis ... 
ramosa ... 
„ cordifolia 

Niphobolus adnasoens 
„ aorostichoides 

„ penangianus 

Oleandra Walliohii ... 
„ Cmningii 
„ mussBfolia ... 
Onychium auritum ... 
Osmonda javanica 
Ophioglossum vulgatum 
„ retioolatum 

„ pendulum 

Prosaptia contigua 

„ Emersoni ... 
Pellsea falcata 

„ seraiifolia 
Pteris longif olia 
quadriaurita ... 

English Name. 







... Male Fern ... 


... Royal Fern ... 
Snake's Tongue Fern 



Obioinal Habitat. 

Straits, in ditches. 

Straits generally. 

Gunong Kobon, Porak. 






Straits generally. 



Gunong Bubu, Porak. 


Gunong Gerai. 


Everywhere common. 
Straits generally. 




Straits generally. 








Gunong Bubu, Porak. 





Descriptive Dictionary 


Scientific Name. 

Pteris longipinula 
n aquinima 
,, esculenta 
Plagiogyria pyonophylla 
Polystichum semicordatum 
„ biaristatom 

„ aculeatum 

Pleoenemia membranifolia 
leuzeana ... 
Phegopteris erubescens 
distans ... 
ornata ... 
Polypodium subevenosum 
decorum ... 
Pleopeltis accodens 
longifolia ... 
angustata ... 











English Name. 

.. Brake Fern 

musffifolia ... 
longissima ... 
nigresoens ... 

Polybotrya appendiculata and vara. 
Photinopteris rigida ... 

„ divnarioides 

Platycerium Walliohii 
,, biforxne ... 

„ grande 

Sohizolama davalloides 
cordata ... 




Elk's Horn Fern 


Original Habitat. 

Sungei Ujong. 
Common in ditches. 

Limestone Hill, Perak. 







Gunong Eebon, Perak. 




Malacca, Perak. 

Straits generally. 


Gunong Eebon, Perak. 



Techangkat Kebou, Perak 

(new species). 

Gunong Kebon, Perak. 

Common everywhere. 
Malay Islands. 
Penang and Singapore. 

t> tt 

Gvmong Bubu, Perak. 





Straits generally. 


Balik Pulau, Penang. 
Straits generally. 




of British Malaya. 




SonsNTiFic Name. 

Stenolama ohiensis ... 
Syngramme Walliohii 
fraxinea ... 
Sellignea caudiformis... 

Maingayi ... 
Stenoohlsena sorbifolia 

„ palustre... 

Sohizsea malaocana 
diohotoma ... 
Trichomanes parvulmn 
pluma ... 
Thamnopteris nidus ... 
„ phyllitidis 

H mussefolia 

Tsenitis bleohnoides ... 
Tittaria elongata 

bleohnoides ... 




English Name. 

Obiqinal Habitat. 

Straits generally. 
Svmgei Ujong. 
Straits generally, 






Straits generally. 

• ft 

.. Filmy Fern 

Straits and Perak. 




Gunong Bubu, Perak. 



Birds'-nest Fern ... Straits generally. 




Common everywhere. 

• « t 

• • • 


Fibres. — The following, copied by permission from the Eeport of the Super- 
intendent of the Singapore Botanical Gardens for 1886, will give a good idea of the 
fibres, indigenous or introduced, which have been experimented with at Singapore. 
Altbougb many of these are used for domestic purposes, none have as yet become 
articles of trade : — 

MAUBiTms Hemp (Furcrsea gigantea) continues to grow with great vigour in 
the Nurseries, and several thousand plants have been disposed of to planters for 
trial. The price realized for good fibre is about .£28 per ton in London, and if the 
fibre can be prepared here at 5 cents per pound, its profitable cultivation is no 
doubt possible. 

Manila Hemp (Mvsa textilis) grows well. When first planted it takes longer 
to send up suckers than the common banana does, but once established it grows 
freely. In Manila, on good soil, the plantations are renewed only after a period of 
about 20 years. The present market value of the fibre is from .£30 to £^ per ton 
in London, and as labour is about equally as cheap in the Straits as in Manila, the 
plant is no doubt capable of profitable cultivation in favourable localities. 

Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea), — Common in a wild state all over the Settle- 
ments, and grows well in ordinary soil. Some attempt to utilize the plant should 
be made, as the fibre commands a good price in the market. 

Penguin Hemp (Bromelia sylvestris) grows with remarkable vigour. It is 
one of the pine-apple tribe, but the leaves are much longer than those of the pine- 
apple plant. It succeeds best under the treatment pine-apples require. 

Bhsa or China Gbass (Boehmeria nivea) grows well in rich moist soils, and 



Descriptive Diclionaiy 

now that a simplo process for the extraction of the fibre from the wood by steam- 
ing haa been hit upon, its manufacture, considering the high price obtained for the 
fibre, ia worthy of careful trial, especially on land where sugar cultivation has 
ceased to be remuneratiTe, and where the ground is not marshy. 

Plastaik and Banana Fibbe (ifiwa saymfMm). — The common plantain or 
banana yields a good fibre worth about £.\h a ton. 1 observed when in Selangor a 
wild banana which grew there with great luxuriance ; in apjwarance the plaut looked 
very like Hum textilis, and it is probable it will be found to yield a very good 
marketable fibre. Prom the Eew Qardent Bulletin, of April last I learn uiat in 
Jamaica a, red banana produces fibre wortli £25 per ton ; the plant is probably the 
same as the red banana of the Straits. 

LALANa (Imjieralia Kwnigii). — Lalang has been found to produce good paper- 
making material, but as the grass had to be transported to England in bales, only 
the longest grass containing stout fibrous st^ms was found to pay. The land that 
will support grass of such a robust nature, will also grow more valuable crops. 
The quantity of material available for paper-making in the Straits, indudiiig 
bamboos, pine-apple leaves, wood, &c., would seem to warrant the establishment 
here of a permanent paper factory. 

Pine-Apple Pibee {ATuinaMa gativa). — In reference to pine-apple fibre, Mr. 
Mo BK IB, writing in the .Kew BuIfed'Ti, already referred to, observes as follows: — 
" Although not much at present in commercial use, the fibre ha^ a future of con- 
siderable imjiortance before it. It is finer and stronger than that yielded by any 
other plant. A beautiful fabric known as Piiia cloth is made from it. A rope of 
pine-apple fibre J inch in circumference bore a strain of 67 cwt." 

MuDAE PiBBK {Calotropis gigantea), — -Plants of Mudar have been iu demand 
during the past year. The plant on hand is apparently the wliite variety, and 
grows very freely in almost any soil. Ttie downy substance contained in the 
follicles or seed pods is the part most valued, but the stem also yields a fibre 
which ia said to be superior to the common Calotropis, which by branching more is 
less valuable. The plant also yields a gutta. The juice of ten average plants is 
said to yield about a poimd of gutta. 

Cotton (Goisimium aThoreum). — Cotton is found to do well on alluvial deposits 
on the plains and also on hills up to an elevation of about 2,000 feet as a first ci-op 
after the removal of virgin forest, but the soil of the Straits generally is unsuit«d 
for the cultivation of cotton, being too clayey and retentive- 

Kapok (Eriodendron anfractuomim) . — The cultivation of Kapok is attracting 
much attention. The plant is of rapid growth and succeeds well on ordinary soila. 
Its cultivation in the Straits can hardly to be profitable under good man^^emeut. 

Indian Heup (Cannabis sativa) grows, but shows no hope of profitable 
production, the fibre being five times shorter than it naturally is when grown iu a 
congenial climate. 

Othek Fibbbs. — The following fibre-producing plants are also found to grow 
well in the Straits : — American aloe. Hibiscus of sorts. Bowstring hemp of sorts, 
Cus-cuB, Palm and Pandan fibres, and numerous plants belonging to the Urticacoo!, 
VerbenacesB, and Malvacese families. Jute has not been tried, the seed retiuisitioned 
not having arrived in time. 

Fighting Dress. — The fighting jacket of the Malays usually has no 
sleeves. One kind ia properly embroidered with pious words or sentences, and ia 
called Icalambit rasid Allah, " the Prophet's bed-curtain." It is supposed to protect 
the wearer from danger. Another kind is known aa leher haju, because it is made 
of forty-four remnants left in cutting <iut the necks of forty-four onlinary jackets. 
These patches must be sewn together by seven maidens on seven consecutive 
Fridays, and the jacket thus made will be peliyat, or invulnerable. — N. & Q. with 
No. 15, J. S. B. R, A. S. 


Sir of British Malaya. PiS 

Fire. — Procuring fire by friction is an accomplisliment as common to the 
Malay as the North American Indian. The process is, however, slightly different. 
While the latter resorts to circular friction, the Malay cuts a notch on the convex 
Bur&ce of a bamboo, across which he rapidly rubs another piece cut to a sharp 
edge. A fine powder is rubbed away and this ignites. Bamboo is also used as a 
flint with tinder. The all-pervading match, however, is alone used in all districts 
under foreign influence. 

Fireflies (Klip hlip) abound, and the bushes bordering the rivers are often 
beautifully illuminated by their light. They appear to in all respects resemble the 
American insect. 

Fish and Fisheries. — There are assuredly no seas in the world more 
abundant in esculent fish than those of the Asiatic Archipelago, and a few of them 
are of excellent flavour. The fish of rivers and lakes, although, perhaps, less 
abundant and of very inferior quality, are of importance in some of the islands. 
Fish constitutes the chief animal aliment of all the inhabitants, and everywhere of 
those of the sea-coast who are by profession fishermen. The greatest plenty of fish, 
and also the best quality of it, is found in the comparatively shallow seas bordering 
the gpranitic and sedimentary formations, and the least abundant in the deep seas 
close to the volcanic. Among the best fisheries are those of the eastern coast of 
the Malay Peninsula and those of the entire Straits of Malacca. 

The variety of fish which is found may be judged by a fact respecting the 
Ichthyology of the island of Celebes. The learned Dr. Bleekeb, the Director of 
the Eiatavia Society of Arts and Sciences, has named and described no fewer than 
108 species belonging to that island, and yet expresses himself satisfied that he has 
not described above one-eighth part of the whole number which exists. Out of the 
108 species so described, it was found that 64 only were common to Celebes and 
Java. A people who have derived from the sea or river a main portion of their 
sustenance from their first existence, may well be expected to have acquired some 
skill in the capture of fish, and fishing is indeed the art in which the greater 
number of them excel the most. Fish are caught by them by hook and line, by a 
great variety of nets, by weirs and traps, by spearing, and by stupefying those of 
rivers by narcotic juices, of which that from the tvha root is the best known. Not- 
withstanding their long experience, the Chinese excel them even in their own 
waters, and are the constructors and owners of all the weirs on a large scale which 
are so frequent on the banks in the neighbourhood of European settlements, and 
in which are caught the greatest quantity and best quality of fish. The taking 
of the mother-of-pearl oyster, the pearl-oyster in a few places, of the holothurion 
or tripang, and of the shell tortoise, form valuable branches of the Malayan 

The following is a list of the fish actually known to the Malays of the coast, 
with their scientific names, largely taken from the valuable list of fish exhibits 
compiled by Dr. Eowell for the Exhibition of the Colonies and India, 1886. It 
will be observed that, in many cases, the same Malay word is applied to different 
species. The numbers following "Cant." refer to the pages of Cantor's 
'vMalayan Fishes," on which descriptions will be found. "Sp." prefixed shows 
that Cantob does not describe the individual fish named but others of the same 
species only : — 

Malay Name. Scientific Name. 

Ikan Anjang Anjang ... ... Scolopsis ghanam 

„ AmpasTebu ... ... Pristipoma operculare 

„ Aroan ... ... ... Ghanna oriontalis 

„ Aroan ... ... ... Ophiocephalus punctatus 

„ Aroan ... ... ... Ophiocephalus striatus 

„ Aroan T&sek ... ... Elacate nigra 

I, Badah or Bunga Ayer 


Sp. Cant. 81. 
Sp. Cant. 72. 
Sp. Cant. 83. 
Sp. Cant. 92. 
Sp. Cant. 92. 
Sp. Cant. 116. 
Sp. Cant. 304. 


Descriptive Dictionary 






Malay Name. 

Ikan B&ji B&ji 
BAji B&ji 
BAji B&ji 
Banau ... 
B&rat Blrat 
Batu ... 
B&rau B&rau 
B&wal Ghermin 
B&wal BAtu (Pomfret) 
B&wal Puteh w WhitePom- 

fret ... 
B&wal Tmnbok 
B&wal Hitam 

Bolodok Karang 
Biji Nangka 
Blut (eel) 
Bolas Bolas 
Bona ... 
Buaya ... 

Bumxnaloh or Bombay Duck 
Bunga Ayer <yr Badah 
Buntal B&tu 
Bvintal Belang 
Buntal Bdrek 
Buntal China 
Buntal Kumbang 
Buntal Landak . 
Buntal Landak . 
Buntal Panjang 
Buntal Pisang . 
Ghelek Mata 
Ghopit Kfbrang . 
D&eng Belang . 
Daun BAru 
Delah ... 
Delah Karang . 
DAri ... 
DAri Tawar 
Engor Engor 
G^lamah Panjang 
Gorut Gerut 
Gelam ... 
Grisi ... 
Gerut Gerut 
Hijau ... 

SoTENTiFic Name. 

Platyoephalus macracanthus 
Platycephalus punotatus 
Platyoephalus tuberculatus 
Stemirhampus far 
Megalops cundinga ... 
Triaoanthus strigilifer 
Crenidens sarissophorus 
Priaoanthus Blochii , 
Chrysophiys hasta 

Stromatens cinerens .. 
Julis lunaris ... 
Novacula rufa 
Platyglosus scapularis 
Ezoesetus mento 
Mugil balanak 
Teuthis oramin 
Gobius viridipunctatus 
Mugil oannesius 
Notapterus kapirat 
Platyglosus dussumieri 
Upeneoides tragula 

Sillago Maculata 

Platax teira ... 
Oastrotokeus biaculeatus 
Seolopsis cialiatus 

Tetrodon oblongus 
Ostraoion cubious 
Tetrodon lineatus 
Tetrodon immaculatus 
Tetrodon stellatus 

• • • • • • ••• • • • 

Dioden stistriz 
Dioden maoulatus 
Dioden maoulatus 
Tetrodon lunaris 
Pristipoma maoulatum 
Platyglosus marginatus 
Caranx compressus ... 
Drepane punctata 
CcBsio pingaloo 
CoBsio chrysozona 
Teuthis nastrosticta ... 
Arino sagor ... 
Arius nenga ... 
Macrones Bleekeri 

... a*. ... ... 

Psettus argenteus 
Otolithus argenteus ... 
Pristipoma hasta 
Psammoperca Waigiensis 

••• ••• ••• ••• 

Pentapus paradiseus ... 

Pristipoma furcatum ... 

••• ••• ••• ••■ 

Gamphosos notostigma 


• • • 

• • • 

• •• 

Sp. Cant. 37. 
Sp. Cant. 37. 
Sp. Cant. 37. 

Page 20, No. 77. 
tt 23, „ 173. 
Sp. Cant. 80. 
Page 21, No. 109. 

Cant. 140. 

Cant. 139. 
Cant. 139, 140. 
Sp. Cant. 236. 

Sp. Cant. 250. 
Sp. Cant. 93. 
Sp. Cant. 207. 
Sp. Cant. 179. 
Sp. Cant. 93. 

Sp. Cant. 20. 
Cant. 1G8. 
Page 21, No. 93. 
Sp. Cant. 120. 
Sp. Cant. 81. 
Cant. 273. 
Cant. 304. 
Cant. 380. 

Cant. 373. 

Cant. 365. 
Sp. Cant. 371. 

Cant. 369. 

Cant. 378. 

Sp. Cant. 123. 
Cant. 162. 

Sp. Cant. 207. 
Sp. Cant. 256. 

Cant. 407. 
Sp. Cant. 173. 
Cant. 71. 
Sp. Cant. 72. 

Cant. 88. 

Cant. 119. 
Cant. 71. 
Sp. Cant. 72. 
Cant. 83-92. 


of British Malaya. 


Malay Name. 

Ikanlnggu ... 
Inggu ... 
Inggu ... 
Inggu ... 
Inggu ... 
Inggu ... 
Inggu Kiling 
Inggu ... 
Inggu ... 
Inggu Karang ... 
Inggu Bombin ... 

JAru JAru 
Kalui ... 
KArong K&rong ... 
Kelah ... 
Kelah ... 
Kelat ... 
Keli, Cat-fish ... 
Kepan Li^t 
Kdrek ... 
Eerek Gedabang 
Kerong Eerong Earang ... 
Eerang Eerang ... 
Eertak Lantei ... 
EertakLantei ... 

XvlS ••• ••• ... 


See also ... 
Erapu ... 
Erapu Lilin 

A^kXlBA ••• ••• ••• 

ErUi Bali 

KrosoK ... ... ... 


Euda Euda Ayer Betina ... 

Eurow ... ... 

Labum ... 
Lomah ... 

I wMWfcXl ... ... ... 

Xjayai: ... ... ... 


Leous ... 


Lepu ... 

Lepu Panjang ... 

M ji^ rt B Ul •«• ••• ••• 

Lidah ... 
Lidah Lidah Baji 
Lidah Lidah B&rang 
liingka Earang ... 

Scientific Name. 

Amphiphrion frenatus 
Amphiphrion percula ... 
Amphiphrion sebae ... 
Pempheris mangula ... 
Pomacentrus albofaoitus 
Pomaoantrus trimaculatus 
Psondoscarus niger ... 
Pterois miles... 
Pterois Russellii 
Stolocentrum sextriatus 
Stolacanthus messolencus 
Lutianus dodecacanthus 

••• ■•■ ••• ••• 

Balistes stellatus 
Lutianus Bosons (Red Mullet) 
Gheilissus chlorurus ... 

Sphyrena acutipinnis 
^hromenus olfax 
Therapon puta 
Dangila buimanica ... 
Labeo nandjna 
Barbus strachyi 
Psendosoarus chrysopoma 
Clarias majur 
Clyphidodon notatus ... 
Barbus Neilii 
Equila edentula 
Sebastes stoliczkoe 
Therapon quadrilineatus 
Lethrinus nebulosus ... 
Synagris japomeus 
Batrachus grunnieus ... 
Monacanthus monoceros 
Holacanthus annularis 
Psendosoarus ghobbam 
Soolopssis margaritifer 
Seatophagus argus 

Serranus diacanthus ... 
Serranus malabariens 
Serranus salmoides ... 
Synagris notatus 
Scolopsis bilineatus ... 
Anacanthus scriptus ... 
Monacanthus choircephalus 
Hippocampus guttulatus 

••• ••• ••• ••• 

Teuthis margaritifer ... 
Geris altiipinis 
Thynnichthys sanakhal 
Barbus jerdoni 

••• ••• •■• ••• 

Histiophorus gladius ... 
Trichiurus savala 
nuthis concatenata ... 
Antennarius mummifer 
Synnancidrum morridimi 
Pelor didaotylum 

Synaptura orientalis . 
Gynoglossus elongatus 
Cheilinus fasciatus 

• • • 

• •• 

• • • 

Sp. Cant. 82. 
Sp. Cant. 82. 
Sp. Cant. 82. 
Sp. Cant. 175. 
Sp. Cant. 241. 
Sp. Cant. 241. 

Cant. 42. 
Sp. Cant. 41. 

Sp. Cant. 164. 

Cant. 57, 60 & 23. 
Sp. Cant. 123. 
Sp. Cant. 344. 

Cant. 96. 
Sp. Cant. 20. 
Cant. 88. 
Cant. 19. 

Sp. Cant. 262. 

Cant. 148. 
Sp. Cant. 19. 

Cant. 205. 
Sp. Cant. 347. 
Cant. 164. 

Sp. Cant. 81. 
Cant. 164. 
Cant. 207-8-9. 

Sp. Cant. 7. 
Sp. Cant. 7. 

Sp. Cant. 81. 
Sp. Cant. 422. 
Sp. Cant. 347. 
Sp. Cant. 388. 
Cant. 29. 
Sp. Cant. 207. 
Sp. Cant. 55. 

Cant. 191. 

Cant. 115. 
Cant. 208. 
Sp. Cant. 202. 

Cant. 191. 
Cant. 222. 
Sp. Cant. 222. 
Sp. Cant. 233. 



Descriptive Dictionary 

Malay Name. 

ScTRNTiFic Name. 

Ikan Lidah Lidah Lompur 

• • • 

Synaptura commersomana 

Gant. 222. 


Lisah ... 

• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Cant. 191. 



• • • 

Grobius tentacularis ... 

Sp. Cant. 179. 


Logu ... 

• • • 

Choerops oligacanthus 


Ix^ ... 

• » • 

Myripnstis murdjan .. 




• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Cant. 274. 



• •• 

Mursenesox telabon ... 

Cant. 316. 


Mdnah S&bong ... 

• • • 

Ostracion lubicus 

Sp. Cant. 3C5. 

*) . 

Mas Merah 

• • • 

••• •■• •■• ••■ •■• 

Cant. 305. 


Merah (the best fish in the 

The common name of Ikan Jena- 


. • • 

hak or Bed Mullet ... 


Nior Nior 

• • • 

Trachynotus ovatus ... 

Sp. Gant. 120. 



• • • 

Gerres abbereviatus ... 

Sp. Cant. 65. 


Parang Parang ... 

• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Gant. 277. 


P&ri Band&ra ... 

• • • 

Trajgon sephen 

Cant. 429. 


P&ri Daun 

• • • 

•• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Cant. 436. 


PArlKilawar .. 

• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Cant. 432-3. 


P&ri Kulbas 

• •• 

»•• •■• ••• •■• ■•• 

Cant. 417-19. 


P&ri Kulbas Linchin 

• • • 

■■•' •■« •■ #•• ••• 

Cant. 420. 


P&ri Lang 

• • • 

Aetobatis marinari 

Cant. 435. 



• • • 

Trygon namak 

Cant. 423-4. 


P&riP&riPaus ... 

• • • 

Dicerobatis ... 

Gant. 438. 



• • • 

Selundia Sykesii 


Pans or whale — not a 

fish, but so* classed by the Malays. 


Pechah Priuk ... 

• • • 

Scolopsis vosmeri 

Cant. 81. 


PinangPinang ... 

• • • 

Chsetodon octofasciatus 

Sp. Cant. 156. 


Pipit ... 

• • • 

Chelmon rostratus 

Cant. 158. 



• • • 

Ix>botes auctorum 

Gant. 86. 


Potong Darma ... 

• • • 

Sp. Cant. 80. 



• • • 

•■• ••• ■•• ••• ••• 

Gant. 113-115. 



• • • 

Perois pulchella 

Sp. Cant. 1. 


Pundu ... 

• • • 

Serioliothus bipinnulatus 



Piiput ... 

• • • 

Opisthopterus tartoor ... 




• ■ • 

Mugil Bleekeri 

Sp. Cant. 93. 


Bombing K&rang 

• • • 

Holaoanthus nicobariensis 

Sp. Cant. 164. 


Bombong Bombing 

• • • 

Lutianus sabae 


Bong ... 

• • • 

Labeo coeruleus 


Bmni Bumi 

• • • 

Echeneis naucrates ... 

Gant. 199. 


Sa Sumpit 

■ • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Gant. 176. 



• • • 

Laleoboggu ... 


Sagei ... 

• • • 

Garanux armatus 

Gant. 131. 



■ « • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Cant. 57. 



• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Gant. 26. 



• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Gant. 26. 


Saliup ... 

• • • 

• • • 

Ghorinomus moadetta 

Sp. Gant. 117. 
Cant. 258. 



• •• 

Apogon franatus 

Sp. Gant. 2. 



• • • 

BarbuR stexastichus ... 



Seblah ... 

• • • 

••• ••■ ■•« ••• ••• 

Cant. 214-216. 


Selar K&rang ... 

• • • 

Garanx gymnostchrides 

Sp. Gant. 123. 


Seludu ... 

• • • 


Sp. Gant. 256. 



• •• 

Gentropogon ... 



Semarum Karang 

• • • 

Synanoa verrucosa 

Sp. Cant. 47. 



• • • 

Plotosus oanias 

Sp. Gant. 264. 


Sembilang KArong 

• • • 

••• ••• ••• ••• •« 

Cant. 264-5. 



• • • 

Otholithus macnlatus ... 

Cant. 62. 


Senderang Sandoh 

• • ■ 

Pleotropoma maculatum 


Sepat Karang ... 

• • « 

Lobotes surinamenis ... 

Gant. 80. 


Serkut ... 

■ • • 

Gjrrhites fasoiatus 



Siah Siah 

• • • 

Deploprion difasciatus 


Siakap Hidong Budah 

• • • 

Gromileptis altivelis ... 
Lates cfiilcarifer 

Gant. 10. 


Siakap Karang ... 

• • ■ 

Sp. Cant. 1. 


Siam ... 

• • 

Ophiocephalus micrapeltes 

Gant. 92. 



• ■ • 

••• •■• ••« ••• ••• 

Gant. 26. 



• • ■ 

Toxotos jaculotor 

Gant. 176. 



• • • 

••> ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Gant. 258. 



of British Malaya. 


Malay Name. 

Ikan Suta ... 
Talang ... 
Talang Raya 
Talang Saluy 
Tamban Betel 
Tamban Nipis 
Tamban Biuat 
Tampok Tampok 
Tanda Tanda 
Tangiri Papasi 
Tebal Bibir Sungei 
Telan Pasir 
Telan Bumput 
Tengiri Batang 
Terabok Darat 
TUan ... 
Timum Timum 
Todah ... 
Todah Pendek 
Ubi ... 
Ular ... 
Yu (shark) 
Yn Banjar 
Yu Belangkas 
Yu Belangkas 
Yu Belangkas 
Yu Bengkong Tandoh Pan- 

Yu Bengkong Tandoh Pendek 
Yu Gheekak 
Yu Kaik Kaik 
Yu Kaik Kaik 
Yu Rimau 
Yu Toke 







Scientific Name. 

Amphi syle scutata 
Chorlnemus toloo 

••• •■• -•• ••• 

Chorinemus hyan 
StromateuB niger 

••• ••• ••• ••• 

(Prepared like sardines) 

^Prepared like sardines) 
Gerres oblongus 
Lutianus silavo 

Diagramma crassispinum 
Trypauchena vagina ... 
Pimelepterus cinerascens 
Barbus for 
Seioena glaucus 
Barbus burmanicus ... 
Barbus opagon 
Cybium Cammeronii ... 
Clupea kanogurta 
Labes iimbriatus 
Mastacembelus armatus 
Lutianus lineolatus ... 
Belone choran 

••• ■•• ■•• 

Sarus ludiens 

••• ••• •■• ••• 

Thynnus thunnina 

• .. 

... ... ... 

Lutianus argentimaculatus 

••• ■•• ••■ ••• «•• 

Trisenodon oletusus ... 
Chiloseyllium trispulare indicus 
Lamna Spallanranii ... 
Rhynchobatus ancylostomus . . . 

Lygoena Blochii 
Lygoena dlaleus 
Stegostoma tigrium ... 
Rhinobatus thouini ... 
Rhynchobatus djeddeusis 
Soyllium marmoratum 
GaJeocerdo Ra3rneri ... 
Pristis cuspidatus 

Cant. 213. 
Cant. 119. 
Cant. 118. 
Cant. 118. 
Cant. 139. 
Cant. 67. 
Cant. 287. 
Cant. 294. 
Cant. 294. 
Cant. 286. 
Sp. Cant. 55. 

Cant. 108-110. 
Cant. 112. 
Sp. Cant. 77. 
Cant. 190. 
Sp. Cant. 174. 

Sp. Cant. 56. 

Cant. 108. 
Sp. Cant. 276. 

Cant. 246. 
Cant. 248. 
Cant. 269-267. 
Cant. 299. 
Sp. Cant. 106. 
Cant. 21. 
Cant. 316. 

Cant. 399. 

Sp. Cant. 393-4. 

Sp. Cant. 412. 

Cant. 404. 
Sp. Cant. 401. 
Sp. Cant. 396. 
Cant. 415. 
Cant. 412. 
Cant. 891. 

Sp. Cant. 407. 
Cant. 393-7. 

—As Cantor truly observed over forty years ago, the Malay is 

more a bom fisherman than. the Chinaman, though the latter makes up by ceaseless 
work for the less skill he brings to bear upon his employment. The fishmongers 
are almost invariably Chinese. A beach sale of fish here is very like that held 
at home. There is a good deal of chaffering as to prices, but on the whole 
the business is got through quickly. The daily surplus of fish is cured 
by the fishmongers with salt. The larger fish are gutted, washed, and placed in 
layers in casks, with salt between each layer. After 24 or 48 hours, they are 
taken out and dried in the sun. The very small fish, together with the fluid in 
which the larger fishes have been cured, are .sold for manure to the spice and 
coooa-nut planters, who have a high opinion of their usefulness in this respect. 
The following is a vocabulary of words used by fishermen, and not to be found in 
most dictionaries : — 


K 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 



Alei Buaya 

Ampang ... 

Bintor Ohachak 

Bintor Gbampak 



Jala Anak Ikan ... 
Jala Rambang .. 

Jala Tamban 


• • • •• 

Jaring Anak Ikan 



I • ••€ 

I • ■ • • • 


> • • • * 

• • • • 4 

Fishing net 

Casting net 

Casting net ... ' ... 

Fishing trap ... 

Fishing line and book... 
Fishing trap 

Casting net 

Casting net 

Casting net 


Fishing net 

• • • • • • 

Fishing stake ... 

... I Fishing rod 


Descbiftign and Use. 

Crocodile or alligator hook, made of wood, 
inserted into the bait, generally a fowl, 
duok or dog. 

For all kinds of fish. The net is stretched 
from side to side. The under part is 
pegged in the mud at low ebb. The 
whole net is laid down flat and covered 
with sand or coral to conceal the same. 
Stakes are driven at intervals of 30 feet 
into the mud, and attached to net, having 
cords tied to upper part of net. At high 
water thp said coixls are pulled up to 
raise the net, and fish are caught at low 

Bait attached to middle horizontal cord, to 
which is tied a signal cord to show the 
presence of fish. The net consists of 
two pieces, which open when dropped to 
the Dottom, and close with fish inside 
when hauled up by perpendicular cord. 
The net is about 100 ukthoms long. 

For catching crabs. Having bait and float. 
Bait generally of pieces of dog-fish. 

Employed to catch fish in ver^ deep water 
by sinking it to the bottom with a weight, 
having a line and float attached to show 
its position on the sur^bce. Sometimes 
supplied with bait, but oftener without. 
Hauled up generally at low tide. Fish 
are taken out by drawing through the 

For dayham^ a species of fish. 

This double-faced fish trap is generally used 
for catching fresh-water fish. 

For catchingsmall fisb.prawns, and shrimps 
in shallow water. A net about 7 cubits 

Called TombanQ because it is generally used 
or thrown at random in about 2 fathoms 
water. The net is about 7 cubits long. 

Generally employed for catching a species 
of fish callod tannhan* The net is about 
9 cubits long. 

Employed when out fishing with nets. 
For catching small fish. 

For small fish. 


of Br&ish Malaya. 



Joran Sentak 


Kail Londa 

Kail Parang or TeDggiri . 

KaU Piipat 

Kail Sela 


Kelang Keohil 
Kisah or Brupa 

Lukah Darat 
liOkah Laut 

• • • • • < 



Fishing rod 

Fishing line and hook... 
Fishing line and hook... 
Fishing line and hook... 

Fishing line and hook... 

Fishing line and hook... 
Fishing line and hook... 
Large fishing stakes . . . 

Small fishing stakes ... 
Shrimp or prawn net ... 
v^anoe ... ... ... 

Fish trap 

Descbiftion and Use. 

Fish trap 
Fish trap 

... ••• 

Fishing line and hook... 

Self-acting rod and line for fresh-water 
fish. The line has a catch. The rod is 
stuck upright in the mud. Opposite, at 
a short distance, is the peg for the catch. 
When fish pull at the hait the catch de- 
taches and the rod springs hack. 

For small fish. 

For species of fish called j^rang and 

Line and hook with float ior^upai (a fish 
which generally floats on the surface). 

For a species of fish called ^tla. 

For a species of fish called iodak. 

This large fish trap is a permanent struc- 
ture, and is in general use among the 
Malays for catching all kinds of fish. It 
is usually constructed of stakes and 
rattan, and consists of four compart- 
ments. When fish pass through each 
into the last compaiiiment they cannot 
get out again, and this is scooped out at 
low water, the fishermen descending to 
the surface of the water hy ladders on 
the side of the trap. The position of the 
kelang (fishing stokes) is generally at 
right angles with the shore, i.e. , with its 
head projecting into the sea. 

Worked hy two men in shallow water. 

Employed when out fishing with nets. 

This trap is generally placed in the channel 
of small streams with its mouth against 
the current. 

For fresh- water fishing. 

For salt-water fishing. 

" Attractor " used for catching the small 
octopus {krita) by trailing it in 1 to 3 
feet muddy water along the edges of 
rocks and reefs during the north mon- 
soon. The krita takes hold of it and 
will not release it, until captured by the 

Float and hook for a fish called puput. A 
number at a time are thrown on the water 
in slack tide. The fisherman watches 
the floats in a boat and easily knows 
when fish take bait, and are caugbt. 



Descriptive Dictionary 




« • • • • 1 

• • • • • • 


A seine net 

Prawn net 

Fish snare or fishing net 

Descbiption and Use. 

Sampan Gebeng . . . 
Sampang Penjaring 




Sondong ... 


Tangkol .. 


• 9 • • • • 

Fishing boat 
Fishing boat 



Shrimp or prawn net .. 
Dugong harpoon 

Fishing net 

Fishing rod 

A number of hooks tied with short lines 
attached to the middle part of sharp 
pointed pieces of nibong. The hook is 
directly under the short point. A long 

Eiece of cord is used to tie together the 
eads of the pieces at intervals generally 
of about 2 feet. Thus prepared the cord 
is stretched taut between two stakes, the 
hooks being at the height of one to two 
inches above the mud, and supplied with 
bait. The sharp points prevent the fish 
from getting away by moving forward, 
and when it moves backwards the hook 
catches as usual. 

Large sampan used for fishing with nets. 

Employed when out fishing with net, and 

For large fish. 
For large fish. 

For small fish. 

Used for sticking the fish called imput^ 
a sort of sea-pike, with the aid of a 
torch light, held over the side of a boat, 
it being the habit of this fish to make 
for any light in largo numbers. 

.Worked by one man. 

Employed for the same purpose as Tern- 

Employed for catching fish as they pass 
along. This contrivance consists of one 
large net, nearly square, laid down fiat ; 
two ropes attached to each end of the 
further side are stretched in opposite 
directions so as to be in Hue with the 
further side of the net tied at certain 
points to the said ropes. When fish pass 
over the net the rojpes are simultaneously 
drawn up, the net is thereby raised above 
the water, or with only the middle of it 
touching the water. The fish are then 
taken out. 

For catching prawns in 3 to 5 feet clear 
slack water on a sandy beach, by apply- 
ing the hook to the eye of the prawn 
and givinff the tanjol a sharp jerk. The 
operator has to wade stealthily in the 



of British Malaya, 





Dugong harpoon 

Topang ... 



Fishing trap 


Fish trap 

Descbiption and Use. 


Tho point is so arranged as to become de- 
tached from the handle when it has 
struck the object aimed at, being retained 
by a cord attached to it. 

For drawing out and catching the Xfn'to, a 
small species of octopus. The rattan is 
made at one end to hold the bait, which 
is let down into the hole of tho hrita^ 
the bait being generally of crab ; when 
tho kriia catches hold of the bait the 
rattan is drawn out, and tho krita fol- 
lowing the bait to the mouth of its hole, 
is hoisted out with the Toj^ng. 

Fish are caught in this trap when they 
enter it and come in contact with the 
cords which retain the catch outside. 
The trap-door has a heavy weight 
attached to it, and it therefore descends 
and closes rapidly. 

This trap is also a permanent structure, 
constructed in 4 to 5 fathoms water. 
Tho position of the mouth or front is 
against the rising tide. Fish are only 
caught when seen paissing by tho man 
watching on the building, who, on the 
fish entering the receptacle, raises the 
trap by winding the rope which sustains 
it round tho cylindrical bar made for 
the purpose. 

For fresh-water fishing; tho usual size 
I of the trap is about 4 feet by 3 
, foot. Tho fish being unable to turn 

round when it has once entered the 
' trap, is taken out by opening the 


Fish Ro6. — The roe of the xhan trnhoh fonns an article of considerable 
trade. The fish abounds in Siugai)ore. Penan j^, Ac, but the 8i)awning ground is 
on the Sumatran coast, whence most of the article is imiwrted. It is first 
thoroughly salted and then dried. It is then packed betwct»n layers of salt for 
export'. It is much liked by both Europeans and natives. In the market it apj)ears 
in the shape of two lobes forming an oblong body about 6 inches long, 2 inches in 
breadth by } of an inch in depth, of a deep amber colour. 

Fishiptf Stakes. — Blat or Jermal in Malay. The Chinese word helang has 
ako passed imo the yemacular. These consist of rattan screens arranged in such 
a way that the fisli are driven into its enclosures, from which they cannot escape. 
Each enclosure is arrow-shaped, the last being the narrowest. Each hlat is 
required by law to show a light at its outer extremity by night. 

FlamboyaJlt. — This gorgeously flowering tree — Foinciana regia — ^was, so 
far as can be learned, originally introduced from Madagascar by way of India, but 
is so common in the Straits Settlements as to make most people believe it 
indigenous. Its brilliant red and yellow blossoms make it a most conspicuous 



Descriptive Dictionary 


and ornamenta,! tree. Mr. Bdnman, late Inspector- General of Police at Singapore, 
is treiited with liaving Jntroduted it into that ialand. 

Flying Dragon. — This pretty reptilo (Draco volane) ie often met with, luid 
di-serves all the praise given it in natural histories for beauty of markings. Tho 
wings, or prolonged membranes which act as wings, are strengthened bv slender 
processes from the first six false ribs, and in reality act as parachutes much as do 
those of the flying lemur. &<:. The reptile is perfectly harmless, and caji be 
handled with impunity. One out of the two specimens seen by the compiler was 
canght down his back, having jumped from a tree and alighted between the collar 
of hia coat and the flesh. It was figured and described in No. 9, p. 162, of the 
J. 8. B. R. A. S. for June. 1882. 

Flying Fox (PteropuB rulncoUi»). — The Malay kahng or klawei. This is a 
large species of bat which baa acquired its name from its foi-coloured fur and the 
vulpine character of the head. Ordinary specimens measure from 2 to 3 feet from 
tip to tip of the wings, but they have been found measuring over 5 feet. They fly 
in a steady line, and do immense damage to fruit plantations. The mat bags so 
often seen enclosing jack and other fruit are intended as protection against these 

Flying foxes are, according to Wallack, eaten by the people of the Island o£ 
Balchian in the Dutch Archipelago, but, possessing as they do a strong foxy 
flavour, are not so used by the Malays. 

Plying Lemur {Oaieopithient volarit), — This is one of the insectivora, 
and by means of a membrane surrounding the body it is able to make oblique 
downward flights through the air. It is of a sluggish nature by day. In colour it 
is olive, or brown, mottled with irregular whitish spots and blotches closely 
resembliny the colour of mottled bark. It is extremely hard to kill. It is 
mentioned in some natural histories as the Colugo, and is so called by the Malays, 

Flying Lizard.— See Fltinq Dbaoon. 

Football. — A game played with a rattan ball {raga), hollow, and about 
6 inches in diameter. It is kept up with the heel, knee, or any jiart of the body 
except the hand. It has to be thrown beyond the circle of players to score to thti 

Folklore, Malay.— A very good sketch of this subject is given by 
Mr, Maxwell iu No- ?, J. S, B. E. A. S. (1881), p. 11, but the details given 
might obviously be added to immensely by any one with the necessary time and 
knowledge at his disposal. It would be impossible to give even a short preeia that 
would be of service in the limits at disposal, and readers must be referretl to the 
article itself, which is worded in the writer's usual interesting style. Set also 
(Jharms, Divinations, &c. 

Fort Lismore. — The European name of a small fort at Alor Gaja in 
Malacca formerly occupied by a Sepoy guard. The road thither whs made by 
convict labour in 183S. The name no longer appears on the maps, and the fort 
has become a ruin. 

Frogs (-fforfoi).— As with many other departments of natural history, the 
batrachians of Malaya have as yet received scant attention at the hands of scien- 
tists, and no complete list exists of the various species found in the Peninsula. 
The eatable frog — Rana egculenta — is said to be found, but is not, as in Hongkong, 
an article of European diet. Tree-frogs are found in large numbers. Bull-frogs 
arc also common. 

Frog, Flying [KaUik ftcfonj).— This was first noticed by Wallack, and haa 
euomiously develoi)e.i feet with webs Itetween. so that, when expanded, they present 
a surface larger than that of the body. The so-called flying is, of course, only a 



of British Malaya. 


prolonged leap, but the membranes in question appear to act like parachutes and 
extend the. leap to an extent which almost assumes the appearance of flying. It is 
oocasionallj met with in the Peninsula. 

Fruits. — A total list of some 63 " fruits " has been compiled as indigenous 
to the Malay Peninsula. Some of these, however, are repugnant to Europeans and 
seldom touched by Malays. The following catalogue will be found to include all 
which are likely to come imder the notice of the ordinary resident or visitor : — 


B4dam, ketapong, los. 


Buah mangga or 



Mangostun .. 

,, manggis. 

Blunbing ... 

Mata kuding 

„ buloh 




i> saga 

Nam-nam .. 





Buah pala. 
„ kras kulit. 


Jambu mony&t. 



Limau karbau. 


Coooa-nut ... 

Buan srlk&ya. 


Limau manis. 

Costard apple 


Pisang bdsar. 



Buah dolima. 

Champedak (largo 



jack iroit) 





Labu manis. 


■ ™™ 




Pine-apple .. 


Oronadilla ... 





Buah anggor. 


Jack fruit ... 



Durian blanda. 





Tampang .. 


Limau asin. 



„ kapas. 

Some sixty-three varieties of the banana and plantain arc described by botanists, 
many having distinct names in Malay, e,q,y pisang maSf p, rajah, <&c. Most of the 
above fruits are in season twice a year. 

Funerals.— The funerals of the Malays, like those of other nations con- 
verted to Islamism, are in conformity to the usage of the Mahommedans. The 
body, within twentv-four hours after death, is buried in a shroud, and the word 
which expresses this simple ceremony literally signifies to plac^ in the earth, and is 
the same which means to plant or put seed in the ground — tanam. At the bottom 
of the grave on one side there is a lateral excavation to receive the body. A simple 
mound marks the grave, without monumental stone or tomb, except in the case of 
kings and reputed saints, the tombs of the latter being considered holy under the 
Arabic name of hramai, or sacred. The cemeteries of the Peninsula Malays are 
usually enclosed with a fence, and strike the eye as remarkable owing to the close 
proximity of the stakes which mark the abiding-place of each body — as, directly 
the dead may be presumed to have returned to dust, a fresh burial takes place 
within the same or an overlapping area. 

Mr. J. D. Vaughan gives the following in a paper which appeared in Vol. XI. 
of the J. I. A. : — 

" There is not much ceremony connected with the burial of the dead. When 
a Malay dies, the priest and his attendants are sent for ; the latter wash the body 
and clothe it with a change of clean linen. Cotton is laid over the face, and 
camphor is sprinkled over the body and thrust into the ears and nostrils, and some 
is put on the eyelids. White cotton cloth some yards longer than the corpse is 
folded in six or seven folds and laid under the body, the arms are crossed over the 
breast, the left usually under the right ; the body is then rolled up in the cloth, and 
a knot is tied a little beyond the head, and another beyond thaf eet ; another piece 
of doth is tied round the waist over all. Coffins are seldonl^used ; the body is 



Descriptive DicHonary 

placed in the grave, and a plank is laid over the body di^onally. so as to shelter 
the latter from the earth. The grave must be dug north and soutli. so that the 
body may be laid on its side with the faw towards Mecca. After the grave ia filled 
a vooden post ia put into t<he ground at each end, to mark the spot \ the priest . 
reads the funeral service and exhortatiou called talkin and the service conoludos. 
Three days after death a feast is held, aiid again on the seventh, fourteenth, fortieth i 
aud huDuredth days. Before the body is removed from the house, the priest reads 
the Koran, aud this duty is continued daily for seven days." 

The subjoined account was taken down from the lips of an inhabitant of 
Province Wellesley : — " Notice being given to the relatives of the deceased, the body 
is placed in a coffin (h-anak) of pulai or jelutong wood, and this, covered with a ] 
ttlkony or white pall, ia borne to the grave by six or eight bearers, women as well 
OS men following as mourners. Flowers are generally placed on the palL | 
Carriages are never used. An Alim or priest meets the procession and reads a i 
talkin or prayer at the grave, followed by a portion of the Koran. Those present 
cast earth upon the coffin as with us. The corpse ifi always dressed in white. A 
meal of bread, wine, &c. is provided for the friends present before starting for tho 
kramat, or graveyard. After the grave is filled iu, two small, skittle- shaped posts, j 
called vetTan, are i)lat'ed at the head and toot. Corpse-bearers are termed orang 
yang angkat naja (or in SingajKire maiat)." 

The foUowiug account of the burial of a leading Malay, from the Singapore 
Free PresK of September lat, 1887, will give a fair idea of the ceremonies usually I 
observed : — "' The inttTraent took pla«e at 4 p.m. in the ground of the Mosfjue at 
Kubu. Several Govemmeat officials were present. The general Enroi>ean popula- 
tion and Chinese T'/wkayn were weD represented, aud thousands of Malays, of 
course, thronged the mosque and its environments. A cup of tea and biscuits J 
were offered to visitorB, and a white cottou suah, tied witli coloured ribbon, wu 
given to them as a badge of mourning. At the time fixed for the ceremony, a large 
drum, which is suspended in front of the mosque, was violently beaten, and the 
corpse was borne slowly from the interior of the mosque to the place appointed 
for burial. The body was enshrouded in white cloth, placed upon a small ' 
bier and covered with a, wooden cover of lattice -work iu the shape of a ' 
coffin, upon which was placed a coloured woollen cloth and a network of 
flowers stitched to thin strips of bamboo. The grave was a wide one, and 
after a certain depth had been reached, a further narrow excavation had been 
made, leaving a ridge all round for standing room. The body, tied in the 
white covering only, waa handed in and placed on its side without the narrow 
excavation on the bare eartli, and lumps of clay were used to keep it in itusi- ■ 
lion. Then what might be deacribed as a coffin (long, tho Malays call it) 
wtthoiit a bottom waa placed over it, with the lower edge resting on the ridge. 
Some prayers were said, and the Malays near responded whilst pressing small 
pieces of earth to Uicir lips. A wooden cover was then put over the coffin 
without a Iwttom and the earth filled in. During this time small can nun 
placed in iJie background were fired at intervals. Then followed prayers and 
fuaKting, and the same will Ite carried on almost continuously for forty days," 

Fuchsia.— Almost every attempt to introduce this has failed. Some 
fifleeu years ago, however, some very excellent blossoms were, exhibited at the 
annual flower show, but the success has never been repeated. 

Gading. — A district in the N. centre of Malacca, consisting chiefly of 
Government forest reserve, alwut 18 miloa from the town. 

Gading.— Taj iioC4i plantation and V. n.bout 2^m. N.E. of Durian Tonggal, 
C. Malacca. This must not bo confounded with the Qading district, which lies in 
a direct line 6^ m. N.W. 


Oad of British Malaya. Gam 


Gadong. — ^A village on the border of Rambau on the road from Naning in 
N.W. Malacca. 

Qajah. Mati. — A v. in the Sungei Petei district, C. Malacca. 

Qalangal. — The root of alpinia galanga. Imported chiefly from China, 
though ^uanj species of alpinia abound in the Peninsula. The original habitat of 
alpinia galanga is the East Indies. 

Qalena. — G^alena mines exist in Patani and the Bindings, and the pro- 
duct of the former is remarkably good. It has also been discovered in Malacca 
and Perak. 

QamalSJl. — A Javanese word often used by Malays t<f signify a band of 
musical instruments. 

Qambior, or Terra japonica (JJncaria gamhir), is obtained principally from 
the Straits Settlements. The planters grow it in connection with pepper, as the 
refuse of the gambler makes an excellent manure for the pepper plant. Gambler 
is in the form of blocks or cubes, of a light brown colour. The extract in many 
cases resembles a red earth, and, as imported to England in its rough state, is very 
much adulterated, sticks, stones, and large quantities of elephants' dung being 
mixed with it in the manufacture. If this variety of tannin could be obtained 
with greater purity, it would fetch a higher price in English commerce, from its 
greater value to the tanner. The extract is obtained by boiling the leaves, small 
branches, and pieces of wood of the tree in water, evaporating the liquid to an 
extract. With the better kind of extract, which goes technically by the name of 
" Cube Q-ambier," more care is taken in the preparation, and in order to ensure 
consistency, starch is mixed with it, or some kind of farina, to consolidate it, and 
dry it more easily. It is cut into the form of cubes about an ioch-and-a-half 
square before drying. The vjiriety of gambler which is called the " Block," ranges 
in value from £lh to d£20 per ton, and the best cube from J£25 to J635 per ton. 
This tanners' material is not only used by tanners, but in a variety of different 
manufactures in England, and is used by dyers and brewers to add to other extracts. 
— {New Commercial Plants and Dnigs.) 

The gambler plant is a stout, climbing plant, a native of the countries border- 
ing on the Straits of Malacca, and especially of the numerous islands at their 
eastern end. There would appear to be two species employed : — (1) The JJncaria 
gambir^ Boxb. — the Nauclea gamhir of Hunter. (2) TJncarla a^ida. Hunt. The 
cultivation and manufacture seem to have beeu commenced at Singapore in 1819, 
and it rapidly extended, until there were about 600 or 800 plantations; but, 
owing to a scarcity of fuel, without an abundant supply of which manufacture is 
impossible, and labour becoming also dear, they were reduced to about 400 in 
1850, and in 1866 the cultivation was fast disappearing on the island. • It nillied, 
however, in view of a larger and cheaper supply of labour, aud the constantly in- 
creasing demand for extract by European importers. In 1870 the total ex[)ort 
from Singapore was 34,550 tons, and in 1871, 34,248 tons. Somewhat less than 
half thifl amount was produced in Singapore itself, the balance being derived from 
Bhio aud the adjacent islands of the Archipelago, that of Bintang being the largest 
contribator. About the same proportions between supply and total export have 
since been maintained. The export to Great Britain in 1881 fell somewhat short 
of 26,000 tons, but has since increased. The total quantity exi)orted to all 
countries from Singapore diuing 1892 was 56,303 tons. 

The Pharmacographia gives the following description of the manufacture : — The 
plant is propagated either by seeds or cuttings, but the latter are preferred. At the 
ezpiiation of fourteen months the first cutting of the branches, with the leaves on, 
is made. The plantations are often formed in clearings of the jungle, where they 
last for a few years, and are then abandoned, owing to the impoverishment of the 


Gam Descriptive Dictionary Gam 

Boil aud the irrepresniblc growth of the lalang grass {/ijiperata Ecenigii, BeauT.), 
which is more difficult to eradicate than even primeval jungle. It has been found 
profitable to eombiue with the cultiTation of gambier that of pepper, for whieh the 
boiled leaves of the gainbier form an excellent manure. The gambler plants aru 
allowed tti grow from 8 to 10 Feet high, and as their foliage is always in season, 
each plant is 8tnpj>ed three or four times in the year. The apiiaratus and all that 
belongs to the manufacture of the extract are of the most pnmitiTe description. 
A shallow cast-iron pan, about 3 feet across, ia built into an earthen fireplac*. 
Water is poured into the pan, a fire is kindled, and the leaves and young shoots, 
freshly plucked, are scattered in and boiled for about an hour. At the end of that 
time they are thrown into a capacious steeping trough, the lower end of which 
projects into the pan, and squeezed with the hand so that the absorbed liquor may 
run back into the boiler. The decoction is then evaporated to the consistency of a 
syrup, and baled out into buckets. When sufficiently cool, it is subjected to a 
curious treatment. Instead of simply stirring it round, the workman push-.'s a 
stick of soft wood in a sloping direction into every bucket, and placing two such 
buckets before him, he works a stick up and down in each. The liquor thickens 
round the stick, and the thickened portion being constantly rubbed off, while at 
the same time the whole is in motion, it gradually sets into a mass, a result which 
the workman affirms would never be produced by simply stirring round. Though 
we are net prepared to concur in the workman's opinion, it is reasonable to suppose 
that his manner of treating the liquor favours the crystallization of the substance 
in a more concrete form than it might otherwise assume. The thickened mass, 
which is said by another writer to resemble soft, yellowish clay, is now placed in 
shallow, square I>oxes, and when somewhat hardened, is cut into tubes and dried in 
the shade. The leaves are boiled a second time, and finally washed in water, 
which water ia saved for another operation. A plantation with five or six 
labourers contains on an average 70.000 to 80.000 shrubs, and yields from 50 to 
60 lbs. of gambier daily. 

A refined quality is manufactured for chewing, Various sorts are in the 
market, e.g., Gamhir Siak from Pontianak, aud Oauildr jiahi from Landau, Siam. 
The first named is that cultivated in the Settlements and Peninsula. It fetches 
from $22 to $26 j>er piciil. 

Gambling. — In Malay, Jndi. All the more advanced nations nf the Asiatic 
Ai'chipelugii are greatly addii'ted to gaming, the jiaiisiou for which is very far 
from lj>'iiig confined to the nations that have adopted the Maht>inmedau religion ; 
for lie Hindus of Bali and I/omboc. and the Christians of iLe Philippines are as 
great gamblers as the Malays, and greater than the Javanese. Cock-fightiug. 
except ill the British possessions, where it has been prohibited, is everywhere the 
normal shape which it takes; but card-playing, and other games, have been 
acquired from the Chinese, who are themselves even more determined gamblers 
than any of the native nations. Amongst the Chinese, the ])rincipal games arc 
Poh and Chap.ji-ki. The former ia played with a die placed in a square brass boi 
fitting it accurately, which in turn sUdea into a brass cover. The lower end of the 
box is bevelled, and the die having been inserted, the boi is spun on a board or 
mat marked with a diagonal cross, The faces of the die are coloured red and 
whit«. and the stakes having been placed on the mat. those opposite the red portion 
of the die when it ceases spinning, are the winners. 

Chap-ji-ld ia a game of oarda, in which the player turning up a card answering 
to the bank reivives ten times his stake. 

Oame-COCk {Ayamtahong). — See Cock. 

Qames.— The Malays indidgo in but few games, the most popular being one 
in which a vricker ball {raga) ia kept up with the heels as tu the Chinese shuttle- 
cock. Nearly all their other amusements take a gambling form. Amongst the 

Oam of British Malaya. Gel 

Chinese, cliess (^. v.), draughts, kite-fljing, marbles, top-spuming, shuttlecock, and 
other games resembling our own, are in vogue. See Cards. 

Qamnty Palm. — ^A common tree, the black fibres of which are used for 
making ropes, cordage, <&c. The open strands used in catching crocodiles are made 
of this substance. 

QangSa. — Small v. on the high road, about 3^ miles S. of Durian Tunggal, 
Malacca, in N. of Batu Berendam district. 

QaDJa or Bhang. — ^An intoxicating extract of hemp. 

Qanong Ayer PanaS. — ^A thermal spring in Naning. The temperature 
of the water is 110°, and it rises from a bed of hot soft mud. About 10,000 cubic 
feet are discharged daily. 

Qanong Bukit. — ^A hill in Naning at the foot of which lies a swampy 

Qanonfit Kache. — ^A plain at the foot of Bukit Ganong, Padang Sebang, 
in Naning temtory, Malacca. 

Oantang. — A Malay gallon =s4 chupaks, which are now by law 4 Imperial 

Qantong Lambei. — ^^ on E. bank of B. Madus, near its source in E. 

Gskpam. — V. on the Duyong E., S. Malacca, about 7| miles N.E. of Malacca. 
Tin usedtormerly to be mined in the neighbourhood. 

Qardinia. — A favourite plant with the Malays, and supposed to be a native 
of the Peninsula. It flourishes well in these latitudes. 

GargaSSi^ Orang. — ^A wild tribe in Kedah, probably the same as that 
known in other parts of the Peninsula as Orang 8akai-liar. 

Qamet. — The term iakut is applied to both the garnet and the white sap- 
phire. Both are exotic, but frequently met with amongst the Malays. 

Qarroo Wood {Kayu Oharu). — Decayed Lignum Aloes, Agala wood. Eagle 
wood and Calambak of commerce. When burned it gives a powerful aromatic 
odour, and is used to scent joss sticks. It seems rather to melt than ignite when 
fire is applied. Malacca furnishes a moderate supply, but this will always be re- 
stricted, as, until decayed, the wood is of no value for scenting purposes. 

Qaruda or Qurda. — A mythological bird mentioned by Malay romancists 
as being invoked for the purpose of desolating a country. It is generally repre- 
sented as a hurong lang, or kite, with a long beak, two heads, and four talons. Its 
size is so prodigious that when it flies its shadow covers an entire country. The 
myth is originally Hindu. Compare the Arabian Bokh. The figure of this bird is 
frequently painted on the paper kites of the Malays. 

Qating Repong. — v. in extreme S.E. of Selangor. 

Qecko. — A family of lizards so named from the cry of its most conspicuous 
member. Most naturaHsts apply the term to all the wall lizards (which embrace 
50 genera and 200 species) abounding throughout the warmer countries of the 
world. The true Gecko is found in Java and Siam, but I have not met with it in 
the Peninsula. Its family is, however, largely represented. See Chichak. 

Gdlain Tree. — The Gelam tree is of the Myrtacea family, and attains a 
height of about 4f5 feet, and a girth of 5 to 6 feet at the base. It has a few upright 
and contorted branches, innimierable twigs with a liberal diffusion of dark green 
almond-shaped leaves ; the latter, when bruised in the hand, emit a strong aromatic 
odour not unlike cajeput oil. The tree is indigenous to Malacca, and, as far as can 
be ascertained, it cannot be found in the other Settlements ; but a few hundred young 
plants have been introduced into Singapore from Malacca for roadside planting, 



Descriptive Dictionary 


for which purjiose thej are very siiitable. They make splendid avenuea when 
planted alongside roada crossing fresh-water awamps or ]>addy-fielda. The water 
becomes discoloured by tannin from the fallen leaves. The uatives make a decoc- 
tion from the leaves which is very astringent and asMumes the colour of a strong 
tea. It is said to be a specific administered in cases of diarrhcea and dysentery. 
The bark is extremely light, buoyant, stift and pithlike, about \ of an inch thick, 
overlying the wood in thin white and light brown layers of the thictoiesa of tissue 
paper interlarded with woody fibre and white powder. Like the Qiterpiw >H6er. or 
cork-tree, it regularly sheds its bark and acquires a fresh coat. The natives use it 
instead of oakum for caulking the seams of their boats. The wood is used as poles 
and putlogs for scaffolding, the construction of fishing stakes, and for fueL The 
tree thrives and abounds in Malacca in the inland marshes and outlying lands, and 
as fast as they are felled seedbngs spring up to take their place. 

GelElIlg. — District on E. side of Singapore town, of which Tanjong Kii is the 
most W. point. It lies south of the high road to Changi and is much affecte<l by 
thinners, &c. 

Qelegak Nasi. — A kind of shining worm supi>oaed to frerjuent tin mines 
and to make a bubbling noise. 

Gemencheh, — State, v. and R. formerly part of Johol, but now one of the 
Negri Senibilan ; the river, a tributary of the Muar. Gold was discovered here 
aliout 1768, and small quantities were worked by the Malays. From 1807 to 1824 
the mine wa^i steadily worked, but the Naniug war caused a stoppage. It was agtun 
worked from 1833 to 1^40, and again deserted till 1644. But little, however, has 
been done since then. The Chindraa gold mine is one of seven in proximity to 

OentiUg. — District in S.W, Penang, between Pondok Upeh and Pulau 

Qeology. — Notices of the geology of the Peninsula, Ac., will be found under 
the names of the places dealt with. 

George Town. — The proper name of the capital of Penang I. It is, how- 
ever, described under the word " Penang," the name of Geoi^ Town having fallen 

Gielong.— V. on N. bank of Pahang B-, 3 miles E. of Chfino, C. Pahang. 
Gilengan Buaya. — V. on 9. bank of Bernam E., N. Selangiir, about 19 
miles from its mouth. 

Gingelly Oil.— AVp On,s. 

Ginger.— Imported almost exclusively from China for use in medicines sold 
by Chinese druggists. Regarding this root, Mr. Caktley gives the following notes 
(Report., 1886) :— 

"GiNoER (Zingiber o^ciiiiile). — Ginger grows satisfactorily; low prices only 
prevent its cultivation being freely developed. It is, however, an exliausting 
crop, soon wearing out the uind in which it is planted in the absenco of liberal 

" Chinbsb Ginoes {Zingiber s^.). — Some plants of this species, which produces 
the well-known preserved ginger of the shops, were received during the year from 
iho Royal Gardens, Ifew. It has grown well, but shows no sign of (lowering. It 
is bflicved to be an entirely new 8j>ecios, but this cannot Iw tletermined in the 
absence of Howcrs." 

Gintuig- — V, on W. coast of Tioman I. 

GlUgor or Gelugor. — A district on E. coast of Penang. so called from 
the prevalence there of a, tree bearing an acid fruit which is cut in slices and used 


Gna of British Malaya. 6ol 

Qnan. — v. on E. bank of. E, Pahang, just below its turn E. in C. Pahang. 

Ooa Kepah. — A v. on the S. bank of the Muda E., in extreme N. of 
Province Wellesley, and 17 miles from Butterworth. A good many Chinese are 
here, employed in sawing timber and burning lime from shells. The timber is 
floated down from the interior, as there are very few trees besides fruit-trees near 
the banks of the lower parts of the river, and the material for the lime is obtained 
from an artifleal mound of cockle shells containing several thousand tons, which 
lies a quarter of an hour's walk inland. The lime-burners have been working the 
mounds for many years, and have not yet removed the contents. The Malays, who 
have no tradition as to its origin, considered it to be a natural deposit until lately, 
when the discovery of human remains near the lower part of the centre of the 
mound showed it to be an artificial construction. In fact the mound consists of 
pure cockle shells, without the slightest admixture of other shells or of any foreign 
matter, and it appears as if the fish had been taken out before the shells were 
thrown on the heap, where they now form a concrete which has to be broken with 
a pick-axe, owing to the partial crystallization of the edges causing the shells to 
adhere to each other. Had the mound been subjected to pressure, as would have 
been the case had it been submerged a few fathoms under the sea, it would have 
become a mass of compact limestone, as it is evidently of great antiquity. From 
the nature of the remains, the origin of the mound is attributed to the Seynangs, 
an Oriental Negro people, of whom broken tribes still exist in the neighboiu*hood. 
There are two other mounds at Goa Gup])a that have not jet been interfered with, 
one of which is about the same size as that worked by the Chinese, but the other 
is considerably larger, and appears to be a cluster of mounds joined together. 
The lime made from the shells is of excellent quality, and is all carried to Penang 
in large Chinese cargo-boats. 

Goan Bengkong. — V. in Chabau district, E. Malaccti. 

Qoan Dalam. — V. in the Chabau district, E. Malacca. 

Goat. — ^The domestic goat, a small animal kept for its flesh, but not for its 
milk except by foreiguers, is pretty generally distributed over Malaya ; but its 
origin is as obscure here as in other countries. In Malay it has two names — 
kambing and bebek, the last being oddly enough the name for the domestic duck in 
Javanese. The first Malay name extends as far as the Philippines, and the second 
has also a wide currency ; either the one or tlie other being nearly the only names 
in the other languages of the Archipelago. The names now given are native 
words, and through them, therefore, a foreign origin for the goat cannot be traced. 
In Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula there exists a species of antelope, the 
Antilopa sumatrensis, a denizen of the deepest recesses of tiie mountain forests ; 
but Cbawpurd does not think this likely to be the source of the domestic goat, 
although the Malays have no other name for it than " the wild goat," kamhing-utan, 
and, notwithstanding its native names, it seems more probable that the Hindus 
brought it from Southern India, than that it is indigenous. In Singapore tlie 
chief owners of goat flocks are Hindus, especially those who were sent thither as 
convicts after the Indian Mutiny. Conventionally the word kambing is a])plied to 
both goats and sheep. The Malayan goat is by no means a large specimen of the 

Gobek Tembaga. — ^Used by aged people and those who have lost their 
teeth to pound betel-nut before chewing it. 

Godown. — ^A storehouse, corruption of the Malay gedoiuj. 

Gold. — The metal, in sufficient abundance to be worked, is found in the 

Malay Peninsula. Gold is believed to be under the care and in the gift of a dewa, 

or god, and its search is therefore unhallowed, for the miners must conciliate the 

dewa, by prayers and offerings, and carefully abstain from pronouncing the name 



Descriptive Dictionary 

of G-od or performing anj aiCt. o£ worship. Any ackQowledffment of the aovere^fnf y 
of AMah ofEendB the dewa, who immediately " liideB the gold " or renders it invisible. 
At some of the great Umbonyan mag or gold pits in the Malay States of the interior, 
any allusioa to the Deity subjects the unwitting miner to a penalty which is imposed 
by the Penghfllu. The qualities of the gold vary greatly ia the same country. The 
finest gold brought to market is that of the principality of Pabang. on the eastern 
side of the Malay Peninsula, nhich brings a higher price than even that of Australia 
by better than three per cent. The gold is all obtained b^ washing, and the metal 
has never been worked, and scarcely even traced to the original veins. It is mostly 
in the form of powder or duat — the mat-urai of the Malays, literally "' louse or 
disint«grated gold." Now and then lumps of considerable size are found, but, - 
compared to the uuggets of California and Australia, mere pebbles. 

Attempts have been made to estimate the total quantity of gold produced, but 
all estimates, from the nature of tiiinga. can be no better than conjectures. Mr. 
LooAN estimates the total produce of the Malay Peninsula at no more than 20,000 
ounces, See aieo Ledano, Chindbas, Eacb and Penjom. 

GolO tn" Oolah. — A small c 
B one of the best known. 

1 description of lcri». The Qolo Shiihan 

Golok.— A bill-hook. The 8t*el spur affiled to a fighting-cock's heel, also 
colled laji (q. v.). In Perak the name of a choppiug-kuife, in BCmbau a dagger. 

Qong. — The Chinese instrument so called. Familiar to the Malays, but of 
foreign origin. 

Ooose. — Nut iudigenous, and domesticated in Malay cuuntries with great 
difficulty. Of late years, however, they have been plentifully bred, aad can be 
obtained in most of the British Settlements, The Malayan word avg»a is Sanskrit, 
pointing to the bird's Hindu origin. 

Gopenfl. — An important V. in East Kinta, State of Perak, and the seat of 
a Ma^istra<;y and hospital. It is the tin-mining centre of the district, and will 
shortly be connected by rail with Teluk Anson. 

Qovemment.—The native Governments are all officered on much the same 
plan. We subjoin a list of the Chiefs in Perak, which will give a fair idea of those 
of the Native States generally ;— 

The constitutional body of the country, when all the offices are filled Up. 
consists of the following persons ; — 

I. The Sultan. 

II. The Eaja Muda 

III. Pour Nobles of the Ist class, viz. : — 
1. The Raja Bcndahara ••• 
'2. The Temenggong ... ... 

3. The Orang Raga Besar 

4. The Tunku Mantri 

rV. Eight Nobles of the 2nd class, viz. :- 

1. The Maharaja Lela 

2. The Laksamana 

3. Shahbandar 

4. The Datoh Sadika Kaja. 

5. The Penglima Guntar 

G. The Penglima Bukit Gautong 

7. The Datoh Shakgor or Si^ah... 

8. The Imam Paduka Tuan 


or heir apparent. 

Prime Minister. 
Chief Magistrate. 
Keeper of the Privy Purse. 
Chief Adviser. 

C Commander of the land and sea 
I forces. 

High Admiral. 
( Harbour Master aud Collector o 
I Customs. 

"i District OffiL'crs on either bank of 
j the river. 

Head of the rivor boats. 

Chief priest. 

Gov of British Malaya. Gnm 

V. Sixteen Nobles of the 3rd class, viz. : — 
1. The Sri Maharaja Lela«, 

to 16 * ^^* ascertained. 

In the smaller States there are less officials by far. There is no title of 
Temenggoug now in Johore, and the Tunku Mantri is called Datoh Mantri. 
Differences of title also obtain with the other ranks, the administration being 
assimilated to the English model. The principal Officers of State in the Territory 
are thus given : — 

The Sultan. 

Five Unkus, relations of the Sultan (Princes). 

The Datoh Mantri. 

The Tuan Hakim. 

The Mufti. 

The Datoh Bintara Luar. 

The Datoh Bintara Dalam. 

The Commissioner of Police. 

The Engineer and Surveyor. 

The Superintendent of Public Works. 

The ImanL 

Two additional Members. 

A Clerk of Council. 

These constitute the Council of State, which unites executive and legislative 
functions. There are also various other heads of departments. It will be seen 
that this is a compromise between the Malay and British organization. 

The local Directory contains such full information regarding the Government 
of the Settlements that it is needless to repeat it in these pages. 

Oovemment Hill, Penang (2,500 feet).— The highest hill in the N. 
range, Penang. A Government bungalow and convalescent bungalow are erected 
on the summit, N. of which is the signal flag-staff. Bellevue, a little way beyond 
and as ^et unbuilt on, offers, perhaps, the finest view of the town and province to 
be obtained anywhere on the Penang Hill. 

Granite abounds throughout the Peninsula and Settlements, Pulo Ubin 
furnishing the principal supply to Singapore. Its working is farmed throughout 
the British possessions. A fine-grained variety, equal to Aberdeen, is found at 
Buldt Berapit, in Perak. 

OrapeS are not indigenous, and the plants introduced seldom bear fruit. 

Graphite. — ^^ Plumbago. 

Guava. — One of the fruits known under the general title of jamhu by the 
Malays, and in no way differing from the West Indian fruit. No attempt, however, 
except in a domestic way, has been made locally to manufacture the well-known 
guava jelly. The tree is common throughout the Peninsula. 

Gula Estate. — A sugar estate in N.W. Perak, above the Larut E., some 
6,000 acres in extent. Port Weld is within easy distance S. The estate is owned 
by a syndicate in China. 

Gum Pering. — V. about 4| miles from Malacca-town, on the road to 
Bumbia, in the Batu Berendam district. 

GuinS. — ^The only gum obtained as an article of commerce (if we except 
India rubber and gutta percha, which are dealt with separat^'ly) is that obt^iim'd 
from the Damar-tree (Damara Sp.)y which abounds in the Peninsula. (See Damar.) 
Copal and other gums are imported for transmission to Europe. 

Gunmnclli. — See Gemencheh. 

[145] L 


Descriptive Dictionary 

OunhUQ. — A V. oa thu Qading forest reserre, N. Malacca, and close to 

S'lngei Batang Malaka. 

Gunong, Mountain. — But frequentlj applied to what we designate hills. 
liiikit anil gunoiiij tndeod arc often uBod for elevatiooa of siinilar height. 

Qunoug Augsi (3,200 feet high).— At S. end of Julebu range near the! 
dividing point between Kemban, G. Pasir, and Siiag€^i Ujong. 

Gunong Api. — Literally '■ fire-mountain," ia the usual name for a volcano, 
but is also the proper name of some islets with active volcanoes. See Volcano. 

Gunong Banang. — Hill forming part of the range koown as Balu Fahat 
in W. .lohore. 

Gunong Batang Padang. — Range in S.E, Perat, of which G. Bajah 
{6,500 feet) is tlie muat wnspit-itoua elevation. 

Gunong Batu Pahat or Mount Formosa.— A range of hiiia on a 

aide of the Batii Pahat K., W. Johore. 

Gunong Batu Pulei. — A table-topped hill in the C. of the Bidor and 
Batang Padang rang.?. S.E. Perak. 

Gunong Bau. — Hill on the E. aide of entrance to Johore R,, marked oa 
the Admiralty Chart as Little Johore Hill, 749 feet high, 

Gunong Bentan, 1.212 feet high, in Pulo Bentan, 

Gunong Beraga. — Mt. in H^mbau forming part of the Rembau chain, 
of granitic formation. 

Gunong Bertam. — Hill between Gunong Titi Wangaa and Eui R., 8. 

Gunong Besiah.— Hill about 12 miles N. of the Perak frontier in S.S.J 
Kedah, ami the N. of a chain eitending from C. Perak. 

Gunong Bidor.— The 8. portion of a chain extending from E.C. to S.E. 1 
Perak, the central portion being the Batang Padang Mts. The natives suppose the I 
range to be haunted by evU spiritB. 

Gunong Biong.^E. spur of the Perak ratige in N. Perak, about 8 miles 8. 
by W. of Kota Tampan. 

~" ~" . C. Johore, the supposed source of the B. 

Gunong Blumut.— Hill i 


Gunong Blungkor.— Hill o 

5 miles N, with Johore Hill. 

E. aidu Johore B. n 

s entraoce, in a tins J 

Gunong BubU (5,650 feet).- 

_ , , -In W. Perak. about 9 miles S.W. of Kwalft| 

Kangsa. Formerly estimated as 6,100 feet, 

Gunong Bujang Malaka (4.386 feet).— One of the hills in the Batang I 
Padang Mts, about 11 miles E. of the Kiutji K. The sea is visible from its summit; | 
itH distance frmn the eoast ia about 42 mllea. 

Gunong Bulu Ala. — Hill in estreme S.E. Perak ; one of the sourcea oCj 
the I'al.;nig K, 

Gunong Cballie. — Hill in N.E. Perak near the source of the Perak R. 

Gunong Datoh. — One of the Gunong Titi Wangsa rauge. C. Kedab. 

GUQOng Datoh.— Mt. in Bombau. N.W. of Beraga. of giunitic formation.! 

Gunong Geriyang.— Sff Elephant Hill. 

Gunong Oressi Ambor.— Mt, in the main chain running iietween^ 
Pahan;,' and Pcnik in W. Pahaug. 

Gunong Hijau (4,678 feet),— Five to six miles W.N.W. of Kota Lama, 

Onn of British Malaya. 6uil 

N.C. Perak. The above estimate is that given od the Admiralty Chart. In the 
J. I. A. it is stated at 5,800 feet. 

Ounong InaS. — One of the range in S. Kedah, running nearly at right 
angles to the Gunong Titi Wangsa range. 

Gunong Itam.— Mt. in W. Pahang, lat. 3^ 15' N., long. 102^ 12' E. 
Tin is found on its S.E. slope. 

Qunoag Jabnt (1,902 feet).— Hill about 4 miles E. of Kinta E., 3 to 4 
miles S.S.W. of Ipoh, C. Perak. 

Onnoilg Janing. — ^Mt. in N.C. Johore, about 4 miles below the Pahang 

Qunong Jerei or Kedah Peak (over 4,000 feet). — The most conspicuous 
Mt. in Kedan, about 17 miles N. of the Province Wellesley frontier, and 6 miles 
N.E. of old Kedah. 

QunOIlg Jong. — Hill at N. extreme of Titi Wangsa range, N. Kedah. 

Qunong Kandong (4,550 feet). — ^About l^ miles E. of the Kampar E. in 
E.C. Perak. 

Qunong Kangar. — One of the chain running from C Perak to S. Kedah, 
about 4 miles N. of the supposed boundary between those two States. 

Qunong Kendrong (2,852 feet). — One mile W. of Gunong Kernci, and 
4 miles W. of Eui E., S.E. Kedah. 

Qunong Kera (1,935 feet). — in the N. of the Kampar district, C. Perak, 
E. of a bend of the Eaya E. 

Qunong Kernel (2,128 feet).— About 3 miles W. of Eui E., S. Kedah. 

Qunong EHedang. — Hill between the Perak and Kinta E., C. Perak, about 
4 miles N.W. of Kinta. 

Qunong Kledang. — Hill on the Kedah side of the boundary between that 
State and Eeman, S. Kedah. 

Qunong Krian. — Hill in S. Kedah, about 13 miles from P. Wellesley 
frontier, at or near the supposed dividing line between Perak and Kedah. 

Qunong Lanan. — Mt. in a bend of the Eaya E., about 12 miles nearly E. 

of Kinta, C. Perak. 

Qunong Lanjut. — A hill in Naning (Malacca). 

Qunong Ledang. — ^ee Ledanq and Ophir. 

Qunong Lenkor (Lencore on the map). — Hill N. of Kinta E.. E.C. 
Perak, not far from its junction with the E. Penoh. 

Qunong Lesong. — Hill in E.C. Johore, one of a series lying between the 
Bouroes of the E. Madek and Lenggin. 

Qunong Mentahak. — Hill 2,150 feet high, about 3 milos N. of the Johoro 
E., S. Johore. 

Qunong Merah (3,750 feet).— in N.C. Perak, 7 to 8 miles E. of Kwala 

Qunong Merbukit (645 feet). — In S. Johore. Generally known as Johore 
HilL The E. point of the embouchure of the Johore B. (Admiralty Charts). 
Another hill 5^ miles N.W. of Point Eomania, S.E. Johore, is so named on the map 
of S. A. S., and the above is named Bau Hill. 

Qunong Miko. — A mount or hill in the Naning district, Malacca, not 
marked in the maps. It produces sapan wood, damar and canes, and is infested by 
tigers. The paddy produced in this neighbourhood is said to be of very good 

[147] L 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 

Gunong Monie.— Hill on N. bank of Kinta R. 

Lioni; E. 

ita janefcion witL the 
-Hill 1.680 feet high, about Imilea N. of the Johore E. in 
ulley of the same name i« woll 

Gimong Pasir.— Mt. in Rembau, The i 

cultivated, paddy fields being numerous. 

Gunong Pondoh.— A singular mountain in Perak Ijiug a little N. of tbe 
direct rout* between the mouth of the Larut river and Kwala Kangsa. It ia 
described b^ McNair aa " rising out of the plain like a huge beehive, one mass of 
red and white limestone, about 1.000 feet high, bare and time-worn in places, and 
perforated with the cavos peculiar to that formation." It can be seen from the 
entrance of the Larut Eiver. and lies about 9 miles W. by S. of Kota Lama, 
C. Perak. 

Gunong Pulei.— Mt, in S. Johore, 2,000 feet high, about 15 miles N.W. of 
Johore Bhiiru 

Gunong Rajah (6,500 feet).— The centre of a chain with two S. forks in 
S.E, Perak known aa Batang Padang Mts. 

Gunong Ramiah.— Hill about 1^ miles E. of the Kampar R.. E.G. Perak. 
It is aitnated just K. of one extremity of a range some 30 miles long, of which 
Bujaug Malaka and Gunong Eajah are the most conspicuous elevations. 

Gunong Rampip. — Mt, in extreme E.G. Perak. The vicinity is atill unex- 

Gunong Rantoh.— Hill between Tai|}eug and Kota Lama, C. Perak ; one 
of the PtTivk liintre. 

Gunong Rapat (1.275 feet).— Hill 3 miles E. of Kinta, 0. Perak. 

Gunong Riam.— ^The 9.E. angle of two ranges of hills in N.E. Perak, N. 
ot the valley uf the Kinta E. 

Gunong Robinson. — Hill in N.E. Perak, 5 milea 8.W. of Gunong Yong 

Gunong Rundria.— Hill in B.C. Perak just S. of G. Tampurong. 

Gunong Selayong. — HiU at N. estremity of Titi Wangsa range, N. Kedah. 

Gunong Talian.— Hill in N.C. Pahang, forming the S. end of a chain 
supposed til lii' the hiLfli.'st iu the Peninsula. 

Gunong Tambun.— Hill on E. bank of Kinta B„ C. Perak. 2 miles 8. of 

Gunong Tampin. — The nearest Mt. in Rembau to tie Malacca Territory ; 
of granitie formation. 

— Mt. to W. of small Native Stute of that name, Negri 

Gunong Tampurong (3,infeet).— E. of the Kampardi§trict.E.C. Perak. 
It forma the I'stivtuitv of tho W. fork of the Batang Padang range, and ia about 
7 miles N.N.W. uf Cimioiiij Uujang Malaka. 

Gunong Terandam (1,380 feet).— Mt. in G. Perak, % mile S.E. of Kinta. 

Gunong Timbun Tidang.— Hill in E.G. Johore, about 4 miles W. of 
the suunr of llir \X. Midok. 

Gunong Tuioh. — A rimge between Ked^ and Eeman, with three pro- 
minent peaks, tl]i> iK.rtiiiTunnjsl, being about 7 milea N. of the Palani-Perak fronUor. 

Gunong Tujoh-Blas.— Mt. in W. Perak about 12 miles 8.W. of Kwala 


Gun of British Malaya. Gut 

Qunong Tumboh.— HiU about 3 miles of Perak E., 5 miles S.S.E. of 
Blanja, C. Perak. 

Qunong Tunggal.— Mt. about half way between the W. bank of the 
Perak R. and the frontier of the Bindings territory ; in W.C. Perak. 

Qunong Ulu Chupei. — ^A S. spur of the range forming part of the sup- 
posed boundary between Perak and Kedah ; extreme N. Perak. 

Qunong Ulu Kewar. — Hill at supposed meeting point of the Patani, 
Perak and Kedah boundary lines. It has a round top. 

Qunong Ulu Rengkang. — ^Mt. in C. Perak, about 8 miles S.E. of Kota 

Qunong Ulu Sungei Raya. — Hill about 6 miles E. of Ipoh on the Kinta 
R, C. Perak. 

Qunong Ulu Tamulang (^3,435 feet). — On the supposed boundary 
between Perak and Kedah, about 7 miles E. of the Perak E. 

Qunong Wang. — Hill at N. extremity of Titi Wangsa range, N. Kedah. 

Qunong Yong Yup. — Mt. in N.E. Perak, about 13 miles W. of the sup- 
posed Kelantan frontier. 

Quns^ Qunpowder.— iS^ee Abms. 

Quntang. — ^V. at S E. extremity of Pahang on W. bank of Endau R. 

Oupi. — Small V. about 2 miles W. of Nyalas in the Jus forest reserve, N. 

Qutta Percha — Was first brought to European notice by Dr. W. Mont- 
OOMEBJE in 1843, when he reported on its usefulness for certain surgical purposes 
to the Bengal Medical Board. In April of the same year, a specimen was j)resented 
to the Royal Society of Arts by Dr. d' Almeida. The honour of its discovery 
appears to be equally due to both. 

It is derived from several trees, the best quality being obtained from the Gxdta 
iiban, a large tree from 60 to 70 feet in height, and from 2 to 3 feet in diameter, 
much resembling the Durian tree. It was at one time common in Singapore and 
Penang, but the wasteful system adopted of killing each tree for its juice, resulted 
in its almost total extinction in the Settlements. The present supply is obtained 
from the Peninsula, the average yield being 10 catties per tree. Mubton has the 
following remarks on the subject : — 

" The trees producing gutta percha are all members of the order Sapotaceie, a 
family which includes many species useful to man, the best known in the Straits 
being perhaps the Chiko (Sapota acras). 

"The gutta-producing trees are confined to the genus Isonandra, which is 
limited to 6 species by the authors of the * Genera Plantarum.' Isouaudi-a Gutta 
(Diehopsis gutta, Singapore Botanical Garden's Report) is the oldest known species, 
and yields what is known in commerce as guttapercha, in local parlance Gutta tehaji. 

" This tree is occasionally met with in Singapore, and in Johore in the Pulai 
hills, and is met with in Perak on Gunong Meru, Gunong Sayong, Gunong Pan- 
jang, Gyinong Bubo, Gunong Hijau, and Bujang Malaka, where large trees of 80 to 
120 feet are met with, but owing to the reckless way in which the gutta is collected, 
it is fast disappearing, and every succeeding year the collectors are obliged to go 
further from their kampongs in search of it. A Chilocarjms producing gutta is also 
found in Perak. 

" The mode of collecting the milk is as follows : — A tree not less than 3 feet in 
circumference at 3 feet from the ground is selected, the larger the tree the greater 
the quantity of gutta obtainable ; it is then cut down at 5 or 6 feet from the ground, 
and as soon as it is felled the top is taken off, where the principal stem is about 
8 or 4 inches in diameter ; this the natives say causes the trunk to yield a larger 



Descfiptive Diclionary 


quantity of milk ; it ia tlien rinj^d at interrals of 5 to 15 inclieB with ijoloks, and 
the milk collected in cocoa-nut sbells, palm leaves, or other avaihil'le rot-ei'tacle, It 
ia then boiled for an hour, as otherwise it becomes brittk' and useleiis. The average 
price per picul is $4;5 to $65." 

GuTTA PuTEH, the product of J. macrophyUa, is obtained in the same way. but 
is only worth about $15perpicul. It is more spongy and less plastic than G. teban. 
It is often adulterated with 0. jelulong, obtained from a species of Alyxin, and is 
thus rendered almost worthless. The immense destruction of gutta trees consequent 
on the wasteful mode of collection has attracted the attention of Government, and 
nnrseries h%ve been formed in Sii^pore. It ia. however, doubtful if the native, 
left to act as he pleases in the Peninsula, will take the trouble to adopt a less ready 
way of obtaining the gum. in order to save the tree. Outta giijrip {Willoughbeia 
firma), Guiia jelutong (Dyera costuUita), and &nUa swndek {Pargmiia Lmrit), are 
natives of the Peninsula, but do not produce a gum of first-class quality. 

The trade in gutta percha is the speciality of a few firms, and the article ia not 
even quoted in most of the prices current from home. 

The following addition^ remarks are quoted from Mr. Gantlet's Report on 
the Singapore Botanical Gardens for 1886 :— 

"G-uTTA Perch* (Dichopsis gutta). — From statistics afforded by plants growing 
in the Nursery, this plant, the best variety of gutta-percha tree, seems a moderately 
fast grower. A.plant planted in 1879 is now 25 feet in height and 12 inches in circum- 
ference at 6 feet above the ground. This gives an average yearly growth in height 
of about 3^ feet, and an annual increase in circumference of about 1} inches. 

"Kative Creepiwo Gutta.— The various Willoughbeias and others from 
which a very large proportion of East Indian gutta is drawn, grow vrith great 
vigour when planted off cleared land, and where, in the absence o£ anything to 
climb upou, they form large bushes in twelve months. Besults of growth seem to 
show that it would be more profitable to plant those than the larger trees requiring 
some fifteen years to produce a first return. 

"FoRBias Creepino Qctta.— The foreign creeping guttas ou baud are the 
African and Madagascar creepers ; these are planted side by side with tlie native 
l<in(]s, and although they grow freely, are far behind the native kinds in rate of 
growth and general vigour. 

" Other foreign rubbers, such as Para, Ceara, and Panama rubbers, grow 
well, hut so far as esperimeuts have gone, the produce of latix is very watery, and 
it is doubtful whether they will hold thetr own against the bettiT native kinds." 

The gutta- producing trees knowo to the Malays, however, greatly outnumber 
those known to commerce. Mr. D. F. A. Hbrvey furnished the following list for 
the J. S. B. B. A, S. in 1881. "Gutta" has been retained in this article as the 
conventional spiling r — 
Qetali t«han. 
„ tokou. 
,. g^grit puteh. (Gives an it*h.) 
,, jflStong. (White and red.) 
„ aujiiyus or mgnj&yus. 

„ sSlambau. 
„ ralang. 
.. djil. 
„ bGringin. 
„ jrfreha {i.e., ragged). 

„ kCtian, (Has a sweet, aromatic-flavoured, small, white, flesky 
flower, which is very pleasant to the taste, and is alinifM 
eaten by the natives when met with.) 


Out of British Malaya. Han 

GStah r^hun (i.e., poison). 

jitan. (Gfitah used as ointmcut forjpwrw, or ulcerated sores.) 


akar susu putri. (Roots covered with humps.) 

„ s^r&pat. 
„ sundek. 


Ontta* Terap (Artocarpus Blumeii). — Introduced into the Singapore 
Botanical Gardens from the Malay Peninsula. The word iera^ will be found in the 
list of both Woods and Fruits. The tree produces a gutta of no particular com- 
mercial value, however, hence its name. 

Haji. — The title given to any man or woman who has performed the pilgrim- 
age to Mecca. They are entitled to wear a green turban and robe, and the title 
confers a certain amount of honour on the holder. Malay women who have per- 
formed the " Haj " wear a veil called Mergo, which leaves only the eyes visible. 

Hanxaidryaid {OpMophigvs elaps). — The snake-eating cobra (Ular tedong 
hesar). This is described by Dr. Fatrer as follows : — " This is probably the 
largest and most formidable venomous snake known. It grows to the length of 
twelve or fourteen feet, and is not only very powerful but also active and aggres- 
sive. It is hooded like the cobra, and resembles it in its general configuration and 

" The colours are olive-green above ; the shields of the head, the scales of the 
neck, hinder part of the body and of the tail edged with black; trunk with 
numerous oblique, alternate black and white bands converging towai'ds the head ; 
lower parts marbled with blackish, or uniform pale greenish. This variety is found 
in Bengal, Assam, the Malay Peninsula, and Southern India. Other varieties are 
found in Burmah, &(i." 

Fortunately, this snake, though widely distributed, is not very common. I 
have had four specimens brought me in Singapore, and have seen niimerous others 
in Province Wellesley. The largest with which I am acquainted was caught in 
Selangor, and measured 18 feet 9 inches. It will attack persons approaching it 
without provocation. Like the cobra, it has three plates behind the eyes. 

Hontn. — " Ghost, spirit, devil, demon, or phantom," according to the dic- 
tionaries. The belief in hantus (which are invariably supposed to ho of a malig- 
nant nature) is deeply rooted, both amongst the Malays and the aboriginal tribes 
of the Peninsula. Almost all diseases are ascribed to a hantu bearing the same 
name. Thus the Hantu Kaiumhohan is the spirit of small-pox ; Havtu Kamhong 
and HaniM Chika afiUct men with pains in the head and abdomen. The spirits of 
disease collectively are called Hantu Penyakit. The Hantu Sahuro, or Black 
Hunter, inhabits lakes and river pools. He is attended by three dogs named 
Sokom and a bird called Bere-bere. Whenever the latter is seen, pieces of wood 
and metal utensils are beaten together, so as to make as much noise as ])ossible and 
frighten the dogs (who are supposed to chase men in the forest, and, if they catch 
them, drink their blood) from coming near the place. The Hantu Kamang or Raya 
causes swellings on the legs and feet. The Hantu JDondong is a cave demon, who 
hunts dogs and wild pigs with a aumpitan. The Hantu Kayu iire the demons of 
the forest, certain trees having hantus of exceptional malignity. A paper in the 
J. L A. (VoL I, p. 307) refers most of these to Mintira beliefs, but these hantus 
are equally well known to the Malays, as are others enumerated in the same 

The word is applied also in other ways, thus, Pulo liantu — ghost island ; Hum ah 
kantu — ^haunted house. This latter term is applied to Masonic Lodges, on account 



Descriptive Dictionary 

of tlio rayat^Tj with which they are hedged in. Buroiig luintu, or the ghost bird (a 
aight-owl). is so c-tllcd from its aoiselisHs fl^ht aa it dashes from tree to tree during 
thu night. Probably the latest adaptation of the term is Krela kantii — a bicycle. 

H arrow. — The native hiurow is simply a heavy beam Btudded with spikes, 
and is of moat primitive manufacture. 

Hedgehog {Glandak tanaV), rescmbliag the European species, not very 

Hemp, Indian (CannabU Sativa). — See Fibres. 

Hemp, Manila.— See Fibbes. 

Hemp, Mauritius.— See Fibres, 

Hemp, Penguin.— See Fibeeb. 
Hemp, Sunn.— See Pibkes. 

Herons {R'lak rmik) are common on the coast and at the mouthM of rivers. 
They present no conspicuous variation fi-om the European species. 

Hibiscus.— This plant is apparently indigenous, some eight varieties being 
commonly met with. It grows to the size of a large tree under favourable condi- 

High Peak.— Hill in the dividing range between Selangor and Faliang. 
extreme E. Selangor. 

Hiliayat.— A history or narrative. There are several Htkayats extant, such 
as the Sikayat Hang TiuJi, Hiluiyat Hamxah, HiJeayat lama Yatim, &c., but they 
are mostly composed of as much fable as fact. A list of those known to exist will 
be found under the article '" Blbhography." The only notable one published of 
lute years is the Hikayat Abdullah, written by an intelligent Malay who was present 
at the founding of Singapore. Me descril>es the events of the day with commend- 
able accuracy. A reprint of the work has recently been issued by the Straits 
Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society ; and the Education Department of the Straits 
Ooverument has published another editiou of it. 

As a specimen of the consideration accorded to these compilations by com- 
petent scholars, we subjoin a quotatiou from an interesting article on the subject in 
the J. 8. B. E. A. 8. by the Hon'ble W. E. Maxwell, C.M.G. :— 

" The Hikayat Hang Tuak fares no better at Mr. Cbawpurd's hands than the 
work of the Kedah historian. It is described as ' a most absurd and puerile pro- 
duction. It contains no historical fact upon which the slight«st reliance can be 
])laced ; no date whatever, and, if we except the faithful picture of native mind 
and manners which it unconsciously affords, is utterly worthless and contemptible.' " 

LevnEN, in his " Essay on the Languages and Literature of the Indo-Chinese 
Nations," gives the following account of Maluy historical manuscripts : — 

" There are mauy Malayw compositions of a historical nature, thoi;^h they are 
not BO common as the chisses that have been enumerated ; such a« the Hikayat 
Jiajak Sonijen, which I have not seen, but which has been described to me us a 
genealogical history of the Maluy Rajas ; the Hikayat Malaka, which relates the 
founding of that city by a Javanese adventurer, the arrival of the Portuguese, and 
the combats of the Malays with Albcqueaque and the other Portuguese com- 
manders ; the Hikayat PUrajaya-Putti, or history of an ancient Raja of Malacca ; 
the Hikayat AM, or history of Achi or Achin in Sumatra ; and the Hikayat Hang 
Tiiah, or the adventures of a Malay chief during the reign of the last Raja of 
Malacca, and the account of a Malay Embassy sent to Mecca and Constantinople to 
retjuest assistance u^inst the Portuguese. Such historical narrations are extremely 
numerous ; indued there is reason to believe that there is one of every 8tat« or tribe; 
nod though occaaioually embellished by fiction, it is only from them that we can 
obtain an outline of the Malay history and of the progress of the nation." 

Hilly Cape.~The N.E. Caj*. of Patani. 


of British Malaya. 


Hindu. Hindustan. — These are words hardly known to the natives of the 
Peninsula. T!n> name by which the people of India, with reference to their faith, 
is known to them, is that of the nation with which they have immemorially had 
moet intercourse — the TSlugu, whom they call Kaliog. For Hinduslan, or the 
country of the Hindns, they prefix the word for land or country of this nation. 
in Malay — Tanoh Kdling. The name Ealing, with the elision of the final vowel, 
it deserves notice, is the Sanskrit name of the northern part of the Coromandel 
cooAt, and, as Professor Wilson informs us, the Calingamm Beeio of the Komans. 
Frequently, however, the Indian islanders refer to the country of the Hindus under 
tlie appellation of " the country across the water " — TanaJi aabrang, an expression 
similar to the Italian Tramontana—hnyond the mountains — applied to the countries 
of Northern Europe. 

The time and manner in which the Hindu religion was firsi introduced into 
the Indian ishinds is, to say the least, a matter of very great curiosity. Without 
douht the monsoons had a very large share tn bringing ahout this event. Favoured 
by these, tho timid Hindus could easily complete Voyages of a length impracticable 
ta their more intrepid adventurous contemporaries of Greece and Italy. The 
intelligent Bajcbosa, who describes Malacca before its conquest by the Portuguese 
in ISll, represents this class of traders very much as we at present find them, only 
more important from the absence of the competition of Europeans. " There are 
here," aaya he, " many great merchants, Moor as well as Guntile strangers, I 
chiefly of tho Chetis, who are of the Coromandel coast, and have large ships which 
they call giunchi (junks)." — Libro de Odo&rdo Babboba. iZamiwio, Vol. I, p. 318. 
The word Cheti, here supposed to be the name of the nation, is, in fact, only the 
Tilugu and Tamil corruptions of Chethi, a trader, itself a corruption of the Sanskrit 
Sre»hti, having the same signification, It is, moreover, the same word which we 
have, on twelves written Set, well known in our early Indian history. The trade thus 
alluded to by Ba-rbosa has gone on for the period of nearly three centuries and a 
half since he wrote, and most probably had been carried on for many ages before 
it. It was, in fact, the second stage of that tedious transit which brought the clove 
and nutmeg to Western Europe, the first being the home trade oE tho Malays whioh 
brought them from the eastern to the western ports of the Archipelago. 

Neither the Malays nor the TSlugua have any record of the time or manner in 
which this conunercial intercourse commenced, any more than the ancient Britons 
bad of their trade in tin witli the Carthaginians. Circumstantial evidence, there- 
fore, is all that is available on the subject, and even the amount of this is but 
vcasty. When Europeans first visited the Archipelago, they found the Malays 
carrying on what may be called its internal carrying trade, acting, in &ct, tho same 
piui which is now, in a great measure, performed bythe principal nation of Ci^lebes. 
They collected the native products of tho Archipelago, and conveyed them to the 
emporia of the West, where they bartered them with the traders of Western Asia, 
for the manufactures and produce of Hindustan, Persia, and Arabia. They theui- 
Belves, however, it is certain, never went, any more than ticy do at the present day, 
beyond the limits of their own waters. Babbosa eniuneratcs the commodities 
which tho Malays brought to Malacca, then, probably, the most considerable 
emiK-rium of the Archipelago. They consisted of camphor, aloes-wood, bennoin or 
frankincense, black pepper, cubeb pepper, tho clove and nutmeg, honey, beeswax, 
gold, tin, and slaves. He adds, that the native vessels which sailed from Malacca 
wont as far as Timor and the Moluccas in quest of thoae articles, touching at various 
ia1«rmediat« place's for trade. Such, then, was the state of the internal trade of 
tho Archijielago when the islanders were first seen by Europeans, and such, to 
all appearance, it had been for many ages. It is remarkable that several of the 
most distiuguishing products of the Archipelago are known, and this, too, even in 
many cases, to the natives themselves, by names which are obviously Sanskrit. 
Thus, camphor is kapur, from kajmra ; aloes-wood or eagle-wood, gam, from aguru ; 


Descriptive Dictionary 

the nutmeg, fola, abbreviated and corrupted from jatipahUi ; the clove, in Javanese, 
(jomeiin, from jOTweAdo, meaning " cow'amarrow ; " and black pepper, TnaricAa, wliieh 
is unaltered. From this it is to be inferred that it was the trade of the Hindus 
that first gave importance to these commodities, none of nhieh are, even iu tlio J 
present daj, much esteemed by the natives themselves, considered as articles of con- I 
sumption. Thus, the clove aud nutmeg, as RuMPHtcs long ago observed, are not 
usod as condiments. j 

In the Javanese cbroudogiea. tho Hindu religion is alleged to have been intro- 
duced into their island by an Indian king, whom they call Aji Saba. This is a pure 
myth, for the name of the personage thus referred to la Sanskrit, the first part of 
it signifying king, and the laat being one of the names of Sai.tvaha, who intro- 
duced an era prevalent in the South of India, which goes by his name. In fixing 
the commencement of this era, there is a discrepancy of one year between the 
Taltigu and Tamil nations, the first making it 78, and the last 73 y«ars after 
Christ. It is the first of these that was adopted by the insular Hindus, and which 
continues to esist in the island of Bali up to the present time, and does so also in 
Java nominally, although in that island lunar having been substituted fur solar 
time, iu the year of our time 1633, the time no longer correBponds with the 1 
original. This fact determines the introduction of the era of Saka to the Tatugus, 
the people whom I suppose to have introduced Hinduism icto the islands. We 
may add to this the adoption by the Malay and Javanese of the name of the 
T&lugu nation for the whole country of the Hindus. , 

In order to be able to form a reasonable conjecture respecting the time in i 
which the intercourse of the Hindus with the Archipelago commenced, and tho I 
Hindu religion was introduced into it, we must have recourse to circumstantial 
evidence of a different descrijition. Among the commodities which the Malays 
and Javanese brought to the emporia of the western parts of the Archipelago, to 
barter with the foreign traders that resorted to them, the only two not liable to be 
confounded with simihir products of other part« of the east, are the clove and nut- 
meg. These, it is known, are not mentioned in the minute list of merchandise 
given iu the PeripluB of the Erythnean Sea. thought to have been written in tlie 
siity-third yearof Christ. Neither are thoy named by Pliny, who wrote about the 
same time. Down, therefore, to the first century after Christ, the clove and ' 
nutmeg were unknown in Europe, and if known even in the markets of Weatem J 
India, they would have been enumerated In the Periplus. Little more than a | 
hundred years later, however, we find them enumerated in the Digest of the 
Boman Laws. At the time, then, the Hindus must have been carrying on a ' 
commercial intercourae with the Archipelago, for they were the second link in the 
chain of transjiort by which the clove and nutmeg were conveyed, and there is no 
other apparent means by which the native products of the remote Molucca and 
Banda lalands could have reached the Western world. In so far, then, as thecloveand 
nutmeg ai-e concerned, the Hindu intercourse with the Archipeli^o may be said to 
have existed for at least seventeen centuries. But it may have existed, and must 
probably did exist, much earlier, for, besides the clove and nutmeg, the Malayan 
Archipelago produces several other commodities much in demand in the country 
of the Hindus, such as benzoin or frankincense, camphor, cubeb, jiepper, gold 
and tin, none of which are yielded by any part of Hindustan.* The nunual 
immigration of Indian (Kling) coolica into the Straits Settlements and Native 
States is estimated at about 10.000. These with Chitties (q. v.) constitute almost 
exclusively those of Indian birth resident in British Malaya, 

Hirundo Ksculeata. — See Biuds'-nests. 

History, — History, iu its usual sense, is unknown to the Malays. The very 
names by which Ibeir histories are known proclaim their character, and indicate the 
light in which the people themselves view them. These are, either the Sanskrit 

Hoe of British Malaya. Hoi 

word cherUa, or the Arabic hikayat, both of which signify story, tale, or romance. 
Until they adopted the Mahommedan religion, the Malays had no era, and 
reckoned time only by the duration of the reigns of their very obscure princes, not 
one of whom has left a name deserving of remembrance by posterity. Respecting 
their intercourse with the Hindus, we possess no recorded fact whatever. The 
earliest date that can be quoted for their intercourse, even with the Arabs, is the 
period of the conversion of the Achinese of Sumatra, and this corresponds to the 
year 1204 of our time. No doubt, however, their mere commercial intercourse was 
far earlier, and will probably go as far back as the first establishment of the Arabs 
in Egypt, and the coasts of the Arabian and Persian Gulf, which would correspond 
with the seventh and eighth centuries. — See Hikatat.* 

Ho6y. — The conventional way of spelling the Chinese word Hui or Ui, lit, 
to meet or confer with, hence a society. Hui Kun, the meeting-house of a society. 
— See Secret Societies. 

Hog. — One or more species of hog exists, in the wild state, in every great 
island of the Archipelago. There are abundance of hogs, even in so inconsiderable 
an island as Singapore. There is, at least, one species in great plenty in the Malay 

All the wild hogs that have been seen are small animals, compared with the 
wild boar of Europe, or even with that of continental India. The S^ts verrucosus, 
80 called from the fleshy excrescence on the sides of the cheeks, has a grotesque 
and formidable appearance, but is in reality a timid animal. Their habits appear 
to differ in some respects from those of the European and Indian wild hog, for 
they come frequently to the sea-shore to feed on crabs, and they will greedily 
devour carrion. 

Whether any of the wild species be the origin of the domesticated hog of the 
Peninsula is a question not easily solved. The popular names for the hog are all 
native words. The most frequent of them is hahi, which, with slight modifications, 
is found in many languages from the Peninsula and Sumatra to Timor and the 
Philippines. This name, there is no doubt, belongs to the Malay language, which 
has no other.* 

Honey and Wax. — Honey is the produce of wild bees, which make their 
hives in the crevices of trees, but no sixjcies of bee has ever been domesticated, 
which would probably be difficult or impracticable in countries which have no 
distinction of summer and winter, where every season produces flowers, and 
where, consequently, there is no necessity for laying up a large store of food. The 
honey of the Archipelago is a thin syrup, very inferior in flavour to that of 
temperate climates. It is chiefly sought on account of the wax, which forms a 
large article of exportation to Europe, India, and China. In Malay, the honey-bee 
has a specific name — Mhah ; so has the wax — lilin ; and the hive, tuwalan. The 
native name for honey is manisan-Mhah, " the sweet of the honey-bee," but the 
Sanskrit name madu is of more frequent use.* 

Hombills. — These answer to the " Toucans " of America. -Their apparently 
cumbrous beaks and helmets are in reality very light, only one species having the 
portion above the head solid. It is from this — a yellow wax-like-looking substance 
— ^that the Chinese carve brooches, earrings, Ac. Their wav of taking food is 
peculiar. They are omnivorous, and quite as fond of young birds as of fruits. A 
gentleman who kept one loose some years ago used to miss one or more of some 
newly-hatched chickens daily. A watch was set, and it was at length discovered 
that the hombill was in the habit of waiting for the exit of a chicken from the 
coop, and, selecting a victim, would dexterously jerk it up into the air by a nip 
where its tail-feathers were yet to grow, and catching it within his widely open jaws 
vwallow it at a gulp. 


^^P Hor Descriptive Dictionary Hor ^H 

^^1 Horsburgh, James. — The author of the "China Pilot" and tho moat ^H 

^^H umlucut hydrogra;>ber of his day. ^^| 

^^B Horsburgh Ligllthouse.^Erected under the superintenJenee of Mr. ^^| 

^^H J. T. Thuufson, Government Surveyor of Siugapore, ou a rock called Fedra BraJica. ^^H 

^^^k by Eui-opeimH, itud Baiii Putek by the Malaje, in 1852, in honour of the great ^^| 

^^H hydrographer Jaaieb Uorsburoh. The rock owes its whiW Eippearance to the ^^H 

^^M e^icreta of .'jea-birda, It is situated on the E. extremity of the Stnute of Singapore ^^H 

^H in lat. 1° 2iy 15" N. and lon;^. 1U4° 24' E.. 9 miles from Point Romania and 37 ^^1 

^^H mileB from Singapore. It is 160 feet loi^ by 100 broad and 24 feet above high ^^| 

^^V water spring tides. The lantern is 95 feet above the level of the sea, and the light ^^H 

^B is vieilile for 15 miles. A full aeeount of the building appears in the J. L A. for ^^H 

^H August. 1852. Large subscriptions were made by the Canton merchants and hongg, ^^^ 

^H the Bombay and Penang Chambers of Commerce, and private individuals, the ^^| 

^H balance being made up by the Govemmenl. The total coat appears to have been ^^H 

^H $2Z,667.87. It is needless U> insist upon tlie advantages this light has proved to ^^M 

^1 commercial interests in this part of the world. ^^| 

^^^ Horse. — [^ view of the atron)^ interest felt by all foreign residents in the ^^| 

^^^ Peninsula in the horse and pony, Crawfurd's article, which applies very fully at ^^^| 

^^M the present day, is reproduced in erfenso. It will be seen that the horse is not ^^H 

^^1 indigenous to the Peninsula.] The horse has been immeroorially domesticated by ^^| 

^^1 must of the more advanced nations of the Malay Archipelago, wherever it could be ^^H 

^^K made use of. The chief exceptions are the Malay Peninsula, the eastern seorboard ^^M 

^^V. of Sumatra, and nearly the whole of Borneo — countries in which the people dwell ^H 

^^H ou the marshy banks of rivers, in which there is not even a bridle-path, and fit, ^^M 

^^H therefore, only for the boat and the buffalo. The native horse is always a mere ^^H 

^^H l>ony, seldom reaching 13 hands high, and more generally of about 12 hands. ^^H 

^^H There are many different breeds, every island having at least one pecuUar to itself, ^^H 

^^H and the large islands several. Beginning with Sumatra, we have here at least two ^^H 

^^H distinct races— the Achin and Batubara — both small and spirited, but better adapf^^d ^^^ 

^^H to draught than the saddle. Of all the countries of the Archipelago, Java is that ^^H 

^^H in which the horse most abounds, and here we find several different breeds — as ^^H 

^^H those of the hill countries, and those of the plains, generally, the Java horse is ^^H 

^^M larger than that of Sumatra, but in the language of the turf has less blood and ^^^ 

^^H bottom. The lowland horses (the great majority) are somewhat coarse and sluj^'ish, ^^H 

^^M but the upUmd spirited, smaller, and handsomer. According to the statistics of ^^^ 

^^1 tlie Netherlands Qoverumcut, the total number of horses in the island in 1842 waa ^^H 

^^M 291,578, and at present probably exceed 3(10,000. The hoi-sc, although of a very ^^H 

^^H inferior breed, is found in the islands of Bali and Lomlrac, but the next island to ^^| 

^^H these I'ustward — Sumbawa — produces the handsomest breeds of the whole Archi- ^^H 

^^H ]ielago. They ore the Arab of the Arcfaipclago, yet the blood is not the same aa ^^H 

^^B the Arab, for tho small horse of Sumbawa, although very handsome, wants the line ^^M 

^^H coat and the blood head of the Arabian. There are in this island and a^ljacent ^H 

^^H islets tbreo different races — that of Tambura, of Bima, and of Qunuug-api~the Isat ^H 

^^H being most esteemed. Next to Java, horses are most abundant in Celebes. These ^H 

^^H arc inferior in beauty to those of Sumluiwa, but excel all others of the Maluyou ^| 

^^H portion of the Archipelago, in combining the qualities of size, strengtli, speed, and ^| 

^■^ bottom. A very good breed is produc-ed in Sumba, called in our maps Sandalwood ^1 
Island. But perhaps tho K'st breed of the whole Archipelago, although still but a 
pony, is that of lliu Philippines. It is superior in size to any of the breeds of the 

I western islands, which it may owe to the superior pastures of the Philippines, and, 

possibly, to a small admixture of the Siianish horses of America, althou^ this last ^_ 

IS by no means an ascertained point. ^H 

In the Arehi]x;higo, aa in other parts of the world, the colour of tlio horse is ^| 

singularlv connected wiUi quality, temper and locaJity. The prevailing colour with ^^| 


of British Malaya. 

(Jie horse of Ackin ie piebald, whicb becomes more and more rare as we proceed 
eastward. The moat frequent colours of the Batak or Batubara horae are bay and 
mouse. In Java, the best and the moat prevailing colours are grey, bay, and 
mouse ; and the worst black and chestnut. To the last colour, ind{<cd, the 
J&vaDOBO haft; such an antipathy that a chestnut horaf^ is expressly forbidden to 
enter the precincts of the royal courts, or to Join in the public tournaments. In the 
Bima and otlier ponies of Sombawa, bays, greys, and duns are the most frequent 
and most approved. Blacks and cbestniits are rare, aud a piebaM is as rare as a 
black among Arabs. Among the Malays, the highest breed of horses is designated 
by the name of Sdmbrani. but what that means no one can tell, and it must be 
concluded that it is a purely mythical name. 

Oenerally, the horses of the Archipelago are hardy, surefooted, and docile, 
The horses are all entire, and the mares used only to breed and as beasts of burden. 
By the natives of the Archipelago the horse is only used for the saddle or to carry 
burdens, and never for draught, either for plough or wheel -carriage. To see horses 
drawing a native carriage, except in imitation of EurojMians. we must go to the 
sculptures on ancient temples in Java, where they arc thus represented. The 
Javanese have used them in war, and where there were no real horses they might 
have been formidable, but agiiinst a cavalry mounted on the latter they are of 
course worthless. On the invasion of Java in ISH, the French Government of the 
island had a corps mounted on native horses, but it never thought of meeting the 
chai^ of a squadron of British Dragoons, mounted on the large and active horses 
of Southern India. 

The origin of the horae of the Malay Archipelago is as obscure as that of the 
same animal in other ]>arta of the world, America, Australia, and the islands of the 
Pacific excepted. Its name in Malay, and the only one it has in that lemguage — 
kvda — is a corruption of the Sanskrit ghura, and this might lead to the bouef that 
it was brought originally from some Hindu coimtry. In this case, however, wo 
must suppose that no other horses were brought than ponies, which is improbable, 
or that the race has degenerated as to size, which is not likely, since it has not 
degenerated either in spirit or symmetry, but, on the contrary, it is, in fact, superior 
in these respects to the continental horse. This hypothesis is made still more 
improltable when we find^tbat. in the Javanese language, the popular name for the 
boree-— joroM — is a native word. Itis true that the Javanese has also four synonyms, 
but theae are all foreign words. Thus, in the polite dialect the name is kapal, 
which, in the TSlinga language, is the name for a ship, here probably used in a 
aimilar figurative sense to that by which the Arabs designate the camel the " ship 
of the desert." The three other synonyms are all Sanskrit, and belong to the 
obsolete and recondite language, namely, turongga, waji, and kuda, the last being 
the same which has become the popular name in MaJky, having, most probably, 
superseded a native olie. The jwpular Javanese name has extended, unchanged, 
\i> the language of the Lampungs of Sumatra, and it is found in the Bugis of Celebes 
in the corrupt form of aTuirang, and in the Eotti, the languti^ of a small island 
ocHacent to Timor, as dalan. In the other languages of countries in which the horse 
ia found, the Sanskrit name huda prevails, and from its form evidently derived 
through the Malays. 

In two islands only of the Archipelago is the horae found in the wild state — 
Culebes and Luzon- — the only ones that are known to have extcnaive grassy plains 
fit for its pasture, and in these it is caught by the lasso and broke in, as in the 
Llanos of America. In such situations it ia certainly far more likely to have 
become wild from the domestic state than to be indigenous. In so far as the 
Cplehes is concerned, this view is rendered probable by the name being a corruption 
of the Javanese in one laugiiago of that island — the Wugi ; while in another — -the 
Ifncassar — the horae is called '■ the buffalo of Java." In the Philippines it ia not 
even alleged that the wild horses are anything else than domesticated ones become 


Descriptive Diclioriary 


80. In Pioafetta'b enumeration of the domestic animals of Cebu, he makes no 
mention of the horee, nor do the SjianiardB who followed Magellan allege that 
they found the horse in Luzon or any of the other islands. In none of the 
languages of the Philippines, in fact, does there exist any native or any Asiatic 
name for it, the only one throughout being the Spanish one — cavallo. The horae, 
then, ia neither indigenous in the Philippines, nor was it introduce-i like the buffalo 
by thfi Malayan nations before the arriral of the Spaniards. But from what 
quarter it was brought, or at what time, it is not easy to say. Most probably it was 
early introduced, and the countries from which it could be most easily brought 
would be Celebes, Mindanao, and the Sulu Islands. It seems probable that the 
horse so introduced might have been improved by a few Spanish horses brought 
from America, but even this supposition is not necessary to account for the 
superiority of the Philippine horses over those of the western and southern 
islands, for the better pastures of the Philippines would be sufficient to do sa. 
Some Spanish writers have fancied that the horse introduced into the Philippines 
was Spanish, degenerated in time by the soil and climate. This hypothesis, how- 
ever, is not tenable ; for the Spanish horse, although neglected, has not degenerated, 
at least in size, in similar latitudes and even worse soil in America. The theory of 
degeneratiou as to size must, indeed, be given up, when wc find that since the time 
of the English occupation of Java very good full-sized horses have been bred in that 
island, a much less favourable situation than Luzon. 

It might, at first sight, he supposed that the horse may have been introduced 
into the countries of the Archipelago from those parta of the cuutinent nearest to 
them — Siam and Cambodia — in which, as with themselves, small horses or ponies 
only are found. This hypothesis, however, is only plausible. Between the countries 
in 4u€Btion and the islands of the Archipelago not much intercourse has existed at 
any time, and in the Peninsula, the nearest part to them, the horse does not exist 
at all. Even in the parts of Siam and Cambodia nearest the islands, the horse ia 
not used, and its monosyllabic names in the langus^s of these countries bear no 
resemblance to any of those of the insular tongues. We must come, then, to the 
conclusion that the horse of the Asiatic Archipelago cannot be traced to any foreign 
stock, nor to any native wild one now in existence. All tliat can safely be asserted 
is, that it seems to have been tamed for many ages, and its first domestication belongs 
to a time beyond the reach of history or reasonable conjecture. 

lu Singapore, a good riding horse costs from 8100 to $120, and a pair of 
carriage horses from JS200 to ?300. The jionies of Sumbawa, Celebes, and 
Sumba, are largely exported to Java, to tJie British settlements in the Straits, 
and even as far as the Mauritius. A good racing jiony has been known to fetch 

Hot Springs. — See Thebmai,, 

HoilSQS. — Malay houses are invariably built on posts, so as to raise the floor 
from four to six feet from the ground. This ia. doubtless, healtliy. but as the floor- 
ing is composed of bamboo or nibong, with interstices about half an inch wide 
between each lath, the earth beneath becomes the receptacle of the drainage of the 
establishment. This, of course, tells the opposite way. The universal plan of the 
well-to-do is to build the house in two divisions — the front one being for receiving 
viaitors and lounging generally, while the binder portion is reserved for the women 
and children. Each is separately roofed. Behind the latter another shed serves as 
cook-house, &c. 

The roofs are of altap, and the walls of plank, herlam, or kadjang. In nearly 
all cases a thief can very easily cut his way through them. Nails are but little 
used, rattan taking their jilace. Many houses arc laterally tied together from floor 
to roof. The lantei, or floors, are covered with mats, and are not unpleasant to 
naked feet, but creak ominously under the heavy tread of European shoes. 


of British Malaya. 


HowdSill, ElepIlELIlt. — The words used in describing the various fittings 
which go to form tlie paainiera, which in Malaya, take the place of the Indian bowdah, 
are ^ven ia N. and Q., with No. XV. J. S. B. K. A. S. 

Hua Hoey. — The name of a lottery extensively patrooized in the Straits 
Soltlementa, It is indulged in by Chinese, Malays, and Kliogs. The following 
aocouat of it is condeused from Mr. C. W. S, KYNNEESLEr'a eshaustive paper on 
the subjea in No. XVI. (1885) of the J. 8. B. E. A. 8,. p. 203 :— 

Hua Hoey, or the thirty-aix animals lottery, ia extensively played in the 
Sfj-fLtts Settlements. Burma, 8iam, and wherever the Chinese settle. From a small 
boob " On the Interpretation of Dreams, with Illustrations of Hua Hoey," we leani 
Uiat the game was invented in the lime of the second Han dynasty. In this book 
there is a short sketch of the lives of the thirty-six mythical personages (who had 
previously existed as animals), sjid directions are ^ven as ^^^ staking. 

The lottery ia thus conducted in the Straits: — A persou wishing to open it, 
issues a notice that ou a certain date he will open Hua Hoey under a certain chop, 
and that he will be responaible to all winners who stake up to such and such an amount 
either with him or his agents. 

These a^nts go round, and, according to agreement, are allowed to i 
stakes up to a certain limit, say S3, but on their own account they may i 
larger stakes. They carry what are usually termed hongg, i.e., papers on 
the etake.s are entered. In case the staker is well known to the agent, no 
acknowledgment is given, but the staker may receive a ticket or scrap of paper, or 
else he writes down on a slip of paper, which he hands to the agent, the names of 
the animals be wishes to stake on and the amount. 

The following is a list of the animals staked on : — White fish, shell or dragon, 
white goose, peacock, lion or earthworm, rabbit or tortoise, pig, tiger, biinalo, 
alligator or dragon, white dog, white horse, elephant, white cat or dog, mouse, 
wasp or bee, stork, cat, monkey, frog, sea-hawk, dragon, tortoise or duck, cock, eel, 
turtle or carp, lobster, snake, spider, sheep or deer, goat, ghost or fox, butterfly, 
stone or cricket, swallow and pigeon,' — ea*h of which is the sign of one of the Hua 
Hoey characters. The marks (which have a conventional meaning) and figiires 
represent the amount, either cents or dollars, staked on each animal, and the last 
coliunn ia the total of stakes received. A person wishing to stake a large amount, say 
f 5 or 810, on an animal will aometimes write the name on a piece of paper and 
seal it up, delivering it with the stake to the manager of the Hua Hoey or au ageut. 

The lottery is opened twice a day, usually at noon and 6 p.h., and at the 
appointed hour the winning number (animal) is exhibited, and the result declared 
in the streets. Previously to this, the agents have brought in their staking papers. 
If the lottery is worked fairly, of course the manager who declares the winning 
number should be ignorant as to the amounts staked on the differeot animals. In 
China, the papers on which the stakes are entered are folded up in a packet and 
an- not insjieoted till the winuer has been declared, when the winning tickets are 
diopped and the owners of them are paid. 

In the Straits these lotteries are alleged to be not fairly worked, and the 
animal least favoured by the public is often the winner. Stakers receive thirty 
llnu^s their stake, less a small commission paid to the agent, from him they receive 
liieir winnings, and this leaves a good margin of profit for the bank. A manager, 
(or the sake of gain, or out of spite, has been known to stake by deputy a large 
amount with one of his agents on the animal which he means to dei-lare the 
winner. The agent is " broke," and those who have staked on the winning 
animal aru defrauded of their gains. This is ouly one of the many ways of 
BWiudliug jiractised in regard to these lotteries in the Straits. 

It must not be supposed that it is only the Chinese who gamble at Hua Hoey, 
The wealthy Babite, bom in the Straits, the respectable traders, their wives and 


Descripth'e Dictionary 

daughters, the petty shopkeeper and the coolie who works by the day. Elings and 
Malays, women and chUdren, all aJike are unable to resiat the temptation to 
gamble. The Hna Hoey lottery ia drawn twice a day in different parts of the 
ttiWQ, and the excitement is ever fresh. An outlay of ten cents, which is within 
the means of any coolie, may bring in $3. 

Women are largely employed in the Hua Hoey business, while their husbands 
are at the shop or failing (as they appear to be Tery often). They spend their 
time in collecting stakes and staking themselves. They have diamonds and gold 
ornaments in profusion, and while any of these remain, they can gamble to their 
heart's content. Those lower in the social scale, unblessed with diamonds or ready 
money, beg, borrow, or steal in order that they may gamble. 

Dreams play a great part in Hua Hoey, and the confirmed Hua Hoey player geta 
to think of nothing else but the chance of his winning on the morrow. According to 
his dreams, he stukes. 

It ia no exaggeration t« say that Hua Hoey gambling corrupts and brings to 
ruin thousands of people — men. women and children — but how to check it and 
minimize the evil is a very difficult q^nestion. 

The common gaming houses in town are defended by strong iron-barred 
doors, have ladders, trap-doorg and escapes, and are always ready for a raid by the 
Police. Premises have to be hired and fitted up for the purpose, and there is a 
certain amount of risk in the undertaking, but a Hua Hoey lottery can be opened 
anywhere — in a shop, a private house, or a iampong. The result is not often 
declared at the same place. All kinds of artifices are practised when the winning 
number is exhibited in order to escape detection by the Police. Sometimes the 
character is marked on a piece of yam or sweet potato and swallowed if the 
Police appear ; or it is written on the palm of the hand or on the sand and quickly 
rubbed out. Instead of the well-lmown Hua Hoey characters, the numbers 
corresponding with them on the lottery papers are now frequently used. A still 
later innovation is to use nails, match-boxes, &c., to signify the characters staked on, 
and it is extremely difficult for the Police to procure satisfactory evidence against 
the prindpais engaged in the business. 

The agents, with their lottery paper, pencil and stakes collected, are sometimes 
arrested and fined, but it has been held by a learned Judge that the possession of 
these " tickets," as they are called, is no offence. 

The more respectable Chinese are fully alive to the widespread mischief 
caused by these Hua Hoey lotteries, and a memorial was recently addressed to the 
Legislative Council by certain Chinese inhabitants of Penang praying that most 
stringent measures should be adopted for their suppression. 

Iguana.— The same name usually applied to momtnrs, and therefore erroaeoiu. 
There IB. however, a small lisard about 14 inches from nose to tip of tail which 
answers to the description and pictures of the iguana, but it ia conventionally 
known as the Chameleon. It possesses, in a slight degree, the property of ehuug- 
ing colour, but I can find no doa'cription of the animal in any nj^tunil history. It 
is, like all the lizards of Asia, perfectly harmless. See Monitob. 

Illipi Oil.— See OiLB. 

Imam.— The chief official of a mosque, who leads the prayers. He has 
under liim a Khivtib. Bilal, and Siak (q. v.). 

Iminigration.— TJarge niunbere of Chinese and Kliog immigrants flock to 
the Straits Settlements yearly, the influx being 100.000 Chinese and 10,000 Klingii. 
Thoy are both protected by special legislation, viz.. Ordinances IV, of 1880. I, of 
188;J. aird V. of 18y+. Of the Chiuese, a large number go to the Dutch jiosseasions, 
but the loi'ii.l population from this aourw is steadily increasing. 

Incantations. (See uUo Chakmb and Invocations.) — These are commonly 

Ind of British Malaya. Ind 

resorted to either to effect the injury of another or cure sickness. The Abb6 Favee 
gives the following account of a ceremony he witnessed : — 

" A large vase of earth containing lighted charcoal was brought by the great 
minister of state, and was set before the king. In the centre of the vase, another 
of the same kind, containing water, was placed, and in the centre of this was a 
candlestick with a lighted candle. Near to this were two other but smaller vases, 
one filled with flattened grains of rice, having the form of small white flowers, the 
second containing incense. The king, sitting with his legs crossed, began by 
delivering some formulary which T did not understand. He then made several salu- 
tations towards the lighted candle, took incense and poured it upon the fire, threw 
some of the flattened pieces of rice into the water, took the candle, and, turning the 
flame towards the ground, made several drops of wax fall into the water, and 
having moved the candle, as if he would form some written characters, he placed it 
a^gain upon the candlestick. All this ceremony was accompanied with the recita- 
tion of long formularies, some being delivered in a high voi(;e, some in a low voice. 
The king spent about one hour in repeating three times over the whole of this cere- 
mony, and finally he took the candle, and put its lighted end into the water, which 
ended the ceremony. Then his Majesty began smoking opium until he smoked 
himself asleep. The next day I asked my Malay coolies the meaning of such 
superstitious practices ; they answered, that this is a Malay physic, and the king 
intended to cure his grandchild, who was dangerously sick, a few minutes further 
in the valley. They added that such remedies are much used by Malays against 
every kind of sickness. They appeared themselves to be convinced that the worst 
sickness cannot withstand it, M the ceremony is faithfully performed." 

Indian Com {Jagong) is cultivated only in small quantities, having been 
introduced by Europeans. The plant matures in two months, and several crops a 
year may be obtained. 

Indigo. — 8ee Dyes. 

Indo-China. — " Miscellaneous Papers relating to Indo-China." — (Eeprinted 
for the Straits Branch of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, from Daleymple's " Oriental 
Eepertory," and the " Asiatic Eesearches " and " Journal " of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. Two vols, post 8vo.) 

The advertisement says : — " The importance of placing within the reach of 
local students (often without access to libraries) a knowledge of what has been com- 
municated to the Journals of learned Societies in past years upon subjects having 
reference to the Malay Archipelago, has induced the Council of the Society (the litera- 
ture in question being of manageable bulk) to reprint a series of papers, collected 
from various sources, relating to the Straits Settlements and Eastern Archipelago." 

A second series, comprising also 2 vols, post 8vo, was published in 1887. 

The following is an alphabetical table of the articles in the 4 vols, already 
published : — 

Amphibia and Beptilia. — Notes on some Species of Malayan Amphibia and 

Beptilia. By Dr. F. Stoliczka. Vol. I, 2nd series, paper 3. 
Balambangan. — Report made to the Chief and Council of Balambangan. By Lieut. 

James Babton, of his several Surveys. Vol. I, paper 2. 
Bali. — ^Account of the Island of. By. R. Feiederich. Vol. II, 2nd series, paper 10. 
Bobneo. — Substance of a Letter to the Court of Directors from Mr. John Jesse, 

dated July 20, 1775, at Borneo Proper. Vol. I, pa];)er 3. 
Botany. — Some Account of the Botanical Collection brought from the Eastward, 

in 1841, by Dr. Cantoe. By the late W. Griffith. Vol. II, paper 38. 
Caoutchouc. — Some Account of the Elastic Gum Vine of Prince of Wales' Island. 

Bv James Howison, Esq. Vol. I, paper 8. 
A Botanical Description of Urceola Elastica, or Caoutchouc Vine of Sumatra 

and Pulo-Pinang. By William Roxburgh, M.D. Vol. I, paper 9. 

[161] M 


Descriptive Dictionary 


Climate. —Climate of Singapore. Vol. I, paper 16. 

Geoloot.— Obaervationa ou the Geological Appearances and General Featurea of 

Portions of I he Malayan Peninsula. By Captain Jameb Low. Vol. I. paper 14. 
Short Sketch of the Geology of Pulo Pinang and the Neighbouring Islands. 

Bv T. Ward. Esq. Vol. I. paper 15. 
On the Local and Relative Geologv of Singai-ore. By J. R. Looab, Esq. 

Vol. n. paper 36. 
Gold of Ltmono. — Vol. \, paper 5, 

Gdnono Ben ko.— Journey to the Summit of, Vol. II, Snd series, paper 9. 
Hindt;.— On the Traces of the Hindu Languid and Literature eitaot amongst, the 

Malays. By William Maksdgn, Esq. Vol. I, pajier 7. 
Index SB.-— General, end of Vol. n, Ist senes. 

Vernacular Terms, end of Vol. II, Ist series. 

Zoological Genera and Sub-Genera, end of Vol. II, lat serieB. 

Geographical and General, end of Vol. II, 2nd aeries. 

Latin Terms, end of Vol. II. 2nd aeriea. 

Malayan and Chinese Terms, end of Vol. n, 2nd series. 

Indo-Chiwbse.— On the Languagea and Literature of the Indo-Chinese Nations. 

By J. Letden, M,D. Vol. I. pajjer 12. 
iNscBiPTiON.— Inscription ou the Jetty at Singapore. Vol. I. paper 17. 

Inscription at Singapore. Vol. I, paper 19. 

An Account of several Inscriptions found in Province Wellesley. By Lit-ul.- 

Col, James Low. Vol. I, jjaper 20. 
Note on the Inscriptions from Singapore and Province Wellesley. By J. W. 

Laidlay. Vol I. paper 21. 

On an Inscription from Keddah. By Lieut.-Col. Low. Vol. I, paper 22. 

Insckiptiow, Sanskrit. — Extract of a Letter from Col. J. Low. Vol I, paper 18. 

Krau. — Across the Isthmus of. Vol. I, paper 31. 

LiMONo.— The Gold of. By Mr. Macdonald. Vol. I, paiwr 5, 

Malacca and Pinano.— Journal of an Excursion from Singapur to. By J, R. 

TiOSAN, Esq. Vol. I. 2nd series, paijer 1. 
Malaciaby Lanodaoe.— Outlines of a Grammar of the. By Dr. H. N. vam dbr 

TuoK. Vol. 1, 2nd series, paper 6. 
Malay Archipklaoo and Malacca. — Not*s on. By W. P. OBOBNEVELriT. Esq. 

Vol. I, 2nd aeries, pai>er 5. 
Malay MSS.— Account of the Malay MSS. belonging to the Royal Asialic Society. 

By Dr. H. N. van dbb Tuck. Vol. II, 2nd series, pajier 8. 
Malay Peninsula. — Geology of. Vol. I, paper 14. 
Mauhalia. — Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and 

Islands. By Theodore Cantor, M.D. Vol. II, pajjer 36. 
Mantras.— Account of. By Rev. Father Boris. Vol. I, 2nd series, paper 8. 
MEttoui.— Report on the Tm of the Proyince of. By Capt. G, B. Trbmenhsesr. 

Vol. I, paper 25. 
Report on the Manganese of the Hcrgui Province. By the same. Vol. I, 

paper 26. 
Paragraphs to !» adde<l to Capt. G. B. Trehenhbebe's Report, VoL I. 

paper 27. 
Second Report on the Tin of Mergui. By Capt. G. B. Trembkbkbee. Vol. I. 

paper 28, 
Analysis of Iron Ores from Taroy and Mergui, and of Limestone from 

Mergiii. By Dr, A, Ube, Vol. I, paper 29. 
Report. rJtc.', from Capt, G, B, Trbhenmbebe, on the Price of Hergui Tin Ore, 

Vol. I, paper 32. 
Note by Maj.-Gen. G. B. Tbekenhekrb in reference to his papers on the Tin 

of Mergui, Vol. II. [■ajier 40. 

Ind of British Malaya. InS 

Nassau Islands. — ^An Account of the Inhabitants of Poggy or Nassau Islands. By 

John Ceisp, Esq. Vol. I, paper 10. 
Obano Outang. — Some Account of an Orang-Outang of remarkable Height found 

on the Island of Sumatra. By Clarke Abel, M.D. Vol. I, paper 13. 
Remarks on the different Species of Orang-TJtan. By E. Blyth, Esq. Vol. I, 

paper 33. 

Further Remarks. By the same. Vol. I, paper 34. 

Pakchan Riyeb. — Visit to. By Capt. G. B. Tremenheere. Vol. I, paper 30. 
Report on a Route from the Mouth of the Pakchan to Krau, and thence 

across the Isthmus of Erau to the Gulf of Siam. By Capt. Al. Eraser and 

Capt. J. G. FoRLONG. Vol. I, paper 31. 

Penang. — Formation of the Establishment of. Vol. I, paper 4. 

Geology of. Vol. I, paper 15. 

Plants, Malayan. — ^Description of. By Dr. W. Jack. Vol. 11, 2nd series, 

paper 12. 
Notes to Ditto. By Sir J. D. Hooker and the Hon. D. F. A. Hervey. Vol. II, 

2nd series, paper 12. 
Pepper. — Remarks on the Species of Pepper which are found on Prince of Wales' 

Island. By Willla.m Hunter, Esq., M.D. Vol. I, paper 11. 
Philippine Islands. — ^A Notice of the Alphabets of the. Vol. I, paper 23. 
Poggy Islands. — An Account of the Inhabitants of the Poggy or Nassau Islands. 

By John Crisp, Esq. Vol. I, paper 10. 
PuLO Ubin. — The Rocks of. By J. R. Logan, Esq. Vol. I, 2nd series, paper 2. 
Quedah. — Some Account of. By Michael Topping, Esq. Vol. I, paper 1. 
Reptiles. — Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula, and Islands, 

By Theodore Cantor, M.D. Vol. 11, paper 37. 
Shells, Land. — Notes on Land-Shells of Penang. By Dr. F. Stoliczka. Vol. I, 

2nd series, paper 4. 
Singapore. — Climate of. Vol. I, paper 16. 
Sumatra. — On three Natural Productions of, Vol. 1, paper 6. 

Orang-Utan in, Vol. I, paper 13. 

Taurine Cattle.— On the Flat-Homed Taurine Cattle of S.E. Asia. By Ed. 

Blyth, Esq. Vol. II, paper 39. 
Tenassbrim. — Report of a Visit to the Pakchan River, and of some Tin Localities 

in the Southern portion of the Tenasserim Provinces. By Capt. G. B. Trf- 

MENHBERB. Vol. I, paper 30. 
TcDBS. — Succinct Review of the Observations of the Tides in the Indian Archi- 
pelago. Vol. I, paper 24. 
Zoology. — ^Notices on Zoological Subjects. By Messrs. Diard and Duvancel. 

Vol. II, 2nd series, paper 11. 

Indra. — The name of the Hindu god of the air, and in Malay that also of a 
class of aerial beings. It is found in the names of places. 

Inei. — ^A valley in Johol, one of the Negri Sembilan. 

Inscription^ Indian. — ^An ancient inscription, supposed to date from the 
thirteenth century, was extant on a sandstone rock at the entrance of Singapore 
river, on the spot now occupied by the Harbour Master's Offices. Col. Low 
[J. I. A., Vol. I, p. 89] gives the following account of it : — " The inscription, 
a fragment of which I possess, was only legible in few places, the character apper-_ 
taining to the Peninsula of India, and probably it may be described in the Malayan 
annals in these terms : ' Rajah Suran of Amdan Nagara, after conquering the State 
of Johore with his Kling troops [Kling is the term applied to the people of Coro- 
mandel coast], proceeded to Tamsak. When he returned to his country of Kling 
or Bejaneegar, he left a stone monument of his victories, on which was an inscri])- 
tion in the language of Hindustan. Tamsak is also called Singhapura.' This was alK)u1 

[163] M 2 

Ins Descriplive Dictionary IfO 

A.D, 1201. Singhapura. obaervea Mr. Ckawtued, was firat settled in a.d. 1160 by Sri 
Sum Bawana." [See J. I A., Vol. I. p. 89. and M. P. I. C, Vol. I, jj. 213 d ee^.l 

Mr. Maxwell states that at the foot of Bukit Mertajam, Province Wellesfcy, 
on the south aide, there is a block of granite on which some rude characters hare 
been tiuced. The Malays call it haiv. surat, the rock of the writing. " I belieru," 
he says. " that the instnption has never been deciphered, and that the character 
has not been identified. When I saw it last (in 1874), it was difficult in places to 
detect the ancient inscription on the rugged face of the rock, ita faint lines eo 
trasting strangely with the deeply-cut initials of Col. Low on the same boulder." 

Insects. — See Entouoloot. 

Intan. — The diamond which, though not found in the Peninsula, is much 
esteemed by the Malays. 

Interest of Money. ~Io Malay, banga via», or shortly, bunga. This sig- 
nifies "flower of gold," that ia. profit of money. By the strict letter of Mahom- 
medan law. interest and usury are one and the same, and are expressly prohibited, 
so that the legitimate profits* of capital in gold and silver *re held to be sinful. 
Except by a few rigid observers of the precepts of tlie Koran, this foolish law is 
disregarded by the Mahommedan inbalntantB of the Archipelago. 

Invocations.^The use of these to avert evil, counteract hostile incauta- 
tioas, inflict maladies and misfortune on others, and excite love and regard, is 
common to both the Malays and the aboriginal tribes of the Peninsula. 

The Chvcha is an invocation which i.'auses the invoker to prevail a^inst his 
enemies. The Panundo procures submission from others. The Pdtineki is used to 
ex(at« hatred in the object of affection towards a rival. The Pemala lida is sup- 
posed to render enemies speechless. The Pendinding is an invocation of defence, 
which must be repeated seven times at both sunrise and sunset. PeagoMeh is a 
charm or invocation to (^n the aflEection or good will of another. The Pimanit 
renders the user universally agreeable ; while Tankai means both an invocation 
and an amulet, the former being used by hunters and sailors, and by people gener- 
ally to esorcise HanUu [j. v. and Chabms]. 

Ipeca.CUanlia {CepkalU ipecacuanha). — This. is exotic, but hafi been intro- 
duced into the Singapore Botanical Gardens, and is noticed here in view of its 
probable importance. Mr. Caijtlkt says (Report 1886) : — " A native of Brazil, 
and a plant which has been found generally very difficult to cultivate, it seems to 
grow in the Straits with all the luxuriance of its native country when a proper 
situation is hit upon. It enjoys a very moist, still atmosphere and somewhat dense 
shade. In the Straits it forms a compact little bush of about 18 inches in height, 
and is very ornamental when well in flower. I lately visited a plantation of the 
plant in Johore, and saw thousands of plants in excellent health. They were pro- 
tected from the sun by palm-leaves side by aide on artifieiat supports about 6 fpet 
in height ; hedge's of the same material were put down a few yaxds apart. Soil 
chocolate colour, rich in vegetable matter, wood ashes." 

Ipoh.— District and V, in Kinta, E.C Perak. The latter has lately been 
made the seat of an Assistant Magistracy and Collectorship. 

Ipoh Tree {AntiarU toiticaria).— The juice of this tre* is used for jmiaoning 

arrows. When prepared for this purpose it resembles chandoo, or prepared opium, 

1 consistency and colour. It is occasionally mixed with arsenic, the juices of 

Tt!r-y-ipok, limes, tuba, packet, jitnardes, mallye, and gadong to increase its deadly 

powei's. The Ipoh is supposed to be synonymous with the Upat of Java. 

Iron. — The word iron and steel Iwing native, give no rise to any supposition of 

its foreign importation. Ckawpurd, writing over thirty years a^, says : — " In the 

Peninsula the ore, although not smelted, at least to any extent, is very abund&ot ; 

and for this we have the authority of a personal observer and a man of science. 



of British Malaya. 


Mr. J. E. Logan, in lis account of the physical geography of the Peninsula, 
informs us that ' iron ores are everywhere found, and in the south they exist in vast 
profusion. In some places the strata have been completely saturated with iron ; 
and here, the bare surface of the ground, strewed with blackish scoriform gravel 
and blocks, present a strange contrast to the exuberant vegetation of surroimding 
tracts, appearing as if it had been burnt and blasted by subterraneous fires. Much 
of the ordinary forms of iron-masked rocks, which are conunon, and so little 
regarded for their metallic contents that in Singapore they are used to macadamize 
the roads, contain often near 60 per cent, of pure metal.' " — J. I. A., Vol. II, 
p. 102. At present nearly all the iron used in the Peninsula is imported from 

iron stone. — The whole Peninsula shows traces of iron, from the hard 
variety found in Perak to the soft laterite of Singapore. The latter is extensively 
availed of for roads, &c. It is said to contain manganese, and exists from the size 
of coarse sand and small pebbles to masses of ten or twelve feet in diameter. It is 
black or dark clove-brown in colour. Internally it is cellular like setites ; it is not 
magnetic in the mass, but contains grains of magnetic iron. When oxide of iron 
is not present in excess it is a valuable fertilizer. 

Isinglass. — This is an article of considerable export under the name of 
fish-maws (paUmgpa ikan or ari ari ikan in Malay). Large quantities are also 
exported by Chinese traders for sale in China. The following is a list of the local 
fish which furnish isinglass: — 

Ikan batu ... 
jarang gigi 
jarang gigi 
jarang gigi 
kurow ... 











Lobotes erate ••• 
Otholithtis ruber 
OihoUthiis argenteiia ... 
OtholUhiis maculatus.,, 
Polynemus indicus 
Otolithus brauritus 
Ariua truncatua 
Arius arius 
Arius militaris 
Lates heptadactylus 
Johnius dr acanthus 



Cantor, p. 80. 

, 59. 

, 61. 

, 62. 

, 29. 

, 57. 




, 1. 

, 67. 

Islam. — An Arabic word adopted by all the nations converted to Mahommed- 
anism, and signifying that religion. Although properly a noun, it is much more 
frequently employed as an adjective, as in the examples, orang-islam, a Moslemman, 
and a^ama-istam, the Mahommedan religion, being united in the first instance with 
a native, and in the last with a Sanskrit word. MasoJc-islam, to "enter Islam,*' 
I.e., to become a Mahommedan. 

Istana or Astana^ Palace. — The most pretentious and comfortable in 
the Malay Peninsula is that of the Sultan of Johore. The building is very large, 
rather ugly externally, but with fine rooms furnished in European fashion. Much 
hospitality has been shown at this place to the Euroix^ans resident in the Straits, 
and to travellers. 

Ivory. — See Elephant. It is chiefly used to adorn the handles of krisses. 
None of the beautiful carved work, common in adjoining coimtries, is produced by 
the Malays. 

Jackfiruit (Cham pedak or nan^ha), — One of the artocarpi, rather coarse in 
flavour, but much liked by the natives. The seeds when roasted resemble chestnuts. 

Jaggary. — Coarse black sugar containing a very large quantity of molasses ; 
known in the Straits as GtUa malacca. A palm from which coarse sugar is also 
made is known as the Jaggary-tree {Caryoia urens), and has apparently l>oen 
introduced from the E. Indies. 



Descriptive Dictionary 

JakUIX. — This is a name of uuknown origin and u 
iifiply, seemingly as a generic tenn, to the wild tribi 
PeninsuLi, from Ma,la(;ca suutLward to Jobore. It is regarded by the peopl 
themeeUeB as a sort of nic-kaame. All the mea that go under this name have tl 
8ame physical form as the Malays, speak the same language in a ruder form, 
seem, in short, to be Malays, without the Mahommedan religion, and in a mudt* 
lower stat« of ciTilization. The Jakuns uf Johore are a fine race, and on the whole' 
ltett«r-looking than the Malays (J. I. A., Vol. II, p. 246), while those of the 
Menangkarbau States are the reverse. The Abbe FiVRK asaerts that they eihale 
a strong odour when thev perspire. Large numbers exist in Pahaug, and are o£ 
luu almost white complexion ; and the same author asserts that they were £rei|ueotlj 
L-aptured for sate as slaves. The notion of some writers, founded on certai~~ 
resemblances of physiuai form, that tie Jakuns are of Tartar origin, 
absence of all hiatorieal or philological evidence, and when the two parties, suppnei 
to l)e the same people, are separated from each other by at least forty degrees 
uf latitude, too whimsical for serious consideration. The Malays of Sumatra 
continue, down to the present da^, to emigrate to and settle in the interior of the 
Pcniusnlu, and the great probabihty seems to be that, tn remote times, the Peninsula 
was without any other inhabitaats than the negroes of the mountains, and tb&t all 
lis bruwu-complexioned, lank-haired people, whether of the sea-board or 
interior, were emigrants from Sumatra, or the islands Ij-ing between it and 
Peninsula. [The above statement, that the Jakuns speak a Malay dialect, i»l 
denied bv later writers. The average height of males is 4 feet 8 inches, and of 
females 4 feet 4 inches.] 

Although regarded by many as pure savages, the balance of evidence is in 
favour of their being fairly civilized. Thev inhabit houses built in the Malay way, j 
whieh are kept tolerably d.eau. Those in the Malacca territory appear to have mads ' 
the least progress. They follow the Malay custom in dress, but are dirty and j 
untidy. The women are fond of omameuts, such as rings and bracelets, when j 
obtainable. The waist-cloth, of HTay bark amongst the lowest specimens of tll9 
race, is called gabariiig. It is worthy of note that a ring is the token that a femalo ' 
is married. They occupy themselves chiefly in hunting ; but they cultivate yams, i 
rice, &c., in Johore in temporaty clearings, which arc abandoned at the end of the 
season. They cultivate durians with particular care, and traffic in damar, rotan, 
Ac., which they obtain from the forest. Adultery is punishable with death. The 
reader curious on the subject of Jakun customs vrill find ample information under 
the reference given above. 

JB.IB,.—See FianiNa. 

Jalan Bham.— v. on W. side of Balik Pulo district, S.W. Penang. 

Jalan Bharu.— 6>e Kwala Peai. 

Jalo. — A hilly district on tiie l)orders betweeu Patani and Kedah on lll»1 
N.W, iKink of Pataui E. One of the nine into which the State is now divided.. f 
Very rich in minerals. 

Jalor. — The name applied to a river canoe on the E, coast of Johore, 

Jamuan.— V. between the Perab range and R., N. Perak, 3 or 4 miles N.W. 
of Kwala Plus. 

Jancors. — A settlement in Perak whence a good deal of tin was mined l^ J 
Chinese from deep workings. Principal mine 40 feet deep. Soil poor In tiiuT 
Produce from mines from one-eighth of an ounce to one ounce per picul of ore. I 
Small quantities of gold found in quartz debris. 

Japan. ^lu Malay JAfMH. which is nearly our own old orthography — Japon. . I 

The name ia, no doubt, taken from that of the principal island in the JitpaneM j 

language — Nipou, and iu Chinese Jipun — the corruptions being taken by the oatiTet 1 


Jar of British Malaya, Jav 

of Malaja from the Portuguese. On the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, 
Japanese jimks seem to have frequented it. The Japanese are not, indeed, named 
\is Babbos as among the strangers that resorted to this port, but they are so in 
the Commentaries of Albuquerque written by his son, who thus describes them under 
the name of Gore : — " Tne Gores (according to the information which Afonho 
Albuquerque received when he conquered Malacca) state that their country was 
a continent, but by the common voice it is an island, from which there come, yearly, 
to Malacca, two or three ships. The merchandise which they bring are raw and 
wrought silks, brocades, porcelain, a large quantity of wheat, copper, alum, and 
much gold in ingots (ladrUlos), marked by their king's stamp. It is not known 
whether these ingots be the money of the country, or whether the stdmj> be attached 
to indicate that their exportation is prohibited, for the Gores are men of little 
Bpeech, and will render an accoimt of their country to no one." 

" Of the origin or meaning of the word Gore," says Crawpubd, " as applied to 
the Japanese, I can offer no conjecture, but it was probably the name, from whatever 
source derived, which the Malays gave them. The articles which composed the 
cargoes which the Japanese brought to Malacca, their stamped gold pieces which 
still exist, and the wheat which no other country to the west of the Archip<;hig(> 
communicating easily with it produces, seem clearly enough to identify the Gor^s 
with the Jax>ane8e." 

Jarom Pax^ang. — A rapid in the Muar R., close to Kwala Geniunchi, 
Negri Sembilan. 

Jarom Pendek. — v. on S. bank of R. Muar in Euas territory, Negr 

Jasin. — District and V. in E.G. Malacca, the latter about 5 mil<»s from Oliiu- 
chin Police station, about a mile from the E. frontier. 

Java Wind. — The following quotation, from the J. I. A., Vol. II, pp. 4.r2-o, 
by Dr. Little, agrees with the compiler's experience : — ** According to the natives, 
we have an angin jawa, or south wind, blowing from the direction of Java, which, 
according to tiiem, is a most imhealthy wind. The idea is also maintained by 
nearly all the resident Europeans, and the longer the torm of that rrsidoncre has 
been, the more fixed is that idea, from the effects being more sevrrt'ly felt. This 
wind is supposed to blow particularly in the S.W. monsoon, but t'S^HJcially in the 
month of September ; it is felt principally in the town of Singapore and extends as 
far as a mile inland. In my opinitm, there is no such wind peculiar to SingajH)re, 
but the hot and clammy perspirations, with the want of sleep with the weak and 
sicklv, and the languor and lassitude of the more healthy on rising in the morning, 
which forces out of them the remark — * I declare I feel more tired and unrefreslicd 
than when I went to bed,' — all these symptoms are merely the effects of a hot night, 
from the want of the land breeze, and not dependent on any particular wind or 
vein of air, or on any particular direction that the sea-breeze blows from ; in fa(;t it 
is nothing but the want of the land-breeze, and the substitution of the sea-breeze, 
and if that land-breeze did not blow, there would be a continual hot atmosphere, 
and unrefreshing nights. As I have before mentioned, the land-breeze blows more 
steadily and longer during the N.E. monsoon ; but let the wind chop round to the 
south, as it did in the end of February and beginning of March, 1848, and we 
have the same sensations as during the full reign of the angin jawa, or south wind, 
although it is not recognized as such from being out of season. Tliis hot breeze is, 
as we are advancing into the interior and cutting down the jungle, advancing also, 
for those living in localities that were wont to be exempt from it eight years ago, 
now feel it, only a little less than the inhabitants of the town on the sea- beach. 
This same hot wind has been felt by Mr. Thomson, the Government Surveyor, in 
Penang and Province Wellesley. One fact more may, however, be mentioned eou- 
ceming it, that it does exist where the jungle reaches the si'a-beac'h, and that when 



Descriptive Dictionary 

a cleared through country becomes a^in eoTered with trees, thia hot wind dis- 
appeai-H. as the laiid-breoze extends itself seaward." 

JOrWi. — The Malay veruacuhir, generally termeJ h)u\«a Jawi. It also means 
" the Malay language written in the Arabic character ; bastard, or of mixed race." 
The Aiubs apply this term to Javanese, Malays, and other natives of the Archi- 
ll lago. 

Jawi. — The name of an estate, now aliandoned, I8s miles from Butterworth, 
P. Wellesley, and just below Sungei Baknp. The chimney of the factory presents 
a sin^ar appearance, a good-sized tree growing from the interior and spreading 
around its top. 

Jawipekan or Jawipukan.— The ofEapring of Malay mothers and Kling 
or Beogali fathers. They are a tlevor race and not ill-looking. Several of the 
beat native Police are JuuAjiektim. 

Jawi Simpit. — V. on E. bank of Krian K. just above Kwala Ijuk. 

Jebul Kedah.— V. on N. bank of Sembrong R., N. Johore. 

Jelatang. — Tin- name of a small shrub, the leaves of which sting the hand 
slightly like nettles. It abounds in Naning. 

JslatEUlg, — A good-sized village in the Pigoh district, N. Malacca, alwiit 
s mile N. of Alor Gajah and about 17 miles from Malacca-town, It derives it« 
name from the small shrub mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The V. slAiids 
by a hill of the same name. 

JelebU.— The largest, but least important, as regards population, of the old 
N^cgri Sembilan, or Meoaugkarbau States. It occupies an area of 500 square miles 
and lies to tbe N. of Simgei Ujoog. It is mostly covered with jungle, is somewhat 
mouQtaiiious, and has but few cultivated places. The river of that same falls into 
that of Pahaog. The soil is very poor, tin being the chief product. Jelebu has 
now been absorbed by Sungei Ujoag, 

In 1883, the country, owing t« misgovenimeut and internal dissenrionB, 
had become almost depopulated, and the Peughulu asked Hia Excellency the 
G-ovemtir of the Straits Settlements to send him a British ILesident. This could 
not be acceded to. but in June, 1885, a European Collector vras appointed under the 
Besident of Sungei Ujong to assist the Penghulu in the government of the couutij, 
and in the colleetion of the Revenue. This officer took up the appointment in 
June, 1885. and thereupon a mai-ked improvement took place in the proB]>ect8 
of the country. Padi planting was renewed extensively, abandoned fruit ganlens 
were reoeeupicd, some Chinese shops were erected, and 10 tin mines opened, A 
cart road from the Collectorate to Pantai, 18 miles in length, was constructed, 
which gave Jelebu direct communication with the Sungei TJjong port at Pengkalam 
Kompas. The Hon. M. Lister was subsequently appointed British Besident of 
the Negri Sembilan, which since 1889 has been recognized as a Protected State. 
Throughout the State tin ore lies only a few feet below the surface and contains 
a large percentage of metal. The Government consists of the Penghulu, assisted 
by three " Wans " and five " Lembagas." The estimated Revenue is about $7,000. 

Jelebu Mts, — Separate Sungei Ujong from Selangor, Terachi, Gunong Paair 
and i>art of Rembau. 

Jelei.— V. on N,E, bank of Pahang R., W.C. Pahang. Gold is found close by. 

Jeleutu Ulu. — Part of the Ooping Valley, Kinta, Several tin miues have 
been roeentiy ojieued there. 

Jelli or Jelliye.— Was one of the iwtty Stat«s forming one of the N^ri 
Sembilan {i{. p.), situated a little N. of Malacca. It was formerly tributary to that 
Government, but has been so completely absorbed that its name no longer appears 
on the map. 


Jel of British Malaya. Jin 

Jelutong.— V. and district S.W. of George-town, Penang. V. about 1| miles 
S. of the Gaol. 

Jelutong. — Hill and tapioca plantation in Batu Borendam district, Malacca, 
about 9 miles from Malacca-town. 

JembU.— I>i8trict in N.E. Patani between the Patani and Telupin R. Galena 
is found in the neighbourhood. It is one of the nine districts into which Patani is 

Jemuan.— V. on W. bank of Perak R., 3 miles N. of Kota Lama in N.C. 

Jeram.— V. on E. bank of R. Kampar, E.C. Perak. 

Jeram Kling.— v. just above Kota Tampan on W. bank of Perak R., N. 

Jeram Kling.— A dangerous rapid in the Perak R. close to V. of same 

Jeram Panjang. — A dangerous rapid in the Perak R. close to the V. of 
Jeram Kling. 

Jerei.— V. on E. side of Triang R., W. Pahang, lat. 3* 16' N., long. 102" 

Jerman Dudok.— v. near the E. bank of R. Pulei, S.W. Johore, about 3 
miles from its mouth. 

Jerom Segunlin. — ^A Malay settlement in Perak, uj) the R. Batang Padang, 
about 45 miles from Durian Sabatang. Soil very good. Oancs, tapioeu, sirih, &c., 
grow to perfection. Mosquitoes and sand-flies very numerous. 

Jew's Harp (Giw^^gfongf).— Imported only. 

Jimantang. — ^A small v. in the Machap district, N.C. Malacca. A tapioca 
factory exists here. 

. — V. and tapioca plantation in Parit Malacca district, C. Malacca. 

Johol. — The name of the small inland Malay State of the Peninsula of 
Malacca, claiming to derive its origin from Menangkarbau in Sumatra, and forming 
the south-easternmost of the Negri Sembilan. It lies between Malacca and the 
Malay State of Pahang on the eastern side of the Peninsula. It contains a largo 
lake called Brah, alleged to be 50 miles in length. The waters of this lake are dis- 
charged into the China Sea, by the river on which stands the town of Pahang. 
The country produces gold and tin, but these are not worked to any extent, the 
mining being confined to the inhabitants, gold especially never having paid foreign 
enterprise. The whole population is estimated not to exceed 5,000. The State lies 
in a valley, and its five principal villages are Nuri, Ladang, Inei, Toman, and 
Benang. It is sparsely inhabited, there being a few Jakuns in various places and 
the Malays themselves being of low type. Enas (or Inas) and Gemunchi in the N. 
district were formerly a portion of this State, but are now recognized as two of the 
Negri Sembilan (9. t;.). 

Jin. — The spirits intermediate between the Creator and the human race 
believed in by the Benua or aborigines as well as the Malays. Every species of 
tree has its jin. The most powerful of all is the jin hiimi, or Earth spirit, but 
rivers, mountains, &c., have their jins also. The word is Arabic, as readers of the 
" Arabian Nights Entertainments " will recognize. The Malays, however, do not 
seem to endow them with destructive powers only. See Hantu. 

Jinrickslia. — This "man carriage" has been introduced into the British 
Settlements from Japan, its original home, via Hongkong. At present there are 
about 2,500 licensed m Singapore, 1,34^ in Penaug, and 120 in Msilacca. 



Descriptive Diclionaiy 

Job ore . ^ Po Bi T ION .- 

now imtludes Muar, annexed in 188?, inclndea the wbole of the soiithera end of tho 
Malay Feniusula, from lat. 2° 40' South of Cape Boumania, and iDc-ludes the small 
ialands that lie alonjif the coast to the South of 2° IC. It is bounded on the E. liy 
the China Seft; on the S. by the Strait* of Singapore; on the Malacca Strait, 
the Malacca territory and Johol ; and on the N. by Pahang, the R. Endau formii^ 
a portion of the boundaiy on the E. side, the Segamat R. making its N.W. frontior. 
HiSTOKY.— Johore, sayi Mr, Skinkee. took an important part, in the 140 

fears' struggle orer Malacca, between the Portuguese and the Dntch. At tho 
■eginning of this century, the central anthority of the Johore Sultanate having 
been removed from the mainland to the Lingga (Lingin) and Rio (Riau) Archi- 
pelagoes, little cohesion remained among the different feudatories. Thus, the 
hereditary Bendahara (in Fahaag), and the hereditary Temen^ong of Johore (in 
Bulang), had virtually become independent chiefs. The titiilar authority of the 
Sultan over them was little more than a survival of the past, though at times it 
might suit a superior foreign power to ma^ify it. The Dutch, for example, when 
ousted from Malacca in 1?95, and debarred, by the issue of the Great War, from 
all hopes of returning there, sought to make some settlement in the Straits. They 
had ^ready taken Rio under their protection, and they now took poBsesaiuu 
of the Oarimons and other islands as subject territory. Consequently, the Temeng- 
gong removed from Bulang to the Singapore river, where he established himself a 
few months before the expedition to Java (July, 1811). After the restoration of 
the Dutch poBsesaions at tne peace, all the former dependencies of Johore, including 
Bulang and the Carimons, were comprised, somewhat questionablv, in the Netber- 
lands-India dominions ; the Johore rule being thereafter confined to the mainland 
aud closely adjacent islets. 

The principal changes since then have been those resulting from the estahlish- 
uit^nt of Singapore ; from the Treaty of 1855, by which the de facln ad mini strati ve 
rights of the Temenggong were acknowledged and Johore Bhaiii became the 
capital ; and from the re-union, as in former times, of Muar to Johore in 1877. 
The mler enjoyed the title of Maharaja, not previously known in Malaya, from 
1868 to 1887. when H.M. Govemmeut recognized his title as that of Sriltan. 

Geolooi Ann MiHBBALooy. — No thorough geographical survey has over been 
executed, but in general terms the territory may be described as ferruginous with 
numerous tin-bearing streams. Gold quartz has been found in places, but mining 
of any sort has not been encouraged. 

CLiMATB.^Much the same as that of Singapore in the cleared and settled 

FAorrA. — The mammals, insect*, and reptiles arc those of the FeninauU 
gcuemlly. Tigers exist in large numbers. 

GoTBBNMENT. — The form of Government is that of the usual Malav airtocmcy ; 
but the freedom and the lais»er-/airc of its administration are in marked contrast 
with the usual administrative system of Malay States : rather resembling that 
of the neighbouring colony, with which it is so closely connected both in the present 
and the past. A Council of State assists the Sultan, and tho police, judicial, and 
other departments are modelled upon those of Singapore. 

The Sultan's Chinese subjects are by nature indifferent to their ruler, provided 
their personal independence is secure. Hitherto they have usually proved con- 
tented and oljedient subjects to the Malay Rajas, even where their race is in a very 
large majority. 

Rbvenite. — No returns available. 

TopooEAPHr. — The area of Johore must be nearly 9,000 square mites, and it« 
population is about 200.000. thus giving alwut 22 to the square mile. The population 
18 almost confined to tho districts lying near Singapore on the one aide, and Malacca 
on the other ; the interior of the country being covered for the most part bv virgio 


of British Malaya- 

forest, only partially explored. During the last twenty-five years, it haiS been, to 
aome extent, opened up under its present ruler, Sultan A-BUbAxeb, K.CS.I., 
Q.C.M.G., the descendant of the fornmr hereditary Tatnenggongs. 

Towns, — The capital is the town of Johore BMru or New Johore, as dis- 
tinguished from Johore Liima, or Old Johore, the former seat of the Sultana of 
Johore, which was situated u few miles up the wide estiiaty of the Johore river. 
The new towu is a flourishing little place on the nearest point of the mainland to 
Singapore, separated from the island by the old Straits, and lying about 14 miles to 
ibe north-east, of Singapore city, in 1' 26' N. It contains some 20,000 iufaabi- 
tauts. mostly Chinese, who are within immediate reach of Singapore by a frequent 
service of coaohes. 

Within the last few years (says the Singapore and Straite Directory) "u, towu 
named Bandar Mabarani has sprung up near the mouth of the Muar River, and 
owing to the personal interest manifested in it by H.H. the Sultan and the Resident 
of Muar, TJukoo Sulieman, has made rapid strides. There are now about 8,000 
iuhabitaots in the new town. The former temporary attap-covered houses are 
gradually being converted into tUed buildings of a permanent nature. Amongst 
tile Qovemment buildings are the Istana, Court and Police Stations. BaiTaclf, CTaol, 
Hosjiital, Market, Railway Station, and a new Mosque. A steam saw-mill, owned 
by Chinese, does a good business. A plentiful supply of water by means of pipes 
from a stream in the hills, about 12^ niiles distant, has been provided since March, 
liSQO. Good roads are being made, and, to meet the requirements of the Padang 
district, a Light Railway was completed diuing 1890 as far as Farit Jawa, a distance 
of e^ht miles. A new Istana is now in course of construction on the sea-shore, 
about a mile froni the town. There is steamer communication with Singapore 
tfvety second day. and with Malacca almost every day ; while four steam launches 

Iilr up and down the Muar River, going up as high as Bukit Eepoug (referred to 
wlow), taking passengers and light cargo. The bulk of the gambler and peptjer 
produce is conveyed direct to Singapore by native tongkangs and junks, The 
produce of the Padang district, viz., betel-nut, is conveyed by tiie steamers to 
Singapore. The country surrounding the town of Bandar Maharani is a rich 
alluvial flat about 30 miles long by 10 miles broad." 

There is no other settlement in Johore which can be spoken of a» a town ; 
Imt one or two populous and flourishing villages are found on the south bank of 
the large Kiver Muar, at Woga and Bulnt K6pong. Padang. a little to the south 
of the River Mnar. is another important and vei^ populous place. Like Johore 
Bbaru, it is not situated up any river, as almost every other important Malay 
settlement is throughout the Peninsula, but on the sea-snore, which is here excep- 
tionally sandy and open. Padang has a ^wpulatiou of nearly 2,000. mostly Javanese, 
scattered along the coast, engaged in planting and fishing. 

LCnga lies about 40 miles, and Bukit K6pong about 60, up the Eiver Muar. 
There are in these, as in most places in this district, many Javanese and others 
engaged iu planting pepper, with some Chinese gam bier-planters. In the north of 
Johore the population is, however, chiefly Malayan, and looks to Malacca as its 
eapital, The settlement at Kwala SSgamat is on open and well- populated district 
in the interior. 

RivEBs. — There are three tolerably large rivers— I he Muar. the Endau and the 
Johore — and several smaller ones, of which the B4tu Pahat and the SedJli alone 
need be named. The largest of all tJie Johore rivers is the Muar on the west coast, 
which is, in fact, the most important stream in the south of the Peninsula, It 
takes its rise from among the Negri Sembilan, flowing south-west from Brimbun 
(flfwrnMre). The population is chiefly found on the southern aide of the stream, in 
johore proper, of which it was formerly the natural boundary. 

The other large rivers arc the River Endau on the east coast, which forms the 
boundary with Pahang and flows down from the SIg&mat Hills ; and the River 


Descriptive Dictionary 

Johore in the south, iwhich flowe from Mount Bluniut, and opens out into a wide 
estuarj- opposite the eastern side of the Islaud of Singapore. 

Mountains. — The couutir is, as a whole, less tnountainous than any oUier 
part of the Peniuaula. Its hills are all detached groups, or portions of two 
interrupted chains, running along the west and east aides respectively ; the one 
from Mount Ophir by Pengg&Iam and Moimt Formosa to Piilei and the CarimooB 
group (a geolofpcal extension of Johore) ; and the other from the SSgSmat Hills 
and Mount Janing to the Btumut and the neighbouring hills beyond (MSntfchak i 
and Fanti). 

The Bllimut Hills (3.300 feet) are the principal mountain group in Jobore ; 
giving rise to the River Kahang flovring north — fo join the SJmbrong, an affluent 
of the River Endau. 

Mount Ophir. in Muar, 4,400 feet, is, probably, the highest peak in the State. I 
It was a few years ago reckoned the highest in the PeninBula, but this is now, of ' 
course, known to be entirely erroneous. It« shape, and its situation near the sea, 
are remarkable. No rivers of any sizi* take rheir rise in it ; but two of its 
streams, though small, are of some consequence aa marking Johore's northern 
boundary — the River Chohong, which, with Kf sang, divides it from Malacca j and 
the River OSmas, which forms \\& Jobol boundary. 

Inhahitamts and Pkoductb, — The population of the Slate is remarkable for 
containing a larger uumlier of Chinese than of Malays. The esact figures have 
not been ascertained, hut probably come to 200,000. viz. : Malays, 35,000, Chinese, 
150,000, and Javanese 15,000. More than half are to be found within 15 miles 
of the Singapore Straits. The Chinese are chiefly found as cultivators of gambier 
and pepper, spread over about this range of country in the extreme southern end 
of the Peninsula, nearest to Singapore, of which Johore has been described aa the 
■• back country." These cultdvators go from Singapore, the capitalists (or whom 
they cultivate are Singapore traders, and all their produce and most of their 
earnings find their way back to Singapore again. European pioneen have, in the 
last few years, made some eiperiments in planting, on a large scale, sago, tobacco, 
coffee, tea, and cocoa. These have been givswn in sii different districts — Batu 
Pahat, Pulau Kokob, Pulei, Panti, Johore Bh&ru and Pengerang ; but it is 
uncertain how many of them can be considered established industries. ITie busy 
collection of gutta wtjich went on in Johore for the Singapore market, from 
Dr. Montoombeie's discovery of its useful properties in 1842 xmtil the sujiply 
was exhausted, deserves special mention \ as also the successful working of somu 
large saw-mills for utilizing the great resources of the country in serviceable 
timber, which are now. however, appreciably diminished. At the present time, the 
principal exports of Johore are the carefully-cultivated gambler, pepper and 
sago, and the natural products of timber, rattans and damar. For almost all such 
produce, Singapore is the port of shipment, 

MiNEBAi-s, — The only mineral in which the country is really rich is iron. It 
is nowhere worked, but is found almost everywhere. Some depodts of tin are 
known in several ].ilaces and gold in one or two spots. A little tin-mining is worked at 
Seluang, but no considerable mining is actuaJlv earned on, unless the islands of 
the Carimons be included. Though now politically seimrated from Johore, 
they are geologically jwjl of it, and were formerly a dependency of the kingdom. 

Communications.— By coa^h and st«am launch daily to Singapore, whence 
letters and passengers find easy access to all other ports. A telegraph line has , 
been erected l>etween Jobore Bharu and Singapore, and a railway has been proposed. J 

Johore Bharu, — The prestnt capital of Johore, situated on the N. side of J 
the Strait between that State and Singapore. 

Johore Hill or Gunong Merbukit.— The extreme E. point of the 
emiwuchure of the Jobon; River, 661 feet in height. I 

[172] 1 

Joh of British Malaya. Jun 

JollorB Lamai. — The former capital of Johore, now only a small fishing Y., 
principally inhabited by Bugis. It lies about 9 miles from the mouth of the 
Johore B. on the E. bank. 

Journal of Eastern Asia. — But one number of this Journal ever 
appeared, and was succeeded by the J. S. B. B. A. S. ($. t;.). 

Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia^ 1847 to 

1862, 12 Volumes, 8vo, Edited by J. B. Logan, F.E.S., Ac., SufOAPOEE, Mission 
Press. — Commenced under the auspices of the Bengal Government upon the 
warm recommendation of Col. Butterworth, C.B., then Governor of the Straits 
Settlements, this useful periodical became, for sixteen years, the repository of 
numerous papers of interest relating to Malaysia. Mr. Logan was rightly con- 
sidered one of the best authorities on Malayan subjects then alive, and his 
"Journal" was supported by able local and other writers. The information 
contained in the volumes of the Journal has, so far as it relates to the scope of this 
work, been condensed and brought up to date in these pages. {See also Logan.) 
Sets now command £20. A table of contents, arranged for convenience in 
alphabetical order, is given in the article on Bibliography. 

Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

— ^The Society of which this is the organ, was organized on 4th November, 1877, 
and published the first issue of the Journal in June, 1878. It is under the 
management of a President, two Vice-Presidents (one at Singapore and one at 
Penang), a Hon. Treasurer, and a Hon. Secretary, with a Council of five. Lists of 
the members and the Council's reports are published annually, two numbers of the 
journal appearing each year. 

Jugglers {Orang silwp mata or Penyilap mata). — Malay jugglers are 
clumsy and seldom met with, and their tricks are of little interest. Hindus are 
almost the only professional jugglers in the Peninsula. 

Jumpoh. — y* on W. bank of Perak R., W.C. Perak, about 9 to 10 miles 
S.S.W. of Kwala Kangsa. 

Jumpol. — The N. State of the Negri Sembilan (q. v.), its principal village 
bearing the same name. It is divided from Pahang by the B. Sebaling and is 
watered by five small streams, affluents of the Muar and Sereting Rivers. 
Senelling, Pila, and Peniak are, after Jumpol, the principal villages. The State 
produces tin, sapan-wood, damar, rattans, and paddy, the articles being sent to 
Malacca via Padang on the Muar River. 

Jungle. — The Hindu word jungid has become Anglicized and is always 
applied to the forest land of the Peninsula. The Malay word is Utan or U. riniba. 
Secondary jungle, Utan hluker, has sprung up in many places, which, having been 
once cleared, have afterwards been abandoned. Conspicuous for their tall, 
straight trunks, the loftiest seen are numerous Korrvpaa trees, the timber of which, 
however, is too brittle for much use. Palms of great variety and beauty abound, 
as do also enormous creeping vines and other plants. Low bushes are called 
8emak or JJtan Jcechil. 

Jungle Cock. — The probable ancestor of our game cock. A beautifully 
feathered bird, extremely pugnacious. They are frequently shot, the huntsman 
tethering an ordinary game fowl in his boat. The challenge he invariably crows 
soon brings one or more jungle cocks to the scene, to fall a victim to the gun. 

Junk. — Prom the Portuguese junco, a corruption of the Malay word ajong, 
abbreviated jong, a ship or large vessel. Europeans have applied the name to the 
largest of the trading vessels of the Chinese, which are called by the Malays 
toangkang, while they designate the smaller vessels of the same people top. 



Descriptive Dictionary 


Juno. — Name of a valley in Rembau. Necri Sembilan (not marked in map 
1. A. S.). 

Jurong. — District 8.W. Singapore between E. Bukit Timah and Pandan on 
E. banli of E, oE same name. 

Juru.— R. in Province WeUealey, enters the sea. at Bukit Juni after passing 
between Bukit Tengah and Bukit Minjak. A substantial bridge some 75 yards 
long croBsea it and connects the road between the two places. 

The South bank was formerly the site of a sugar estate, now cut up into 
small native holdings : 500 acres were at one time under sugar-cane and 300 under 

Jus. — District and principal forest reserve in extreme N. of Malacca on the 
Johol boundary. It is spelt " Juse " on the Government maps. 

Jus (Juse on the map). — Small V. in district of same name, about 3 miles 
W. of Nyalas, N. Malacca. 

Jusi. — A mt. in Jumpol, Negri Sembilan. 

Jusi. — A hill inside the Johol frontier on the road from Rembau. The road 
itself is very bad, being an almost indistin^ishable track. 

Kaban. — An island adjacent to Blair's Harbour, off S.E. coast of Pahang. 
Formerly a place greatly resorted t-o by pirates. 

Kaf.— The mountains which in the Malay cosmogony encircle the world. 

Kajang. — ^An important T. on the N. side of the Langat R. in S.E. Selangor, 
lat.3°N., long, 101° 31' E. 

KajangS. — Rough mat made of the leaves of the vw.ngkwa'Rg or }»ingkKang 
uttoi, a species of pa7idanv», and used to protect goods in boats and cart« from sun 
and rain, Drivers and boatmen, &c., put them to the same use. A smaller but 
similar sort of mat made from nipah leaves is ealled samei. Both sorts are sewn 
together, and answer the purposes of tents in the jungle. 

Kakki (Jap,),— See Beri Bbri. 

Kalang. — Diatriot in E.C, Singapore, just above GSlaug, and E. of Rochor. 

K&li, — The Mahommedan registrar of births, deaths, and marriages under 
Straits law. Formerly the Government recognized magisterial or judicial 
functions on the part of these officials, but their only importance nowadays under 
British administration is regarding marriage or divorce, which, however, give them 
considerable weight amongst their co-religionists, 

Kamoy Tengah.— A small V. in the Tabu district, N. Malacca, 

Kampong. — An enclosure, collection of houses, village. It tonus the 
prefix to the names of many places in the Peninsula, such as Eampong Bbaru. 
Kampong Rawa. Ac. 

Kampong Asahan. — V. on S, bank of Selangor K,. 18 miles from the 
coast, but about 23 miles by river. 

Kampong Ayer Mati.— v. on W. bank of Perak R., S.W. Perak. 

Kampong Bakar. — V. in S. Kedah. about 2^ miles S. of the Muda R, and 
close to thi' Proviuce Wcltesloy frontier. 

Kampong Bentan. — V. in Johore on coast of old Straits opposite Selitar, 
N, Singapm*. 

Kampong Bharu, — The district lying between the town and the Teluk 
Blangah iliatriet.. The Borneo Co.'s wharf is the only noteworthy place of business 
within its boundaries. It is not shown as ciisting on recent maps. 

Kampong Bharu.— V. on E. bank ol Kampar R., S.C, Perak. 

KaU of British Malaya. Eam 

Kaxnpong Blukang. — v. on N. bank of B. of same name, W. Singapore. 

Kampong Dedap. — v. on W. bank of Perak R., half way between Bota 
and Blanja, C. Perak. 

Kampong Durian.— v. on W. bank of Perak B., about 2^ miles below 
Beta, W.C. Perak. 

Kampong Qajah. — ^V. on E. bank of Perak B., about 4f miles above 
Bandar Baru I., S.W. Perak. 

Kampong Qerah.— On W. bank of Perak B., about 9 miles S. of Kedah 

Kampong Jelutong. — ^V. on road from Thaipeng to Kwala Kangsa, 
C. Perak, about 3 miles S. of bank of Larut B. 

Kampong Jerin.— V. 3 miles S.E. of Larut B., Perak. 

Kampong Keloh. — ^V. on E. bank of Perak B., extreme N. of Perak. 

Kampong Ketum. -V. on S. bank of Muda B., E. of Kupang, S. Kedah. 

Kampong Kiti.— v. on N. bank of Muda B., Kedah, 2 miles N. of Kwala 

Kampong BHadang. — imp. v. on E. bank of Muar B., just N. of Segamut 
in S. Pahang. 

Kampong Kleydang. — v. on W. bank of Perak B., N. Perak, about 3 
miles N. of Kwala Plus. 

Kampong Kling. — ^A v. on Mt. Miko in Bembau, Negri Sembilan. About 
800 inhabitants. (Not marked in map S. A. S.) 

Kampong Labu. — ^V. on the border of Selangor and Sungei IJjong, 
extreme S. Selangor. 

Kampong Ladang. — ^A v. at the foot of Bt. Kledang, in the Sungei 
Bharu Ulu district of Malacca, about 20 miles from the town. 

Kampong Loui Telor. — V. at head of B. Loui, a small N. affluent of tlie 
Pahang B. in C. Pahang. Gold is said to be found here in large quantities. 

Kampong Mahang. — v. in N. Perak just inside the supposed boundary 
line with Kedah on S. bank of B. and at foot of hill of same name. 

Kampong Malayu. — ^V. on E. bank of Perak B., above a horae-shoe bend 
about 10 nules S. of Bota. 

Kampong Mondok. — ^V. in extreme S.W. comer of Pahang at the 
junction of the B. Segamat and Muar. 

Kampong Niamong. — v. on W. bank of Perak B. about 4 miles S. of 
supposed boundary line between Kedah and Perak. 

Kampong Nior. — V. on N. bank of a bend in the Selangor B., about 7 
miles from the coast. 

Kampong Pabei. — ^V. at the S. end of a spur of hills in W. Bembau, 
Negri Sembilan. 

Kampong Pala. — v. on E. bank of Perak B. about 5 miles above Bota, 
W.C. Perak. 

Kampong Paret. — v. on E. bank of Perak B. 4 miles S. of Blanja, C. Perak. 

Kampong Pasar. — ^V. on W. bank of Perak B., N. Perak, about 4 miles 

N. of Kwala Plus. 

Kampong Paya. — v. near head of B. Burong in W. Penang, S. of Balik 
Pulau district. 


Kam Descriptive Dictionary Kan 

Kampong Penghulu Qondong. — V. on N. bank of Pnhang E., W.C. 

Kampong Perlis. — V. on W. coast of Peaang in Pondok Upeb district. 

Kampong PianggU. — Small V. on W. baak of Eiidau E., 8.E. Pahang. 

Kampong Piugi. — V. in 0. Perak on E. bank of Einta E. just abovo 

Kampong Rafri. — Diatrlet S.W. of Eelau in 8. Ptnang. 

Kampong Sabatang.^V, about 7 milea below Durian Sabetang on the 
E. bank near tlie rroutli of the Perak E, in S. Perak. 

Kampong Sadong.^V". on W, Imnk of Perak E. about 4 milea below 
Blatijii, C. Penik. 

Kampong Senang Hati, — V. on E. bank of Perak R. about 3 miles 
N.N.E, of Kiilii Tiiuipart, 

Kampong TampayEin. — V. about 7 miles from the W. coast on S. bank 
of R. Tiram B;itn. S.W. Johore. 

Kampong Telok Rabia.— V. on E. bank of Kurau E., N.W. Perak, 

Kampong Tengah.^A aiiarsely inhabited kampong in Ewala Sungei, 
Bharu district. MaLic-a. on the high road from Linggi to Malbicca. 

Kampong Tengah. — V. in Sungei Bharu TTIu distriet of Malacca. 

Kampong Tengah.— v. about 4 miles above Bandar Baru I., in the Perak 
R., S.W. Perak. 

Kampong TepUS. — v. on W. bank of Perak E., C. Perak. opposite 

Kampong Terah.— V. in N. Perak on the E. bank of Ijuk E. 

Kampong Toh Saret.— v. on E. bank of perak E. about 7 milea Iwlow 
Bota iu W.C. Perak. 

Kampong Trong,— V. at the source of the Trong E., a small stream 
fallitij; intj) a creek of the sea called Kwala Trong, 8 to fl miles S. of Kwala Larut, 
W.C. Perak. 

Kampong Tuan (marked "Tucan" on the map S. A, S.). — ^V. on side 
of tild Straits. Johore. 

Kampong Wau.— Small v. near the source of the Chandriang E., E.C. 

Kamuning. — A small V. in the Tabong district, N. Malacca^ 

Kamuning, Bunga. — A flower resembling that of the orange in look and 

Kanchei. — V". on S. bank of Pahang E„ C. Pahang, about 6 miles E. of 

Kanching. — v. in the extreme E. of Selaogor at head of E. of same name. 
Tin mines in the vicinity. E.. range, and hill of same name. 

Kandang. — Large V. and Police station about 3 miles E. of Malacca-town. 

Kandang Qajah. — v. +^ miles E. of Merlimau, S.E. Malacca. 

Kandang Lembu.— v. on E. bank of Kinta E., at Kwala Sei Pari. C. 


Kan of British Malaya, Ked 

Kanggar. — V. about 5 miles from the coast and N. of the Purlis R., N.W. 

Kangka Perhentian Kechil.— Hill 2 miles S.W. of Gunong Pulei, S. 


Kangkah. — V. close below Lim Chu KaDg in W. Kranji, N.W. Singapore. 

Kaolin. — ^White porcelain clay abounds in Singapore, and some forty years 
ago was the subject of special investigation by the Government of India. Should 
the apparently inexhaustible mines of South England ever give out, this clay would 
become an important article of commerce. It is found also in the Peninsula, but 
nowhere, so far as is known, in very large quantities. 

Kapas. — /S^ee Cotton. 

Kapok Fibre.— iS^e^ Fibres. 

Karimon^ correctly Krimun. — There are two groups of islands of this 
name, one at the eastern end of the Straits of Malacca, and another on the northern 
coast of Java. Included here as the former are sighted by all vessels making 
Singapore from the N. 

Kani. — One of the districts of Bembau, Negri Sembilan, under a Penghulu 
and four Sukus. 

Kassing. — ^ V. on the R. Endau, 5 miles from the mouth, of no particular 

importance. The people reputed to be uncivil to strangers. 

Kati. — Frequently written " Catty," a weight of 1 J pounds avoirdupois ; the 
Icaii contains 16 iads^ and 100 IcatiB make a pikul, or picul, literally *' a load." 
The tael, the Jcati, and the piJcul are native words, but the weights they express are 

Kayong. — V. on the Purlis R., N.W. Kedah, about 5 miles from the coast. 

Ka3ru {Wood), — For a list of the woods known to exist in the Peninsula, see 

Ka3ru Mongapit. — ^A gambling instrument of wood with places to contain 
two cocoa-nuts, one for each player. The instrument is struck by a man with a 
hammer, and the one whose nut is broken loses. 


Ka3ru Puteh Oil (MaUdeuca leucodendron) , — See Oils. 

Kedah* (formerly written " Queda," the Portuguese spelling), called 8ai by 
the Siamese, to whom it is nominaUy tributary, is a State, bounded on the north 
by Ligor (part of Siam), on the east by Patani, on the south by Perak, and on the 
west by the sea and the strip of land called Province Wellesley. It lies between 
5° Z(y and 7° 4' N. lat., is about 130 miles long by 30 to 40 miles broad, and has a 
continental area of about 5,000 square miles, or, including that of a chain of 
islands off the coast, which comprise four (Langkawi, Buton, Ladas, and Trutao) 
of considerable size, about 6,000 square miles in all. The meaning of the name is 
" elephant trap." 

The State is divided into three provinces — Setul, Perlis, and Kedah proper ; 
the first-named being the most northerly, and Perlis in the centre. 

History. — The history of this State, observes Ceawfurd, as of all the others 
of the Peninsula, except Malacca, is involved in obscurity. According to the 
" Annals," the Eajas of Kedah, at a date long anterior to the Portuguese occupa- 
tion of Malacca, proceeded to that place to receive the nohats, or drums, forming 
the insignia of royalty, as it was considered tributary to the Kedah State. This, 
however, is doubtful. Col. Low discovered in the forests some remains of temples, 
and some inscriptions in the Pali character, and which, consequently, indicated not 
Malay but Siamese occupation. It would appear that even in the beginning of the 

* By the Hon. A. M. Skinner, C.M.G. 

[177] N 

Ked Descriptive Diiiionary Ked 

sixteenth century, tie Malays had been but partially converted to Mahommedanism. 
The earliest authentic information we have of Kedah is from the Portuguese 
writer, Babbosa, whose manuscript is dated at Lisbon in 1516, and he describes it 
as '■ a place of the kingdom of Siam." " Having," says he, " passed the afore- 
mentioned country of TeaaBsire, and proceeding along the coast of Malacca, there 
occurs a seaport called Queda, to which an infinite number of ships resort, trading 
in all kinds of merchandise. Here come many Moorish ships from all quarters. 
Here, too, is grown much pepper, very good and fine, which is conveyed to Malacca, 
and thence to China." — Ramueio, Vol. I, p, 318. Kedah, in common with all the 
other States of the Peninsula, has been immemoriatly tributary to Siam, and being, 
with Fatani, the nearest to it, has been most subject to its direct influence. In 
token of its subjection, it sends once in three years an offering consisting of an 
artificial " flower of gold," which is the Uteral meaning of the name of this offering, 
Sunga-mtu, receiviag, however, in return handsome presents of greater value. 
Notwithstanding this dependence the Raja, in 1785. alienated to the British 
Oovemment a portion of his dominions, namely, the island of Fenang, and 
subsequently a further portion of the mainland, all without the sanction or even 
knowledge of his liege, the King of Siam, but still without the right of alienation 
boiog disputed. By the cession of Penaog, the Prince of Kedah lost some of the 
native foreig:n trade which used to frequent his ports, but this was more than 
counterbalanced by the annual stipend paid to him by the British Govemmonl. 
and by the demand which the new Settlement gave rise to for the produce of his 
country. The revenue which the prince received, incJuding a stipend from the 
British Government, had amounted in all to 82,000 Spanish dollars, or near 
^18,000 — a large sum for a Malay prince. In 1821. the Raja was either refractory. 
or alleged to be so, and the Siamese invaded his country, overran it, and, after 
several years, abandoned its direct administration. The prince fled to tfae British 
for protection, and received an asylum. His successor was left unmolested by the 
Siamese, and on very few occasions have the latter since interfered with the 
internal administration of the Government, although they claim the right of 
nominating the Raja. 

Gboloot and Mineraloot. — The geological formation is chiefly granitic, but 
there are large areas of alluvial soil, there being more level land in Kedah thMi in 
any other State in the Peninsula. Limestone crops out in numerous places. lis 
highest hill, known as Kedah Peak, or Ounong Jerei. is about 4,000 feet high, sjii] 
forms a striking object viewed from Penang or Province Wellealey. Gummg 
Geriyang (called by us Elephant Hill, from a fancied resemblajice to that animal, 
Geriyang, however, being the name of a large forest tree) is another notable feature 
' 3 the landscape, and is celebrated for its magnificent stalactite caves. 

MiREBALOOT. — The metals tin, copper, and iron are found in fair abundance. 
Iron is dug in the district of Nanah lying N. of Alos Star (the residence of the 
Baja, on Uie 8. bank of the Kedah B.) and S. of the R. Purlis. which forms a 
portion of the boundary between Kedah and Siam. A little copper is worked in 

I the same neighbourhood. Tin is found in Gunong Jerei, already noticed, in large 
quantities, Chinese being the chief miners. Gold is only found on the Pataui 
border in the Jalo district, and galena mines eiist at Pala, on the Kedah bank of 
the Patani B. It is probable tliat foreign enterprise might develop important 
mines. Diamonds are asserted to be found in good quantities in the same localities 
as gold, but this requires verification. 
Climate. — There is no appreciable difference between the climate of Ked&b 
and of Penang or Province Wellesley (5. v.). The absence of high ranges in the 
N. leads to greater dryness. 
Padsa. — Tigers, tapirs, wild pig, and all the other mammals common to the 
Peninsula, exist in Kedah. which also (as its name implies) abounds in elephants, 
whicli aiv not only captured, but bred in captivily. Cattle and buffaloes are 

Ecd of British Malaya. Ked 

abundant. Elephants are both used and exported to the Coromandel coast. As 
regards Entomology and other branches of natural histoiy, the State has yet to be 
fuJij explored, and the same remark applies to its Botany. The horse is not found 
in Kedah. The coast abounds in fish, of which the hawal prdeh (white pomfret) is 
one of the most esteemed. 

AaBicuLTTTBE. — Rice is the staple product, and is cultivated to an extent that 
permits of large exports to Penang. In other respects, Kedah resembles the rest 
of the Peninsula. Sugar has of late been grown, the mills being worked by oxen 
or buf^loes. Fruits are largely cultivated and exported to Penang. 

Pboduots. — In addition to rice and sugar, tobacco is grown for domestic con- 
sumption. Cotton and pepper, as also cocoa, cinnamon, &c., would probably 
flourish. Fruits of all kinds abound, as in the neighbouring States, and the man- 
gosteen and orange attain great perfection. 

Tbade. — Rice and tin alone are very important items, but fruits, fowls, ducks, 
birds'-nests, hides and bats' dung, Ac., are largely sent to Penang and the Province. 
Iron of indifferent quality is also exported to Penang. 

Population. — The inhabitants consist of Malays, of Samsams, or Siamese 
converted to Mahommedanism, and speaking a mixed language of Malay and 
Siamese ; of the Peninsular Negritos, of mestizo Telingas speaking both Telugu 
and Malay, and of a very few Chinese. Before the Siamese invasion and conquest 
of 1821, the country is believed to have had a population of 50,000, which in 1889 
was reduced to 21,000, the rest having been either killed in action, perished by 
disease and famine, or taken refuge within the British territoiy. The last of these 
numbers gives a relative population of less than five inhabitants to the square 
mile, and even the higher of one under twelve. Indeed, at all times, the greater 
part of the country seems to have been little better than d primeval, jungle. The 
present population was estimated by Bock at from 400,000 to 500,000 souls, but 
this is really guesswork ; 150,000 is probably nearer the mark. All that is certain 
is that it has immensely increased since the Siamese occupation terminated, our 
own annexation or protection of adjoining territory having largely contributed to 
maintain peace and so allow the natural increase to take place. 

Government. — The Government consists of the Yang-di-per-tnan, or Raja, 
assisted by a Council of State of seven members, and a clerk. There is also a 
Secretariat, Mantri's Office, Treasury, Public Works Department, Supreme and 
Minor Courts, Government Land Department, Ac, all appointments, except those 
of Interpreters, Head of the Police, and Medical Officers, being filled by natives. 
The Raja is hereditary sovereign. 

Topography. — The boundaries of the State have already been defined. It is 
120 miles in length, with a breadth of from 30 to 40 miles, comprising an area of 
5,000 square miles. It contains no lake, but some twenty-six rivers, six of which 
are of considerable size, but all of them obstructed at their mouths by bars, over 
which at spring tides there is not above 9 feet of water. The most considerable of 
them is that on which the chief place stands, a mere village, and of this the 
embouchure is in lat. 6° 5' N. Between the mainland and Langkawi and the other 
islands, indeed, there lies an extensive mud-bank, so that vessels of any consider- 
able burden cannot come nearer the coast than four miles. 

The principal hills or mountains are mentioned above, but three others are 
given on the most recent maps — Bukit Jernah, Bukit Besar, and Bukit Jalo. The 
southern district has a few hills of low elevation. The capital is Alos Star, the 
residence of the Eaja, on the S. bank of the Kedah E., a fort and village known 
as Kota Star being on the opposite bank. Alos Star is about 7 miles from the 
mouth of the river. From Padang Salla, about 3 miles from Kota Star, a canal 
has been cut to Gimong Jerei. a distance of over 16 miles. Fifteen miles l>eyond 
Gunong Jerei is Kwala Muda, the village next in importance to Alos Star. The 
canal runs through one of the alluvial plains above referred to. 

[179] N 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 


CoMMUiTicATioiJ WITH OTHEB PoBT«. — ^Three steam launchea ply between 
Kola Star and Peuang, the vovagc taklag about seven hours. One launch runs 

daily each way. 

Keeling Islands. — See Cocoa. 

Kelang. — The word used in Province Wellesley to meaD mill (sugar, rice 
mills, &t-,)TThe same word (but iu this case Chinese) is also used for tishiugatabes. 

Kelantan. — Position.— Between 5° 40' and 6" 20' N, lat. witli a coast line 
of about 50 miles, bounded on the N, by the China Sea and Fataui, on the E. by 
Tringganu. ou the S. by Pahang, and on the W. bv Eeman, Perak and Patani. 

History. — Kelantan ia known to have eiisted as an integral State at the close 
of the fifteenth century and before the arrival of the Portuguese ; and in the 
Malay Annals it is specially stat«d that, during the time of Mahhud II, of Malacca, 
A.D. 1477, Kelantan was a kingdom "more powerful than that of Patani." Like 
Tringganu, Kedah and Patani, it has, from tune immemorial, been harassed by the 
demands of Siam ; and, according to the official statement of Mr. Andebson, 
Political Agejit in 182-5, jrepeatedly solicited, in the early days of Penang, the 
protection of the British Government and the estabhshment of an English factory, 
offering very considerable advantages. 

In lb32, the Chief of Patani, upon the invasion of his country by Siam, fled 
to Kelantan, but was delivered up to the Siamese Praklan^, who repeatedly ordered 
the Raja of Kelantan into his presence. With these mandates the Malay chief did 
not deem it prudent to comply, but was eventually compelled, it is said, to pro- 
pitiate his foe by a large present of specie and gold dust. Nbwbold pointed out at 
the time that this wa*i a violation of the 12th Article of Major Buknet's Treaty 
of 182(i, which stipulate that " Siam ahall not go and obstruct or interrupt com- 
merce in the States of Tringganu and Kelantan. EngUsh merchants and subjects 
shall have trade and intercourse in future with the same facility and freedom as 
they have heretofore had ; and the English shall not go and molest, attack and 
disturb those States upon any pretence whatever." What little trade and inter- 
course now exist have passed from the hands of English merchants to those of 
Chinese and Native traders. 

Gbolouy and MiNEttALoav. — The interior is believed to consist to a lai^ 
extent of flat country traversed by long but shallow rivers. Tin, gold, and load 
are found, the export of tin being considerable. KelantJtn gold ia much esteemed 
by the natives. 

CtiMATB. — The same as that of the neighbouring States, but slightly cooler 
than on the W. aide of the Peninsula. 

Fauna. — No details are to hand as to natural history or botany, but the jungle 
produce is the aame aa that of the other native States. 

AoaicuLTUEB. Pboddcts, &c. — A good deal of pepper is grown by the Chinese, 
and rice is cultivated to a large extent. Details, however, are wanting. 

Tkadb. — Pepper and jungle produce with tin and gold form the principal 
items. Chinese from Singapore visit the coast in the S.W. monsoon and return at 
or after the change. 

Population. ^Thi a is estimated by the natives at over half -a-mil Hon, but 
150,000 is probably nearer the mark. The State ia a proajieroua one, and its popu- 
lation undoubtedly exceeds that of any of the native States on the E. aide of the 
Peninsula. Jakuua inhabit the S. districts. 

Government. — That of a practically independent Raja who aokuowledg«« 
fealty to Siam by the periodical transmission of a bunga mat, or golden Hower. No 
I>artieulars as to revencg are obtainable. 

TopooRAPKY. — The area of the State is about 7,000 square miles. It ia 
watered by two long but rather shallow rivers — the Kelantan and its lai^ tributary 
tile Lebih. Iu the South is a range of Mts, running N.W.and 8.E., which Maclat 
^^ [180] 

Kel of British Malaya, Kin 

believes to be the highest in the Peninsula, but so far as is known no other hills of 
any particular elevation exist. 

Communication with other Ports. — By sailing boatjs and jprahiLS only from 
the coast or via the Pahang K. to its entrance some 140 miles of lat. further S. 
than the mouth of the Kelantan R. (By Hon. A. M. Skinner, C.M.Gr.) 

Kelantan. — The capital of the State of that name near the mouth of 
Kelantan B., which here forms a delta. It is a large and flourishing place with 
considerable trade ; population estimated at over 20,000. The position given 
on the map is probably only approximate, as the entire country is little known 

Keliling Selat. — ^V. on W. bank of R. Sembrong, N. Johore. 

KomaniStll. — R. and district. The latter as now marked on the maps extends 
from 4* 39' to 5° 20' N. lat. It is said to have formerly been a district of Pahang, 
but is now practically incorporated with Tringganu, of which it now forms theN.E. 
portion. Its N. boimdary is the R. Tringganu, and its S. the R. Kemaman. It 
would, however, appear that formerly the same name was applied to a district 
extending far more to the S., now shown as part of Tringganu. The Kemaman of 
the present day is divided into the smaller districts of Paka, Diingiin and Marang, 
which are each under a chief subordinate to Tringganu. 

The town is only a mile or two from the mouth of the river of the same name, 
in lat. 4* 15' N. It is a settlement of modern origin, and probably owes its exist- 
ence to the tin mines, discovered early in the century in the neighbourhood. The 
district is scarcely 1,000 square miles in area ; and is, or until recently was, under 
the direct control of a separate chief, under Tringganu. Its population was 
estimated in 1839 at 1,000 Malays and Chinese. It produces tin, a little gold, 
camphor, ebony, &c. According to a Mr. Medhuest, who visited the place in 1828, 
Kemaman at first yielded a considerable revenue to the Sultan of Tringganu, but 
afterwards the mines failed, and the Chinese dispersed. It is believed to be scarcely 
more prosperous at the present time than it was in 1839. 

Konaboi^ Orang. — Apparently a synonym for Oraiig SaJcei (q, v.). 

Kepala BataS. — The other name of Samagaga Dalam (q. v.)y P. Wellesley* 

KerbaU. — Small V. in the Parit Melana district, C. Malacca, about 1 mile 
from Durian Tuggal. 

Kerbu. — ^V. at junction of R. Serdaug with R. Plus, N.E. Perak. 

Kernel. — ^V. on the Rui R. (the W. source of the Perak R.), S.E. Kedah. 

KeSSang. — District and V. in E.C. Malacca ; the latter with a police station, 
and situated just above the forest reserve N. of Ayer Panas. Tin mines formerly 
existed in the neighbourhood. 

KeSSang R. — The E. boundary between Malacca and Muar. Tin mines 
were opened in the Chinchin district, on the left bank, in 1847, and some 2,000 
Chinese were then employed. But little, however, is now found. 

KeSSang Tuah. — A small V. 2 miles E. of Kessang. 

Ketam Luar and Ketam Dalam.— Two V. on tongue of land forming 
the N. shore of the entrance to Perak R., S.W. Perak. 

Ketiar. — ^The name of a fruit found in Perak, from which the natives make 
oil. It does not appear to have been botanically identified. 

Khatib. — The preacher in a mosque. He ranks below the Imam, who leads 
the prayers. 
. Kiligfl-Ti Tebu.— Small V. on border of Sungei Bharu Ulu district, 
Malacca W. 

Kinchei. — ^V. on N. bank of Pahang R., E.C. Pahang. 


' Km Descriptive Dieiionary "H^ J 

Kindin.— Large V. on E. bank of Kinta E., about 14 miles N.E. of Kinta. 
Tin mines exist in the vicinity. 

Kingfisher. — SL-veral Bpeeiee of this beautiful bird are found in the 
Peninsula. Happily their skinB have not yet become an article of traffic aa in 
China, whence tens of thousands are aimually exported for omamenteJ purjjoses. 

Kinta. — The W. district of Perak, the river of that name flowing through 
it. It is in charge of a magistrate and collector, whose head-quarters are at 
Batu Gajab (marked aa the town or village of £inta in many maps), with 
assistants at the important villages of Gopeng and Ipoh, The district is most 
flourishing, and its administration reflects great credit upon the officers under 
whom it has reached its present position. A luilway will shortly be completed 
from Batu Qajah to Teluk Anson, and this will still further develop Ihe resources 
of this portion of Perak. Tm is the principal product, and Q-openg the chief 
centre of production. 

Klt6S (Layaiig-layang). — Although the Malays do not equal the ingenuity 
of the Chinese in the art of kite-flying, they are fond of the pastime. The beat 
kites known by the words above given are reputed to be made at Palembaag. 
Cotton paper is used for the purpose. In the Peninsula a kite is called wau. 
Klama. — A small v. in the Mak dlstriet, N. Central Malacca. 
Klana, — A title implying jurisdiction on the mainland. It was conferred 
on a former chief of Sungei Ujoog by the then Sultan of Johore. 

Klang.— The Eeaideney of Selangor, about 12 miles from the mouth of the 
Klang R. 

Klang, Lower. — V. 3 miles from thu mouth of Klang R. on the S. aide, 
Klebang Besar. — V. about i mile N. of the high i-oad from Malacca-town 
to Tanjony Kliog. 

Klebang Kechil. — Kampong immediately W. of Malacca-town. 
Kledang.^V. on R. of the same name on the Kedah-Eeman frontier. 
Klian. — V. belwceu the Patani and Telupin E. about 14 miles from E. 
coaat of Patani. 

Klian Bharu.— V. a miles N.E. of Thaipeng Kota in W.C. Perak, about 
10 miles from the i.'oast. Tin is found in large quantities amongst the surface 
gnivel, and gold and galena exist in small quantitiea 

Klian Intan,^V, on E, aide of Ouuong Titi Wangsa, 8. Eedah. 
Klian Mas. — V. on E. bank of Telupin R. about 29 miles from its mouth, 
N.E. Pataui. 

Klian Mas. — V. in C. Kelautan on E. of that name. Gold is reported to 
be found in the vicinity. 

Klian Paku.— V. about 8 miles W. of G. Batu Pulei. S. Perak, on the W. 
bank of Bid or R. 

KUan Pao.— V. 2 to 3 miles N.E. of Thaipeng Kota on Larut R., W.C. 

Klian Pechal.— V. at N.E. end of Kampar distriol, E.C. Perak. 
Kling.— The name given by the Malays (J. I. A.. Vol. n., p. 10) t« the Telinga 
nation of boitthern India, and which appears to be a comfption or abbreviation of 
the geauinc name of the country of this people— Kalinga. So many have settled in 
Malaya that they form an appreciable portion of the population. Being the oqIt 
Indiu>n nation familiarly known to the nations of the Archipelago, the word is 
used by them as a general term for all the i>cople of Hindustan, and for tli« 
country itself. The trade and intercourse of the Telingaa with the Archipelago 

Kli of British Malaya. Kli 

is of great but unascertained antiquity, and still goes on. Many Telingas have, 
from time to time, settled more particularly in the western parts of Malaya, as in 
Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and their mixed descendants are tolerably 
numerous. In Singapore, for example, the Telingas form about one-tenth of the 
population, and in Penang they are eyen more numerous. It was this people that, 
in all probability, introduced the Hindu religion, and they seem also to have 
contributed materially to the spread of Mahommedanism, the majority of the 
settlers being at present of this persuasion. In the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, the Portuguese found them carrying on trade at Malacca, and Babbosa, 
who calls them Chetijs (obviously the "Chitties" of to-day), describes them as 
" wealthy merchants of Coromandel, who traded in large ships." 

A propos of this subject, two interesting communications appeared in the 
Penang Qmette under date of 16th September, 1887, the greater portions of which 
we quote hereunder. Vilayat writes : — 

In my edition of Elphinstone's "History of India," p. 242, the following 
passage occurs : — 

"Another branch of the tribe of Chalukya * * * ruled over Calinga, 
which is the eastern portion of Telingana, extending along the sea from Dravida 
to Orissa." 

" Gabbett, in his * Classical Dictionary of India,' says : Kalinga is the name of 
the sea-coast west of the mouth of the Gfanges with the upper part of the 
Coromandel Coast. The inhabitants are called Kalingas,^* 

" Fobber, in his * Hindustani Dictionary,' says : Kalinga the name of a country, 
especially applied to a district on the Coromandel Coast between Cuttack and 

When I first heard the name Kling, I considered it a misnomer, but have 
changed my opinion for various reasons : — 

(1.) The people we speak of as Klings cannot properly be called Hindus, as 
the majority in the Straits will, I believe, be found to be Mahommcdans. This 
disposes of the religious name. 

(2.) They cannot be called Tamils, as very many, if not most of them, are 
Telugus (Telingana) ; thus Uinguage fails to meet the difficulty. 

(8.) Coromandels might be used, but this word is only known as a geogra- 
phical expression by the Europeans. Natives of India do not use it, that I am 
aware of. 

(4.) Dravidians might meet the want of a common name (one in common I 
mean), but philologists would be horror-struck at the desecration of one of their 
pet words. Nor is it a word in common use among natives of India. 

We are thus compelled to fall back upon the despised word Klingy which, I 
think, may be satisfactorily accounted for on the following suppositions : — 

(1.) Penang was originally a part of the Bengal Presidency, or rather was 
ruled from Ben^. 

(2.) Officials from Bengal must have brought Bengali servants with them. 

(8.) These, when the first importations of natives of the south-east coast of 
India were brought over, would class them as Kaling ; that is, as people coming 
from the districts known to them as Kaling, south of Bengal. 

(4.) The next step would be easy — Kaling has a short " a " ; omit it altogether 
(there are many similar instances in philology), the result is Kling, applied to all 
natives south of Bengal. 

The above appears to me the probable derivation of the name as used here. It 
should be observed that Fobbes gives the word as Kaling and not Kalinga, as spelt 
by other authors from whom I have quoted. 

" Scabebceus " adds the following remarks : — The word is a most interesting 
one, and point43 to a connection between the Straits and India reaching nearly as 
&r back as the time of Alexander the Gtbeat, and the only trace of which remains 


Descriptive Dictionary 


in its continued application to natives of Southern India. It is m-t used only in 
the Straits, but all over the Dutch and Portuguese possessions in the East Iniiies, 
and its uuiversal application in these parts points to a lai^ trade having been 
carried on between Southern India and the Eastern Seaa. It is erroneously derived 
from Telinga or Telingapatam, once a port on the Madras Coast, from which the 
sea has receded, and which is now an inland town about 2 miles from the shore. 
The name of this port signifies that there was a community or aation bearing the 
name of Talingas or £aliiigas, and it is from the name of this people that our word 
is derived. Indian archaeologists are well aware of the existence of a large nation 
in Southern India who worshipped Siva, and who called themselves Kalingas. 
Some record of this nation is found in the oldest of known Indian inscriptions — 
those at Khalsi — ^which are probably the moat interesting in the East, ae demon- 
strating the connection of India and Greece, by their mention of the names of 
Ptolemy and Alexandeb. ETideneea of this connection are abundant in Greek 
literature ; but these are the only clear ones on the Indian aide. The country that 
this nation inhabited is now known as Northern Circara — the Telugu Coast of the 
Bay of Bengal. No doubt emigration and tra<le from this part of India was then 
more extensive than any other, and the word Kalinga was applied in general to all 
emigrants from India. In the Journal of the Indian Archipelago, in an article on 
the Siyara Malayu—a. collection of Malay legends — it ia stated the word Kalittg is 
used generally for India. The Elings of the Straits do not come so much from the 
Northern Cirears aa from districts about Tanjore, and from purely Tamil districts ; 
and the classes who take domestic service in the Straits — Hindus or Luhbais — are 
never known to serve Europeans in India. Two quotations which I have found 
with reference to the word are of great interest j one is from the translation of Mr. 
Senart of the Khalsi inscription, and is as follows ; — " Great ia Kalinga, conquered 
by King Pvtjadasj, beloved of Devaa. Hundreds of thouaanda have been carried 
oC Immediately the King, on learning of the conquest of Kalinga, turned to 
religion, &c." This dates about 250 b.c. The other is from a French tranalatiou 
of a narrative of a Chinese traveller, Hiten Tsiano (Pelerins Bouddist^-s) ; it runs : — 
"After having ti-avelled 1,500 li, he arrived at the Kingdom of Kalinga, In 
ancient times the Kingdom of Kalinga possessed a dense population ; inaomuch 
that in the streets shoulders rubbed and va^on wheels jostled ; if the passengers 
but lifted their sleeves an awning of immense extent was formed . . . ." The 
narratire of these travels was written by the traveller about 640 of our era, and 
though travellers' tales are proverbially Uable to being taken at something leas than 

!iar value, this ancient Cliinese traveller seems, in the opinion of his French trana- 
ator. to have been not only a prince among pioneers, but an observant and truth- 
ful narrator of what he saw. 

Klubi.— See Bebtam. 

Klubi. — An important V. on N. side of Muar K., above Gemencheh. 

KobSik. — V. in Sungei Ujong between Jumpol and Selaugor. 

Kohong.— V. on the road from Chinchinto Chabau, E. Malacca, about |milfi 
on the W. bank of R. Keasang. 

Komang. — V. 1 mile S. of Chaban in same district, E. Malacca. 

Koruichi. — Immigrants from the interior of Sumatra who have settled in 
Perak. They are more industrious than the Perak Malays, and will not undertake 
menial work. They speak ordinary Malay, but write it in their own character, 
which Mr. Crawpded thought was the original alphabet of the Malay [wople- 

Kota>. — A fort or stockade. A common compound in the names of places. 

Kota. — A V. on S. bank of Prai fi. about ij miles from Butterworth, Pro- 
vince Wellesley. Ita inhabitants have the reputation of being gamblers and 


Kot of British Malaya. Kri 

Kota Aur. — Is a v. 13 miles 2 furlongs from Butterworth, Province 
Wellesley, on the British side of the Muda E., with a population consisting chiefly 
of Malays employed in agriculture. The bank of the river is here well covered with 
fruit-trees, more especially the cocoa-nut, and fine clumps of bamboo are seen at 
intervals. Many houses, singly or in groups, are indeed scattered pretty plentifully 
on both sides of the river hereabouts, the greater number, however, being on the 
British side. The village lies a little more than f mile above Bindahari. 

Kota Bharu. — ^An important V. on, the Kinta E., and the principal place 
of embarkation from S. Kinta. 

Kota Bhani. — ^V. on S. side of entrance of Kelantan E., Kelantan. 

Kota Bharu. — v. on E. bank of Patani E., in the Sai district, N.E. Patani. 

Kota Blanda. — ^V. on E. side of Perak E. about 6 miles below Durian 

Kota Lama. — important V. on W. bank of Perak E., N.C. Perak, about 4 
miles N. of Kwala Kangsa. 

Kota Lumut.— V. on W. bank of Perak E. in S.W. Perak, about 5 miles 
above Durian Sabatang. 

Khota Pagar.— V. on E. bank of Perak E. about 7 miles N. of Bota, W.C. 

Khota Raja Itam. — v. at mouth of small E. of same name, C. Dindings. 

Khota Raja Lela. — ^V. on W. bank of Patani E. about 11 miles N. of 
Pala G-alena mines in N. Patani. 

Kota Siam. — v. on C. coast of Dinding Ton. 

Kota Star or Alor Star. — ^The capital of Kedah on N. bank of Kedah E., 
N. Kedah. 

Kota Stia. — ^V. on N. bank of entrance of Perak E. about 7 miles from the 

Kota Tampan. — Important V. on W. bank of Perak E., N. Perak, 

about 20 miles N. of Kota Lama. 

Kota Tinggi. — V. on E. bank of Johore E. about 7 miles N. of Johore 

KOW. — ^V. on N. shore of Patani. 

Kramat. — An ancient burial place, many of which exist throughout the 
Peninsula. That of Dato Dalang in Naning used to be largely visited by wealthy 
Chinese from Singapore, buffaloes, goats, and fowls being offered as sacrifices to 
ensure good luck. 

Kramat Hantu. — V. and stockade on S. bank of Bemam E., N. Selangor, 
on a bend S. 4 miles below its junction with the E. Slim. 

Krailji. — The N.W. district of Singapore, divided by a river of same name. 
The word is usually applied to the small V. with Police station and Government 
bungalow on S. side of the strait opposite Johore Bharu. 

Kretang R. — Small E. affluent of Johore E. just below Johore Lama. 
KretOW. — ^V. on W. bank of Pahang E., C. Pahang. 

Krian Estate, Province Wellesley.— Lies on the N. bank of the 

Ejrian opposite Caledonia Estate, and is 22 miles from Butterworth. It was 
originally opened by foreign enterprise, but is now Chinese owned. Sugar-cane is 
the staple. Admirable bricks and draining pipes were made here at one time imder 
European supervision. 

Kris. — The abbreviation of Mm, a dagger or poniard, the universal weapon 
of all the civilized inhabitants of Malaya, and of a hundred different forms, short 



09s*-n^tw* Dutionary 


...jiJii liui kCwiMTiUlv Sitfrp^Dtine blade, and with every varielj in 
>...^<.ul o(* the hilt imJ si;abbard. Men of all ranks, from the 
.1 a: ;1iis w«i[M(i. and those of rank, when full dreaaed, two 
■ ■ ifubly Malay. The blade varies in width from 1 to 
:iL 12 (o 18 inches. The finer blades are veined and 
., iliult, the Btei'l having a dead silvery appearance. It 
(n-.i.o nij-'t very keen. The handles have a peculiar curve. 
.. nfMeKef. cvuvt'tiitrut for grasping daggerwise. They are made of gold, 
■dlYtft'. ivot'v, obouy, ibdmuKina wood, or buffalo horn, and aro often carved and 
^bik-d with great tasto. The ornamental part of the hilt is called tamyvran, the 
kbiutU Mfv^KU and tho ferule h\itii\il. The sheaths, like the handles, are of various 
uuttvriuls aud oftou omameuted with ivory, gold, £c. The sheath or sarong is of 
wood and iu throe parts; the ravipir, or croaspiece near the hilt, usuaJly of 
hamuning wood ; the hatan^, or sheath proper, commonly of senna wood ; and* the 
bwi'nf, <ft uud thimble, of ivory, metal, or ebony. A gold-covered earvng ia called 


'I'no prolJOrtiona of the kru are a matter of superstitioua care ; if not correct 
it ii ivu^idured unlucky to own it. The beat krites are reputed to come from 
CtfUihos aud Mtiuangkarbau in Sumatra. It is the national weapon of execution. 
(^Sti KxeouTioN and Pahuk.) 

ThL'i-o are many varieties of the krie, known as Kn'g panilak, Krh jyinjang, 
Kri» tniMjNMMi, Kris sapukul, Badik and Tumboh lada, the latter slightly curved, &c. 
A vhiiriued kris is called Krie betiiak. 

Kroh.^V. on E. side of Gunong Titi Wangaa, S- Kedah. 

KrOSang.^Thc brooch worn by Malay and Chinese women in t.ho .Straits 
and I'cuiuHula. It coasiBts of a flat hoop of gold or silver, oft^n set with precious 
iik)iH'r*. A piu at tlit^ lwu;k like that of the European brooch secures it to the dress. 

Krubong. — V. ia the Blimbing district, about 8 miles N. of MaIa«ca-town. 

Kruing (or Wood Oi7) .^Obtained by cutting a hole to the heart of the tree, 
to wliic'h fire ia then applied, the oil gathering in the hole. After being thoroughly 
lioiled, it forms a good varnish and paint oil, and is much iised for coating rough 
woodwork, sampans. Ac. 

Kni Rupa. — V. in Tampin. about 3 miles from the Malacca frontier. 

Kubang Badak. — Small v. on W. edge of Jus forest reserve. N. Malacca. 

Kubang Semang. — A v. 7 miles I fiu-long from Butterworth, Province 
WeUealey. A bridge here croaaea the Sun^ei Dcrhaka, a small stream scarcely to 
bo called a river. From this point there la a clear view over the paddy fields to 
the coast. Large boats were formerly able to come up the creek to the bridge, but 
its bed has lately become choked with weeds and inibbish. From the bridge the 
road runs nearly south, skirting Bukit Mertajam, through fruit gardens all the way, 
which extend far up the side of the hill. This is the most picturesque piece of 
road in the Province. 

Kuin Babi.— Small V. 2§ miles E.N.E. of Ayer Mulei, S. Malacca. 

Kuli. — V. on N. bank of Pahaug K., at foot of a range of hills in W.C. 

Klllim. — V. on E. of same name, just E. of Province Wellesley frontier, in 
9.W. Kedah. A favourite place for coolie deserters from estates in the Provinci'. 
A large number of Chinese of bad reputation are settled here, and the Penghulu 
has much dilhculty in keeping order. 

KlunbEing.— A JaJmjt V. on E. side of E. Sembrong, N. Johore. Also the 
Malay word for cocoa-nut beetles, (q. v.). 

Kumbar. — See Bkktau. 


Kup of British Malaya. Kwfl 

Kupang. — ^Large V. on a small S. affluent of Muda E., W. side of Gunong 
Titi Wangsa, S. Kedah. 

Kupus. — V. on N. border of Sri Menanti, on S. bank of the Muar E. 

Kwala. — The embouchure of a river. By a curious linguistic coincidence, 
the same word is used in the same sense by several African tribes. The word is 
also applied to the place of junction between two rivers. 

Kwala Bekum. — Junction of small E. of that name with the Songkei E., 
S. Perak. 

Kwala Belida. — In N. Perak, where a small W. affluent falls into the 
Perak E. about 4 miles W. of Bukit Panjang range. 

Kwala Bera. — Junction of Bera E. with the Pahang E. in C. Pahang. 
Just below it the river forms a chain of small lakes and leads into Tasek Bera, the 
principal lake in the Peninsula. 

Kwala Betey.— A small v. on the Sungei Batang, Malacca, between Grading 
and Padang Sebang. 

Kwala Chepah.— On E. bank of Perak E., N. Perak, about %\ miles 
N.N.E. of Kota Tampan. 

Kwala Cherako.— About 3 miles below Kota Tampan in N. Perak, on W. 
side of PeraJs E. 

Kwala Chigar. — On the W. bank of Perak E. about 5 miles S. of Kota 
Tampan in N. Perak. 

Kwala Dipang. — On W. bank of E. Kampar, S.C. Perak. 

Kwala Dolah. — On the Perak E., and a supposed boundary between Perak 
and Kedah. 

Kwala Eana. — A large V. in Pulau Sebang district, N. Malacca, about 
\ mile S. of Dusun Feringgit, on the boundary line between Eembau and Malacca 

Kwala Oapam. — Junction of the two affluents of the Duyong E., Malacca, 
about 4^ miles direct, and 6 miles by river from its mouth. 

Kwala Quia. — Mouth of creek between two islands N. of Kwala Larut, 
W.C. Perak. (The Admiralty chart and the map S. A. S. difEer so materially as to 
the coast line, that revision is absolutely necessary.) 

Kwala ]juk. — Junction of Ijuk E. with Krian E., N. Perak. 

Kwala Illjil. — ^A bend in the Perak E., N. Perak, where it turns abruptly 

N., 6 to 7 miles S. of Kota Tampan. 

Kwala Jelai. — On W. bank of Perak E., 3 miles below Kota Tampan in N. 

Kwala Johore. — Entrance of E. of same name N. of Changi district, 

Kwala JxUHpol. — The junction of the Jumpol E. with the M\iar at the 
S.E. comer of Jumpol State, Negri Sembilan. 

Kwala Jus. — Small y. on high road. Jus district, N. Malacca. 
Kwala Kabul. •^On the S. bank of the Kampar E., S.C. Perak. 
Kwala Kali. — Junction of E. of that name with Selangor E. 
Kwala Kampar. — Junction of the E. of same name with the Kinta E., 
S.C. Perak. 

Kwala Kanchillg. — Junction of that E. with the Selangor E. 3 miles 
below Bt. Jelutong in E. Selangor. 

Kwala Kangsa (spelt Kangsar by Mr. Wbat). — ^Important settlement 


Kwa Descriptive Dictionary Kwft 

on W. b&nk of Perak R., 4 milea S. of Kota Lama. It is the seat of GflTcniment 
and the resideuce of the Kesidont. Estensivu tin deposits exist in the vieinitj. 
The Regent resides at S^ong on the opposite bank of the R., which is here about 
200 yards in width. 

Kwala Kangsa (Gangsa on the map). — Small V. N. of the Bafu Berendam 
district on the Malacca R. 

Kwala Kendrong. — Junction of R. of aame with the Perak R. in 8.E. Eedah. 

Kwala Kenering, — On W, bank of Perak R. about 7 miles S. of Eedah 

Kwala Kera.— On E. bank of Pemk R. about (( to 7 miles 8. of the Kedah 

Kwala Kinta. — The junction below Bandar Bam I. of the Perak and £inta. 
K,. S. Perak. 

Kwala Klang.— The entrance to the E. of that name, Selaogor. 

Kwala Kupang. — On the Muda R„ at junction of a atream leading to 
Kupang V. 'A miles S. Kedah. 

Kwala Kurau.— Entrance of the Kurau R., N.W. Perak. 

Kwala Kurling,— Junction of R. of that name (f/. ii.) with Selangor R. 

Kwala LabU.— The junctiou of the Lanjat R. with the Jngra K,, S. 

Kwala LabU.— Close to the boundary between Selajigor and Sungei ITjong, 
lat. 2" 53' N., long. 101* 30' E. 

Kwala Labu. — On Perak R„ S. Kedah, 5 mites N. of supposed Perak 

Kwala Leppa. — Junction of a petty stream with K. Ekkawaya, about 8 
mileH in a S.W. direction from Gunong Batu PuJei, S. Perak. 

Kwala. LumpOr. — The seat of the Residency and principal Goverument 
offices of Selangor, near the head of the Klang R. It gives its name to the dis- 
trict, which contains numerous rich fin mines. Situated in lat, 3° 12* N., and long. 
101° 54' E. 

Kwala Madek.— Junction of the Eahang and Madek Rivers, E, Johore. 

Kwala Mawah. — Kwala in Kedah on E. side of Perak R. about 10 miles 
N. of the iissumed Pi-rali frontier. 

Kwala Menkwang.— Junction of a small afQuent with the Mudu E. about 
3 miles N.W. yf Kupang. Kedah. 

Kwala Muar.^The entrance to the Muar E. dividing Muar from Johore, 
V. of aame name on S. bank of R. 

Kwala Muda, — The entrance to the Muda R. which divides Kedah from 
Province Wellesley, 

Kwala Panchor.— V. at the junction of a small affluent with the Malacc 
R. in the Parit Mclaoa district, C. Malacca. 

Kwala Parit,— The junction of the Perak and Kinta Rivers. S.W. Perak. 

Kwala Pelang, — Kwala on Perak R., S. Kedah, 6 miles N. of supposed 
boundary of Prnik. 

Kwala Pesolot. — V. ou E. bank of R. Sembrong, E.C. Johore. 

Kwala Piah. — About 4 miles S. of supposed Eedah boundary in K. Perak 
ou E. bank of Perak R, 

Kwala Pila. — Kwala and V. in S.W. comer of Jumpol. Negri Sembilan, 

Kwala Pi^ji. — Junction of R. of that uame with the Einta K., C. Perak, 


Ewa of British Malaya. EWS 

Kwala Prai (Pbte in the Directories). — The name of the entrance to the 
Prai B., Province Welleslej, and of the V. on its bank. It is 1 mile and 5 furlongs 
from Butterworth, and, as stated by Ea&l, was once a place of considerable 
importance, with a foreign trade and mud docks for the repair of ships of burthen, 
but Penang has gradually absorbed its trade, although there are still a few prahns 
and small schooners belonging to the place, which trade chiefly with the Sumatra 
coast. The road leading up to the ferry is lined on each side with Chinese shops, 
and there is also a Chinese theatre, but its appearance nowadays is not altogether 
prosperous. The Malays, however, whose dwellings are scattered pretty thickly 
over the neighbouring mangroye swamps, appear to thrive well enough, and the 
number of children is something surprising. The river is one-eighth of a mile 
across at the ferrv station, which is about half a mile within its mouth. There is a 
good deal of traflic at the ferry, both of horse and*foot passengers, although travellers 
from the southern part of the Province generally embark in boats for Penang at 
the landing-place on the opposite side of the river, leaving their vehicles there if 
thev intend to return speedily. 

The new road (Jalan Bhant)^ which commences on the south bank of Prai, runs 
quite straight in a south-easterly direction for 3| miles to the point of junction 
with the road running south from Permatang Pau. This has been taken as the 
base line of the trigonometrical survey of the Province. The first mile and a half 
is thioi]^^h mangrove swamp, with abundance of Nipah palms, and the remainder 
is through an uninterrupted series of paddy-fields studded with clumps of cocoa- 
nut-trees. The road was originally formed of the mud and earth thrown up from 
two deep trenches Ivtween which it runs, and was hard and firm (barring the crab- 
holes), except in very wet weather. It has. however, within the past few years 
been carefully put in order by the Public Works Department, and is now a very 
good road. Its width is being further extended by the same authorities. There 
are three villages, besides several detached houses along the road. 

Kwala Rantau. — Y- on S. side of Bernam V., about 8 miles W. of Kwala 
Sempang, N. Selangor. 

Kwala Rui. — Junction of the Bui B. with the upper Perak B. in S.E. 

Kwala Sawa.— Junction of a petty affluent with the Linggi B., 3 miles 
below Niato, Sungei Ujong. 

Kwala SelemaZL. — Junction of a petty stream with the Muda B., just 
below Padang Pulei, S. Kedah. 

Kwala Selensing. — Entrance to a small B. of same name on the coast of 
N.W. Perak fronting Oula Sugar Estate. 

Kwala Seluang. — A kwala about 18 miles from the mouth of the Muda B., 
S.W. Kedah. 

Kwala Sempang. — The junction of the W. affluent of the Kessang B. 
with the main stream, in the Chinchin district, E. Malacca. 

Kwala Sempang. — v. on S. bank of Bemam B., about 8 miles E. of 
Kwala Bantau. N. Selangor. 

Kwala Sempang. — A kwala on E. bank of Muda B., 3 miles above its 
turn N. in S. Kedah. 

Kwala Semut. — Junction of a small E. affluent of Kinta B. in C. Penik 
just above Kindin. 

Kwala Senang. — in extreme S.E. of Kedah on the Perak B., about 2 

miles N. of supposed Perak boundary. 

Kwala Si MarabOW. — On a branch of the B. Linggi, formerly the point 
where the boundary line between Malacca and Bembau touched the river. 


KwE Descriptive Dictionary IijJ. 

Kwala StUlgOr. — ^V. on boundary line between Malacca and Johol. After 
ruDDJng nearly due E. from Dusun Feringgit, the line here turns abruptly to the 
N.E. The V. lies at the N.W. extremity of the large forest reserve embracing the 
Ju8 and Bukit Linggi districts. 

Kwala StUlgOr. — v. in S.E. comer of Tampin, Negri Sembilan. 

Kwala Talang. — Junction of a small stream with E. Kinta, 0. Penang. 

Kwala Tamok. — ^V. on the N. side of Sembrong E. where it turns from 
a N.N.E. direction to E. in N. Johore. 

Kwala Tawa. — v. on S. affluent of Muda E. near Kupang, S. Kedah. 

Kwala Teja. — On E. bank of Kinta E. at junction of E. Teja with it. 

Kwala Tekan. — Junction of a small E. of same name with E. Kinta, just 
N- of Ipoh, C. Perak. 

Kwala Telok Pan. — ^At the junction of a petty affluent with the Batang 
IVlang E., 8 miles above Durian Sabatang, S. Perak. 

Kwala Tembon. — On W. bank of Perak E., about 5 miles N. of Kota 
T^ma, N. Perak. 

Kwala Temiteh. — Junction of small E. affluent of same name with E. 
Kinta, 1^ niilcs N. of Ipoh, C. Perak. 

Kwala Terup. — Junction of the E. Papan with the Kinta E., C. Perak. 

Kwala Triang. — Junction of the Triang with the Pahang E., in W. 

Kwala Trong. — A salt-water creek between an unnamed island and the 
Perak cofiHt, about 10 t>o 11 miles S. of Kwala Larut, into which a small stream 
HowN (if Hanie name. 

Kwala Trus. — Junction of the Perak and Kinta rivers, just above Bandar 
Hani I..H.(.\ P«Tak. 

Kwala Wau.— Ji"i<'tion of small bank of Chandriang E. with the main 
Mtn'airi, K.<*. P«»rak. 

Lac. 'ri»<* <'<)louring matter produced by the lac insect, or Coccus jusM, is 
Idiowii iind uhimI l>y Wxw inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, where the insect is 
foiinil. Tlin pro(lu(*(\ howtwor, is neitlier so good nor so abundant as that of Hin- 
(iiiHtiin. Miirnni. or Hiani, i)robably owing to the insect not being, as in these 
ciMinh'ii'N. (loniPHtimUuI ana n^an^. The Malay name of the dye is atn^oZaw, a 
nativt* (»n(>. It Iiun htMMi found in Singapori^, but not in sufficient quantities to 
aNMUnif« coninmrcial iin]>ort4Uu*o. 

Ladang. V. in S. P«'rak about 3 miles E. of E. Batang Padang. 

Ladang Buka.~ A Humll v. l mile S. of Payah Eumput and about 7 miles 

N. from Malan'ii-town. 

Lagoons, Province Wellesley.— S^^^ Pkrmatano Manois. 

LakHamana. 'l^bi' Hin^ond in rank in a native State. In the event of a 
ilnalli. Mm ItiiktiaiiiitHii m\1o(V(h1n to the dignity. 

LlihUlg. A (*oarH(« gntHH (lirameH cancivitfim or Imperalia Kcenigix) which, 
iNilnHn )ii'i('Miili«)hN bo taken, ovorruns all nowly-cleared ground. The sensitive 
liliMit IN Hiiid In III* thi« onlv plant whioh oxtirj^itos it. It reaches a height of from 
d til /i t'iM>t. iiml in UHoil bv tho Miilavs for thatch and cattle bedding, while the 
llnwiMH niMvn In HtutT hillnwH. R>th j^kpor and sugar are said to be derivable from 
tlilM HinnN. lull iin pulilit' niuvomn 1ms as vot attoudod any experiments in the latter 
ijil'iirlliin. Sir VUuuvH. 

Lulling. 'I'll*' »><<' «*!' «* Ki'^'Hoh t in-mining i\nu{viny near Gopeng Kinta, Perak. 

Llilapi 'i*l**' N>\innpN to\\\\\\ in so nmnv {^rtions of the Peninsula. 

I UH>j ' 

Lan of British Malaya. Lan 

Lambor. — ^V. in N.W. Sungei Ujong, near Kwala Labu. 

Laildstllg. — ^A village in Johol, Negri Sembilan. 

Lstngat. — Island, town and river at entrance of B. of same name, its outer 
embouchure, however, being known as the Jugra E. On the Island is situated 
Parcelar Hill, a well-known mark for mariners making the S.W. coast of Selangor. 
The E. rises in TJlu Langat, on the W. borders of Sungei Ujong. 

Langka. — The mythic name of Cejlon in the Hindu poem of the Eamajana, 
and, as such, well known to the more advanced nations of Malaja. The popular 
name for it, however, is 8elan, evidently taken from the Arabs, who probably made 
he island first known to the Malayan nations. 

LangSUyar. — ^A "white lady,** or banshee, who may be heard at night 
moaning amid the branches of a tree, and much dreaded by superstitious Malays. 

Language. —With the exception of the Negrito tribes of the Peninsula, 
Malay alone is the current language. Each State, however, has peculiarities of 
speech, and a Singapore-bred man can at times hardly understand one from Kedah 
or Patani. Of the places under British influence, the best Malay is spoken in 
Perak and Province Wellesley. 

Of foreign languages, Cmnese, of course, is spoken by the great majority, i.e., 
using the word "Chinese** as we .should use "European,** each so-called "dialect** 
being in reality a distinct language. These "dialects** are Cantonese (Macao), 
Teochew, Hokien, Hylam, and Hakka or Keh. Of these there are several sub- 
divisions, being true dialects. 

Portuguese comes next in order, and it is by no means the Portuguese of 
Lisbon. Custom has so contracted the moods and tenses of the verbs that it almost 
resembles Malay in simplicity, while of course sacrificing precision. 

Tamil is the language of the Klings, who, however, soon lose the purity of 
the original language in favour of phrases pronounced by Tamil scholars to be 
obscure and ungrammatical. 

English, the language of the ruling race, is now spoken by a large number of 
the rising population educated at the G-overnment schools, it will doubtless in 
time become even more prevalent. 

Many other Asiatic and European languages are largely spoken. G-erman 
counts a large number of adherents, but as the countrymen of the Emperor 
William all speak both English and Malay, besides being, as a rule, accom- 

Slished linguists in other tongues, the existence of a German-speaking commimity 
oes not materiaUy affect our own countrymen as to personal intercourse. 

Of other Oriental languages, Arabic is the only one which is spoken by any 
appreciable number. But it is worthy of record that during one year eighteen 
different languages were used in the Singapore Magistrates' Courts. No better 
testimony than this could be adduced as to the cosmopolitan character of the 

Lasjut Manis. — ^A pretty v. on the Malacca-Eembau border. 

Lasjut Manis. — A small v. in the Blimbing district, C. Malacca. 

Lasjut Ifft. — lu Eembau, Negri Sembilan (not marked in maps S. A. S.). 

LaDJnit Buntal. — ^V. about 9 miles E. of the junction of the Langat E. 
with the Jugra E., S. Selangor. 

Lantei. — The flooring of native houses, made of laths, usually cut from 
the nibong palm (Caryota urens), but sometimes of bamboo or even ordinary 

LantUl. — Originally the name of the boldest and most dangerous of the 
piratical tribes of Malaya. Their vessels were known as prahu lanun, and the last 
word is now often used by itself to designate them. The original habitat of the 
Lanim is supposed to be Mindanao in the Philippines. 



Descriptive Dictionary 

Lata Mamboh. — v. in Sungei Ujong between Niato and Eassa. 

Latah. — How to define latah is somewhat puzzling. If any ahurt equivalent 
1n3 desired, it niay Ihj deBcribed as an irresiatible impulse to imitate tho words or 
actiouH of those around them. Another form of the disease, very often not less 
startling to the onlooker, is the exhibition of intense nervous excitemeut when some 
particular word is mentioned — -usually in the form of most abject fear. A third, 
and lens noticeable, form is the exhibition of aUinu at some luusuaJ but nut 
ordinarily terrifying sight or sound, much as a child will start at the sound of a 
gun, or a grown person on suddenly diacovering a corpse. The two first-named 
manifeslatioue are of course those which strike the spectators and auditors as most 
strange and inexplicable. The nervous impressionability of the Malays in other 
wajB is well known to all who have lived amongst them. A very alight cause will 
change an ordinarily placid and inoffensive native into a very demon of rage, the 
extreme illustration of snub a mental condition being known aa "running amok" 
— or as forL'ignora usually call it, " amuck." Over and above a readiness to take 
oS<<nce at Hnjust blame, or what he considers disrespectful treatment, native public 
opinion considers a Malay dishonoured who does not avenge a blow by taking the 
life of the party giving it, not at the moment, but on some subsequent occasion, 
vhun the intended victim is off his guard. It would be going too far to say that a 
ttindency to sulk and take revenge accounts for. the Malay liability to latah, as 
many other peoples amongst whom the disease is unknown develop the same 
diMpoxition, while almost destitute of the childlike good temper and unafEecledly 

SiMid manners of tliu Malayan tribes. All that can be asserted is that such a 
isoaNn would never eiist amongst a phlegmatic race. Nor, again, must it be 
imagined that lalah is of every-day occurrence. Many people have lived in 
lliQ Struitu Si-tth<montfl for over twenty years without ever seeing a single 
case of it. 

The impulsi^ to imitate the words or actions of others is sometimes evinced to 
not merely a ludicrous but a most distressing way. In some cases it should be 

IilvmltK^l the atliLcks occur only at long intervals ; in others the patients are 
lahituiilly sulijeet to the disease, and can at almost any time be compelled to 
tixbibit it. Wlien this results in any unpleasant consequence the lat^ (it is 
(iimtouiary to apply thti word both to the disease and to the patient), while quite 
unable to rtiMiNt ttie stnuiKe inllucnce exerted, will keenly resent the practical joke. 
In a eiuie recorded by Mr. H. A. O'Brien, a woman was introduoed to him as a 
latah, and he for some lime t^onverseil with her without detecting anything 
abnormal in her conduct. " Suddenly her introducer threw off his coat, To my 
horror my vemirnblo (j'lest sprang to her feet and tore off her kabayah (jacket). 
My entreaties eame too late to prevent her continuing the same course with the 
i-est of her garments, and in thirty seconds from her seizure the paroxysm seemed 
to 1)0 over, What struck me must in tliis unsavoury performauco was the woman's 
wild rago against the instii^tor of this entrap. She kept on calling him an 
' almndoited i>iR,' and imploring me to kill him, all the time that she was reducing 
herself to a stale of nudity." An equally absurd but less distressing manifeetatjon 
(if thp disea«e was provided by a Malay woman, who, on seeing her master tear up 
a Iclti'r and throw it out of tlic window, at once followed suit with a basket of 
dean clotjies she was carrying. No great harm, of course, resulted in this case, but 
tntgiciU effects have more than once followed practiial jokes with latabs. The 
followiiig instjuiee is ri'lal^-d by Mr. O'Brien : — ^The ship's cook of one of the local 
wmsting steamers hiip{X'ned to be a pronounced sufferer from the disease, and, 
us but Ijiu eoiumoutv happens in such cases, was continually victimieed by hia 
shipmittes. As u. rule the effects wore simply ludicrous, and hugely amused the 
i^rew, who shared the fuudnees for horsepliiy proverbial among European satlars. 
On the occasion in question the cixik was dandling his baby on the forti'ard deck. 
One of the men, noticing liis. picktxl up a billet of wood, and. standing in front 


of Jivilnh Malaya 

ting his ^^^ 
;ii=t Foil ' 

It?. ■ 


samo way as the latter was dandlin] 

Presently he began tossing the biUet up to the awning, the cook imitatin)^ his 
motionB with the baby. Suddenly the sailor opened his arms, and the billet fell 
to the deek ; the unfortunate latah did the same, and the child, falling on the 
planking, was instantly killed. It is very singular that in no case has a latah l>een 
found to exhibit any other mental peculiarity. There appears to be no tendency 
in such a case to lunacy, nor does the disease appear to shorten life. That an 
imitative propensity is sometimes the forerunner and accompaniment of certain 
mental diseases among Europeans is alleged by more than one medical authority, 
but seldom becomes so pronounced as in the cases of Malay latahs. Moreover, it I 
uever manifests itself in the latter race before the age of puberty. The patiea^l 
again, is perfectly conscious of what he (or she) is doing, and frequently n 
in the strongest manner any attempt to play upon his infirmity. 

The second form of latab mentioned above, in which intense nervous eioita- 
ment is caused by the mention of some particular word, is scarcely less curious to 
onlookers than that already illustrated. The patient in this case will exhibit 
uncontrollable fear, evinced by running away at full speed or plunging into jungla . 
if on shore, or by jumping overboard S in a ship or boat, at the mention of somai 
animal or reptile. Some are thus afEected if a companion shouts XRar'. (a snake),! 
others at the words Simau (tiger), or Buaya (crocodile). The strangest fact in-? 
thifl connection is that such patients seem to have little or no fear of the animals ^ 
themselves, or certainly not more than any prudent native exhibits when meeting 
them in the river or jungle. Thus a man who will jump overboard in hot fear at 
the shout of " Crocodile ! " will readily stalk and, when it is disabled, appro.och one 
of these reptiles. The Malay, it should be added, is an exceptionally plucky and 
expert hunter and woodaman, ao tiat tMs particular form of nervous fright is the 
more remarkable. 

The third, and less noticeable, form of latah, in which some unexpected sight 
or sound induces fright, might, without explanation, be deemed common to a" 
humanity. But in the case of a Malay latah such a sui'prise invariably provokes 
desire to strike at the nearest object, and is also accompanied, in almost every caw 
by an obscene exclamation, no matter how correct his or her usual language an^ 
behaviour. It will of course be remembered that among all Oriental nationt 
phrases which we consider obscene are ordinarily used in conversation before womeofl 
and children; but the Malay, aware of our prejudices on the matter, usually^ 
refrains from using them before Europeans. The most common exception is when 
the speaker is a latah. Altogether the disease is a most obscure manifestation of 
nervous irritability and disturbance. It would be interesting to know if the brain 
of a latah differed in any way from that of the ordinary individual. The subject 
presents a wide field for pathological research. 

Lateiite is form<-d by the decomposition of iron pyrites and the diffusion 
of the inra in solution. It abounds in various portions of the Peninsula, and 
ia largely present in the soil of Singapore, where it is extensively used as road 

LaU Chu Kang. — v. in Mandai district. N.W. Singapore. ISJ miles from 
the town. 

Laut. — This is the most general name among the nations of the Archipelagt 
for the sea or ocean — the most common, even with the Javanese, who have besidei 
three synonyms for it. It is found in com]>osition in the names of places, 
Puiu-laul. ■• sea-island," Tamak-laut, " sea-land or sea-board land," and Laut-kidul 
"the south sea," 

Laws, Malayan.— Most of the native States have well-drawn-up codes o 

laws, of which that of Jobore, translated at p. 71, Vol. IX, J. L A., serves as i 



Descriptive Dictionary 


good example. Excepting as regards women and slaves, its provisions evince a 
considerable respect for abatra^-'t justice, and are worth the study of sociologists. 

Another code to which the Malays attach considerable importance is the 
Undann-iiiida iig, or Laws of Menan^karbau, of which mutilated copies exist. It is 
noticed in the N, & Q. of the J. S. B. R. A. S. 

Lawyers, Penang.— A comiption of Layor, a species of caae furnishing 
the sticks so named.' 

Lead. — Tq Malay, lima-itam, that is. " black tin," is known to the natives 
only as an article introduced from abroad. No ore of this metal has as yet beeu 
found in any part of the Arehijwt ago, although, most [probably, sueh will eventually 
be discovered, as was the cose with antimony, which was unknown until the 
year 1823. 

Leaf Insects (Sonaong anw). — A name given to one of the Phasmidoe or 
" Hpectre insects." So exactly does it resemble a leaf with all lie delicate markings 
and veiningB — in some cases the colours of a faded leaf are reproduced with equal 
acouraey — thai it is difficult to persuade oneself, even with tlie specimen before one, 
that it belongs to tJie insect world. They are reputed " curios " even amongst the 
natives, who keep them to show their friends. So foreign naturalist has as yet, 
studied their habits. The Zoological Society of London was very auKtous U> 
obtain some of these insects for its inseetarium when I last visited London. 

Leda Tana. — Small v. on the Suogei Chohong, a portion of the Kessong 
R.. the boimdary between Muar and Malacca, 

Ledang. — " This is the Malay name of the highest mountain of the Malay 
Peninsula, one of the two which the Portuguese fiiought proper to call Ophir, the 
other, of far greater elevation, being in Sumatra. Ledang lies inland from the 
town ol Malacca at the diatauce of about 40 miles, and ia juat inside the Mu&r 
border. It is chiefly of granitic formation, boulders of granite being found on its 
very summit. In recent times it has been repeatedly ascended to the top by 
European travellers, and its height has been ascertained to be 4,400 feet alwve the 
level of the sea. Fahrenheit's thermometer at night falls at the summit to 64"." 
The gold mines of Ophir were worked till 1817 by the Malays, the metal being of 
9 touch. The depth of the mines varies from 70 to 200 feet, but they are now 
almost abandoned. Cbawfurd, in an interesting article, not however wortli 
transcription in full, poiuts out the many reasons against Ounong Ledang being 
the Ophir of King Solohon, and thus sums up his conclusions : — 

" Prom all that has now been stated, I think it may be coDcIuded that tho 
Ophir of Scripture was a commercial emporium, situated either close to the 
entrance of the Ked Sea ou its Arabian side, or not far east on ihc southern coast 
of Arabia. The nearest of these localities to the head of the Arabian Oulf would 
assuredly have beeo a long and difficult voyage even for the small coasting craft of 
the Phfenicians. aud still more so for the confessedly inexperienced Jews ; without 
supposing voyages to India, or far south on the coast of Africa."' 

Le6Clie8.~A small variety abounds in all moist places in the jungle, and is 
a dangerous pest to unwary travellers. In preparing to cross leech-haunted marsh, 
the trousers should be tied roimd the ankle aud placed inude the boots, the lattiu- 
being freely rubbed with lime-juice, which leeches especially abominate. A spe^des 
resembling the horse-leeeh (lintah) is also fouud, utilized for surgical purposes. 
The smaller sorts are in many cases beautifully marked with bright yellow stripes. 

Legends. — Numerous Malay legends will l>e found in the J. S. B. R. A. S. 
and in the J. I, A., especially under geographical headings. 

Lela.— Heavy brass guns employed in stwkades. They were also used on 
board the large piratical prahus when piracy flourished in Malayan waters. They 
resemble the jingala of the ChincBi-, 


IiGin of British Malaya. Lig 

HiBinOIl QraSS (Serai), — Much cultivated for the essential oil it yields, 
especially by Europeans and Chinese. 

Lendek. — In Naning, Malacca, site of a tin mine opened in 1807, but since 

Leopard. — Only one species is known in the Peninsula, and that, by a 
misnomer, is generally termed the black tiger (q, v.), 

Leppa. — R« in Pahang. A tin mine is said to exist near it. (Probably the 
8. Lupa of map S. A. S.) 

LeprOl^y. — In Malay urUal and htdal, from Sanskrit kosta, is a disease not 
unfrequent in all parts of the Peninsula. In many places the only beggars to be 
seen are the unfortunate persons labouring under this incurable malady. The Leper 
Hospital of the Straits Settlements is situated at Pulo Jerejak, an island between 
Penang and Province Wellesley. It contains about 200 patients, and is in charge 
of the Colonial Surgeon of the Province with a resident apothecary. 

lidyden^ John. — " This remarkable man, who was bom of peasant parents, 
was bom in the parish of Cavens and county of Eoxburgh in 1775, and is mentioned 
in this work on account of his researches into the history and languages of the Malay 
nations. In 1803, after distinguishing himself at the University of Edinburgh, 
and enjoying the friendship and intimacy of his great cotemporary Sir Walteb 
Scott, he proceeded to Madras in the Indian Medical Service, and there received 
the liberal patronage of the Governor-General, the Eabl of Minto, near whose 
estate he was bom. In 1811 he accompanied this nobleman on the expedition 
which effected the conquest of Java and most of its dependent islands, and was 
eventually destined to proceed on a mission to Japan. Unhappily, however, he had 
exposed himself in his literary pursuits to the malaria of Batavia, and caught the 
fever which, on the 27th of August, carried him off, in the 36th year of his age. 
I had seen and conversed with him the day before his death, labouring under the 
complaint, but without any appearance of imminent danger. Lbyden's Oriental 
erudition, more particularly as relating to Malayan literature, was more multifari- 
ous and surprising than accurate, as might reasonably be expected from the number 
and rapidity of his acquisitions. He published at Calcutta a copious vocabulary of 
the Malay, Burmese, and Siamese languages, and after his death appeared a small 
work entitled 'Malay Annals.* His political views were wild, speculative, and 
scholastic, as is sufficiently attested by a published letter of his to his friend Sir 
Stjimfobd Raffles, at the time about to undertake the administration of the 
Indian Dutch possessions. * We must,' says he, * have a general Malay league in 
which all the Eajas must be united, like the old ban of Burgundy, or the later one 
of Germany, and these must all be represented in a general parliament of the 
Malay States like the Amphyctyonic Council of the Greeks." (Memoirs of Sir 
Stamford Eaffles, page 25.) 

lASLTf Orang. — " Wild men," a term often applied to the Jakuns. Several 
other phrases are also employed, e.g., Orang hukit, Orang dalam, and Orang ulu, the 
word ulu meaning the upstream part of a country. 

LigBi. — One of the nine districts of Patani (q. v.). ' 

Ligor " is the Malay name of a Siamese province, called by the Siamese 
Mkon. It is the portion of the Siamese territory which lies nearest the country of 
the Malays on the western side of the Peninsula, bordering there on the principality 
of Kedah. Geographically, indeed, it forms a portion of the Peninsula, as does 
Singora, another Siamese province, on its eastern side. The population is 
scan^ and poor, the majority consisting of Siamese, with a considerable number 
of Midays, and a mixed race of these two, called in Malay Samsam, with a few 

[195] o 2 

Descriptive Dictionary 


Lily. — Generally confounded with the various specieB of Arum, all being 
tenned hakonq. 

LimbOHgan. — Eicavationa made by miners in swampy tracts at the bases of 
hills. (J, I. A.. Vol- II, p. 173.) 

Lim Chu Kang,— ^V. in W, Kranji district, Singapore, Numerous pepper 
and gambier plantations exist in the neighbourhood. 

Lime. — This fruit abounds, and there are several excellent varieties. 

Lime is prepared in large quantities from coral and shells, the principal 
lime-burning works on the coast lieing at Pulo Paagkor (Dindiags). 

Litnestone, with sandstone and clay, is the predominating stratified rock 
from Junk Ceylon to Penang. It does not occur in large quantities southward of 
the latter. 

Limmair. — V. on S. bank of Pahang R., C. Pahang, 

Linggi. — The most W. district of Malacca forming the E. bank of the Linggi 
River, which divides Malacca from Sungei Ujoog. An old Dutfh fort and a Police 
station eiist on the shore, as also a village of the same name. From Linggi to the 
town of Malacca a good road has been constructed, about 29 miles in length. The 
local steam launches take up passengers between Linggi and Malacca, or Sungei 
Ujong- The district was originally colonized from Rembau. 

Linggi,— V. 8 miles from mouth of K. of same name, Sungei Ujong. A 
good bridge crosses the R. here, connecting Fermatang Pasir with the main road to 

Lingin. — " In Malay, correctly, Lingga. The name of one of the multitude 
of islands by which the eastern end of the Straits of Malacca is crowded. It 
extends from the equator to 20 milee south of it, and is eBtituated to have an area 
of 286 square geographical miles. Its highest mountain rises to the height of 
3,755 feet, and is consequently the most elevated land of any of the islands within 
the Straits of Malacca. Nearly the whole island is covered, like the others in its 
neighbourhood, by an ever-verdant forest, the inhabitants consisting of a few Malay 
fishermen, and in the interior, of some wandering tribes of savages of the same nation. 
Lingin was formerly a part of the territories of the Kings of Johore, and is, there- 
fore, mentioned hero. It is now under Dutch protection." 

Tiinft nm , — Coffee plantation close to Rantau, Sungei TTjong. 

Lion. — " fn Malay Singa. from the Sanskrit, just as our own name is from 
the Latin. The lion is a mere myth to all the inhabitants of the Peninsula. The 
word is chieHy found in composition in the names of places and the titles of 
persons, as in the examples Shiganari, *lion flower.' the name of some ancient 
HiTidu ruins in Java ; and Singanagari, ' lion of the city,' the name of one of the 
public eseeutjoners under the native governments of Java." The word has no 
connection with St-ngapore or singayura, which means a " port of anchon^fC." 

Lismore Fort. — See Fort. 

Literature. — The Malay tribes possess but little in the way of literature. 
The greatest part of it, like that of Java, consists of romances, known under the 
Sanskrit name of ckerilra, or the Arabic one of hikavai. Their subjects are taken 
from the Hindu epics, from the local legends of Java, from the Muhommedan 
legends of Arabia, and from the story of Malay princes hardly less fabulous. Such 
compositions differ, however, in this respect from those of the Javanese, that the 
greater number of them are in prose. The Malays are possessed of no ancient 
manuscripts, nor inscriptions on stone or brass. Their whole literature, all in the 
Arabic character, is certainly not of greater antiquity than their conversion to the 
Mahommcdan religion ; indeed, the earliest recorded specimen of it is the vocabu- 
lary of the Italian Pioafbtta, collected in the Moluccas in the year 1521, during 


of British Malaya. 

the first navigation round the world. {See Bibliogeaphy, under wUicb head \a\ 
giveD a list of all known works existing in Malay .J 

Little Johore Hill. — Qitnonq Bau {q. «.)■ 

Lizards. — An enormous number of species are found in the Peninsula aad1 
Settlements, but a monograph has yet to be written on the Malayan varieties. 
CertaJn species will be found described under the heads of Gecko, Chichak, &o. 
The flying lizard {Ckaeo volans, or Chichack terhang, or Eubin} is found throughoutd 
the Peninsula. A large house lizard is called to&e from the sound it emits, 

Lobok PenawJng.^A settlement on the Muar K., just E. of the bordersJ 
of Jobol. 1 

Lobster (UAdanii gdlak). — A beautifully marked rariety of lat^e size is fouDdJ 
on the coast, and specimons are preserved in the Raffles Museum. Thecray-fish iv\ 
unknown in Malayan waters. | 

Logan, J. R. — A full biography of this eminent scholar appears in No. 7j 
J. S. B. E. A. S., 1881, p. 76. 

Londang.— V. on W. bank of R. Sombroug, C. Johore. 4 miles N. of ital 
turn at a right angle N. ( 

LoriS. — A small species of lemur found in the Peninsula. It is of noctumalJ 
habits, seldom stirring during the day, ] 

Lory. — But correctly Wwri in Malay, is the generic name for "parrot." Thm 
aub-family of ijarrots, to which naturalists have given the name of Lorius, is noft 
found in any island of the Archipelago west of New Guinea, nor at all in the] 
Philippines. The lories of naturalists a^e, in fact, confined to New Guinea andi 
Ua adjacent islands. The bill of the lory is somewhat weaker than that of other! 
parrots. The prevailing colour of the plumage is a bright scarlet, and the general ■, 
shape that of the panakut. Numbers are brought to Singapore from the Moluccasj 
and other places for sale. j 

Lot's Wife. — A pillar at W. entrance of Singapore Harbour marking thffi 
Harbour limit, 1 

Lotteries are a favourite mode of gambling, amongst the Chinese espe- 
cially, in the Settlements and Peninsula. The best known is the Hub. Hoey, in 
which the names of 36 animals arc selects, and upon any one or more of these 
the gambler pays hia stake, receiving an informal receipt in return. At a given 
vtime the nana.e of the winning animal is announced, and those who have staked 
upon it receive thirty times the amount of their investment. The winnings are 
paid over honestly enongh, but the lottery manager can of course often ascertain 
ujion which animal there are the lowest stakes, (See Hua Hoey.) 

Lotus. — The Ear-famed lotus lily is indigenous to the Peninsula, but tha 
pink variety so common in China ia the least often met with. The seeds are ODH 
used for food, as in China. I 

Low, Sir Hugh, K.C.M.G.— Formerly H.M, Resident at Perak, who^ 
rendered good service to that State, and contributed much useful information on 
Malayan matters to various periodicals. His principal scientific work has been 
botanical, and he has added several plants, hitherto unknown, to the Kew lists, Hia 
record in the Colonial Office list ia as follows ; — " Entered the Colonial service as 
Secretary to Government of Labuan in 1848, Police Magistrate, 1850 ; administered 
tlie Government of Labuan in 1855 and in 1863, and from October to December. 
1865; again from November. 1866, to December, 1867, and also from December, 
1874, until April, 1876 ; British Resident, Perak, 1877 ; now retired." 

Low's Pass. — On W, side of Bukit Penara, C. Penang. A Police statit 
lies on W. aide of tiie paae. 



>er, ^J 


Descriptive Dictionary 

: it turuB S., jiliout 13 n 

Low Point. — A point iu the Biruani 
£rum the mouth, N, Sulaiigor, 

Lubo Imas. — V. about U^ miles S.W. of Gunotig Bujang MaUu;t;a in B.C. 

Lubok, — A pool, or deep holes in the sea, a lalie, or a river ; a ivauh in a 
rivor befoi-e it iTemls. Of constant occurrence in the names of plaees. 

Lubok Bantal.^V, in Simgoi Siput dislrict, N.W, Malacca. 

Lubok Chaong.— V. on E. aide of R. Sembrong, E.G. Johore. 

Lubok China. — v. and Police station in extreme N.W, o£ Malacc'a territorj- 
on S, biwik of l-Juui,'OL Pedas, a branch of the Linggi. 

Lubok Kepong, — V. on E. aide of R. Madek, E, Johore. 

Lubok Lesoug, — ^V. on W. bank of R. Sembrong, iu the Jakun country, 

Lubok Mak Serei. — v. on E. bank of Endau R., N. Johore. 

Lubok Masjid. — ^V. about 10 mi]i:s 1 furlong N, of Butterworth, Province 
Wclli^slej, between Pouaga and Pcrmataug Bindahari. 

Lubok Pasir. — V> en S. side of bend of R. Sebrong, N. Johore. 

Lubok Peniu. — v. on E. bank of Endau R., 1 mile N. of its division into 
Ibe Kahaug and Seniliroug Rivers, N. Johore. 

Lubok Peniit.^V^. on the R. Tamboh. one of theW. affliienl« of the KJnla 
K.. S.C. Perak. 

Lubok Talam.— Beach and V., W. bank of R, Stimbroug, just before its 
luru W. iu N.E. Johore. 

Lubok Valley. — In N. Sungei Ujong between Bt. Niwang and a hill l/ing 
further S. 

LubU Mariam. — A V. 9 miles from Butterworth, Province Wellesley, just 
below the Malakoff Estate. 

Lukut.— V. about 25 miles from the mouth of R. of same name, Sui^^i 

Lumut. — V. on W. side of old strait. Johore. 

Lundu. — A V. in the district of that name, Central Malacca. 

Lungga. — Imp- V. on E. bank of R. Muar, Johore, 15 miles S.E. of Mt. 

Lycanthropy.— A belief similar to that of tlie wehr-wolf of Germanr, 
&«., is widespread amongst both Malays and aborigines in the Peninsula, as is 
also that in its opposite — motempsychosia. In Malaya, the tiger takes the place of 
the wolf. 

SSaccaroni. — Extensively used by all classes. Europeans import it as a rule, 
but buth Chinese and Malays manufactiire it in large quantities. It is called Iomm 
in Malay. The mould for making it is iSn^iwi /a«tKi. 

Macs. — Ito brilliant red covering of the nutmeg, which see, the hiBtj>ry 
of the one being that of the other. It is called hunga pala (flower of nutmeg) in 

Slachap. — A district in N.O. Mak^ca, Tapioca is largely cultivated in the 
neighbourhood. It. is reacheil by a first-class road from Malacca vid Durian Tunggal. 
and is the aiti." of a Police atalion. 

Magellan, Ferdinand.— The discoverer of the Philippines ; a native of 

Mag of British Malaya. Mai 

Portugal, born about 1470. He served under Albuquerque at the capture of 
Malacca, but is not otherwise associated with the history of the Peninsula. Killed 
at Mactan, near Cebu, in April, 1521. 

Magnet. — The name of the magnet in Malay is hatu-brani or hesi-hraiii — 
the latter term being now the more common : the former extends to all the 
languages of the Asiatic Archipelago, including those of the Philippines. The 
literal meaning of the words is "dare-stone," or "venture-stone (or iron)," a term 
similar to our own of load or leading- stone, although less expressive. (See 

Magnetic Dip at Sinoapore and other Places. — See Journal of 

Eastern Asia, p. 90, Article by Vice-Admiral Sir C. F. A. Shadwell, K.C.B., giving 

Maharajah.. — The title taken by the present Sultau of Johore on lirst 
assuming the government of that State. It is not, strictly speaking, the title 
applied by Malays to native rulers in the Peninsula, but in native writings is 
regarded as the equivalent of " Emperor." Maharani signifies " Empress." Many 
Malays, however, have the title as a name only, without its implying any territorial 

Mq.Vi n m m ^,(\ q.ti \ ^m. — The Mahommedan religion is known to the natives of 
tlie Peninsula by its usual Arabic name of Islam, to which they generally prefix the 
Sanskrit word a^ama, religion. All who have adopted it are of the same professing 
orthodox form as the Arabians, by whom, directly or indirectly, they were converted. 
The history of the conversion of the Malays may be briefly told. The missionaries 
who effected the conversion were not, for the most part, genuine Arabs, but the 
mixed descendants of Arab and Persian traders from the Persian and Arabian 
Gulfs, parties who, by their intimate acquaintance with the manners and languages 
of the Malays, were far more effectual instruments. In the course of several ages, 
Arabian and Persian merchants, and Mahommedan merchants from Gujerat and 
other parts of India, had settled in various parts of the Archipelago. Unaccom- 
panied by their families, they intermarried with the native inhabitants, and from 
this union sprang the apostles of Islam » The earliest recorded conversion was 
that of the people of Achiu, in Sumatra, the nearest part of the Archipelago to 
the civilized i>arts of Western Asia. This happened in 1206 of our era. When the 
Malays of Sumatra were converted is not fixed, but probably about the same time 
as their neighbours, the Acbinese. The Malays of Malacca adopted Mahommedanism 
in 1276, and it is now the religion of the Peninsula.* 

Mail-Armour. — In Malay, haju-rantai, the sense of the term being " chain- 
coat," or jerkin, and agreeing exactly with our own definition of the term, as given 
by Johnson — " a coat of steel net- work for defence." This coat, and a morion, or 
casque, called katopang, both being native words, are the only kinds of defensive 
armour which were used by the Malayan nations. They are now rarely seen, and 
from the high price of iron and the impediments they would throw in the way of 
the free use of the favourite weapons — the spear and the dagger — were probably 
never in general use.* 

Major. — V. on N. bank of Chandriang R., E.G. Perak. 

Mak. — A district in C. Malacca, Alor Gajah being the principal village in its 
vicinity. About 14| miles N. of Malacca-town. 

Makkilei. — ^A village in Naning, the residence of a Penghulu. 

Malacca, Town and Settlement of.— While the town itself demands 
separate mention as regards its position, history and social aspect, all remarks upon 
its government, climate, geology, &c., apply also naturally to the Settlement. The 
two will, therefore, be dealt with under one heading. As regards its history, it 
must be understood that the district followed the fortunes of the town, but that, 



Descriptive Dicliofiary 


prior to British priaseaaion in 1824, the territory of Malacca comprised a, smaller 
arotb than it now does, Naainj^ aad Jelli having been absorbed within its limits, 
while alight exteualona of its N.E. to E. frontier have also taken place since the 
period of the Dutch ascendency. 

P08IT10M.— The town of Malacca lies in lat. 2° U' 30" N., and long. 102^ 12' 20" 
E., and ia situated upon a amall river of the same name, which divides it into two 
parts, though now but an inaignificani stream. The town forms the capital of a 
district extending from Sungei Linggi on the N. to Snngui Cessang on the S., and 
is bounded inland by the States of Muar, Johol. and Bembau. The coast line of 
the Settlement is about 40 mUes in length, and its extreme width from E. to W. 
alwut the same, its mean width being about 20 miles. The town Uea about 115 miles 
N.W. of Singapore, and about 45 milea E, of Sumatra. 

HisTOKT. — Few States had a more varied and romantic history than that of 
Malacca. Before dealing with ita modern aspect we quote hereunder a condensation 
of Ckawpcbd's carefully written article on the aubject ; — 

" The native history of Malacca is full of obscurity. Two Malay manuscripts, 
known by Arabic and Malay titles which signify ' the Crowna of all Kings,' that is. 
the Reigns of all Malar Kings, and their Genealogies, give the following account 
of the foundation of the State: — About the year 1160 of our time, a certain chief 
of Palcmbang in Sumatra, with his followers, established themselves at Sittgapwra. 
Here he and his successors continued until 12.52, when they were expelled by an 
invasion of the Javanese of the kingdom of Majapait, and next year established 
themselves at Malacca, The third prince in aucceasion to the fugitive who founded 
this last place, ascended the throne in 1276, and was the first who embraced 
the Mahomraedan religion. H was the twelfth prince in deacent from the founder 
of Bingapura, and the seventh from the founder of Malacca, who was driven &uni 
his throne by the Portuguese in 1511. There ia, however, too much reason to 
believe that the greater part of his story is afabrication of comparatively recent times. 

"There ia more consistency and verisimilitude in the account rendered by the 
early Portuguese writers, who derived their information from the Malayan cot«m- 
poraries of tlie conquerors. ' Concerning the time,' says Bajcros, ' in which 
Malacca was founded, or respecting ita early inhabitants, no writing has come to 
our knowledge, but there is a common belief among the people themselves, that 
little more than two hundred and fifty years had elapsed since the place was first 
peopled.' He gives no dates, nor does he furnish the names or the number of the 
line of kings. This, however, ia done in the ' Commentaries of Albuquerque,' which 
give ail kings, all but the first with Arabic names. 

" Bareos' account of the foundation of Malacca is aa follows ; — ' A fugitive 
from Java, whose name he writes Pabajhsoba, and which is probably the Javanese 
compound, taken from the Sanskrit, Prama-eora, meaning " valiant hero," arrived 
in Singapore, then ruled by a chief named SA.NaiN04. This prince received him 
hospitably, but in requital waa assassinated by him, with the aid of hia Javaness 
followers, and of a. certain people called Cellatea. The assassin seized the govern- 
ment and retained it tor five years, when he was expelled by the Siamese, not by 
the Javanese of Majapait, as he is represented to have been in the Malay manu- 
scripts. On his expulsion, he is represented as having fled and sought refuge at 
Pago, on the River Muar, distant, according to Babbos. forty-five leagues from 
Singapore, and five from Malacca. Eventually, along with 2,000 Javanese followers, 
he settled at Malacca, on the invitation of some of the Cellates, who had themselves 
taken refuge on the banks of the river of that place." 

" Who these Cellates were is certain enough. The word is a Portuguese forma- 
tion, from the Malay word Sdlat, a strait or frith, and at full length in this language 
would be orang-tulat, or men of the narrow aeas, in reference to the numerous 
atrait« among the many islands between the Feuioaula and Sumatra. The Cellatea 
vuTt!, in fiLct, tiie well-kuowu orang-laiU, or ' men of the sea,' famous all over the 


of British Malaya 

Archipelago for their piscatory aod predatory habits. Such of this i)eople as had ' 
fled with the Juvanese from Siuga.pore, atid hud formed their encampment about 
the liver of Malacca, found there, not far from it, aa LoiaQd people, of the same 
raue, Bpeaking the same language with themselveB, with whom they intermiied. 
"The first settlement,' aays Basros, ' which they (the CeUates) made was on a hiil 
above the fortress which we now hold, where they found some people of the land, 
half sarages in their manner of liviog, whose language was the proper Malay, 
which all these people used, and with which the CeUates aJso were acquainted. But 
as in the beginning of intercourse there was some alienation caused by difference 
in their modes of life, concord was established through the women, in which the 
Cellates were deficient, each party, however, still following the mode of life to which 
they had been accustomed — the Cellates living by the produce of the sea, and the 
Malays by the fruits of the earth. And as both these people knew that the place 
where Pab&miboba dwelt was confined, they invited him t« join them. Finally, 
pABAMisoRA, having seen the place, quitted his residence in Fa^o, and came and 
dwelt among the people of the plain of Beitam-'— Decade I., Book 6, Chap. 1, 

" It was the sou of Paka-Hisoka, according to Basros, that commenced the 
building of Malacca. ' And,' oontLuues he, 'as the Cellates were a low and vile 
people, and the natives of the country half savages, Paramisoba and his son, 
order to make them faithful allies in their labours, and especially, in order to ui 
themselves of their services in building the intended city, they ennobled them by 
intermarriages with distinguished persons of those whom they had brought with 
them from Java, and thus the Malaya became ail of them Majidiwije {maniri, h 
Sanskrit, a counsellor or noblej, and these are now the nobles of Malac«a, in virtue 
of the privileges conferred by former kings on them, as being the first inhabitants 
of the city.' 

"Theaccount given in the 'Commentaries of Albuquerque' isesentiallythe same. 
On one point all parties seem to agree, that not only the founders of Malacca, but 
even of Singapore, were Javanese and not Malays, for even the Malayan account is 
substantially to this efEect, since it brings the emigrants who established themselves 
in Singapore from Palembang, which was a Javanese settlement. 

■• In Babros and the ' Commentaries ' the name of Malacca is alleged to be 
connected with the foimdation of the State, There can, however, be no doubt but 
that it is derived from that of the Malaka plant, Pkyllanthug emblica, a shrub said 
to be abundant in the localiU. Marbdhn, after quoting Barkos, observes that, ' au 
error so palpable (as that Mialacca, in Javanese, meant ' eiile ') throws discredit on 
the whole narrative.' This, however, is not correct. The passage, as he quotes 
it, runs thus ; — -' They again descended the river, in order to enjoy the advanta^s 
of a seaport, and built the town which, from the fortuues of his father, was named 
Malaea, signifying an exile.' But the passage at fnll length is as follows : — ' Xaqubn 
Dabxa (Sekakdab Shah) now ruled the people, because his father was very old, 
and in order to avail himself of the sea, through which he hojjed to attain I 
eminence, he resolved to make Malaea a city, "to which he gave this name in memory | 
of the banishment of his father from his native country, For, in his own language 
(Javanese) it means au exile (iwneni deaferrado), and hence, also, Uie people call 
themselves Mal^ios.' — Decade I, Book 6, Chap. 1. In the 'Commentaries of Albu- 
querque.' the founding and naming of the town are ascribed, not to the son, but to 
the fugitive Javanese himself, and the account they give is this :-<— ' Parauiboba 
gave the town the name of Malaka, because, in the langua^ of Java, they call 
Palimbao (Palembang, which the writer in another place says is in Java, instead 
of Sumatra), to which he fled, Malayo, and because he came a fugitive from the i 
kingdom of Palimbao, of which he was king, he named the place Malaea. Others 
say it was called Malaea on account of the many peoples that came to it from one J 
or other country in so brief a time, for Malaea, also means to meet or assemble ] 




Descriplive Dictionary 


■■ But the language of the people o£ Malacca, was not Javanege but Malay, and 
it may be asted, how this is to be accounted fori' The obrioua esplanation seems 
to be that, in a miited population, the eaay language of the majority prevailed over 
the more difficult one of the minority. What took place in our own country, and 
also in Northern India, in both of which the languages of the few were absorbed or 
displaced by those of the many, are examples in illustration. Cartakheda's 
a(;eount of the Malay, as a language uf iatercommunication, is perfectly accur&tti. 
' The people ' (of Malacca), says be, ' speak a language called Malaya, which is very 
sweot {mvAj ioce), and easy to acquire.' — Vol. II, p. 335. The Malay spoken at 
Malacca contains a large infusion of Javanese, as the English does uf Nomiaa- 
French, and Hindi of Persian. 

" Of the supposed expulsion of the foimders of Malacca from Singapore by 
the Javanese of Majapait, there is no allusion in the Portuguese writers, and 
certainly there is no mention of it iu the native chronicles of Java. Both Barbos 
and the author of the ' Commentaries of Albuquerque.' Btat« that the expulsion was 
effected by the Siamese, and the latter expressly asserts that the Prince of Patani, 
at present the next Malay State to SJam on the eastern side of the Peninsula, was 
the iuatrument employed, as he was the brother of the £ing of Singapore who had 
been asaossinated by the future founder of Malacca. The subjection of Malacca 
to Siam seenm, indeed, to be admitted by all parties. Four of the most northerly 
of the states of the Peninsula are still subject to it, while a claim of supremacy 
was made, until modem times, for at least three more. The author of the ' Com- 
mentaries of Albuqu-irque,' giving a greater extension to Malacca than Babros. thus 
deacrilies it and its subjection to Siam : — ' The kingdom of Malacca on one side 
borders on Queda, and on the other on Pam fPahang). It has ICM) leagues of 
coaat, and inland extends to a chain of mountains, where it is parted from Siam, 
a breadth of 10 leagues. All this land was anciently subject to Siam. It was, 
more or leas, ninety years before the arrival of Alfonso d'Albuqubrque that tbe 
country became independent, and that the kings became what they called them- 
selves, ^oltoea (Sultans), which among them is equivalent to Emperor.' — Chap. 17, 
p. 353. 

" Of the time in which the Mahommedau religion was embraced by the people 
of Malacca there is no precise statement. The Malay account assigns the event 
to the reign of a prince called Stdtan MAUouEn Shah, who ascended the throne 
in 1276, and this seems probable, since so remarkable an event is likely enough to 
have been chronicled (aa indeed it has been in other countries of the Archipelago) 
by a people proud of the event, and now in possession of an era to reckon by. 
The statement of Barkos respecting the conversion is as follows :^' The greatness 
of Malacca induced the kings, who followed Xaquen Darxa (Sekansar Sbah), to 
throw ofi their dependency on the kings of Siam, and this chiefly since the time 
when, induced by the Persians and Qujrati Moors, who came to Malacca and 
resided there for the purpose of trade, from Gentiles to become converts to the sect 
of Mabonimed.' 

" The account given by the Portuguese historian Dieoo de Couto differs 
materially from all the other atatementa. He says that the conversion of the 
King of Malacca was effected by a coaee from Arabia, who gave him tbe name of 
Mahommed after the prophet, adding that of »& (tkak) to it. and that this took 
place in the year 1388, or 112 years later than the dat* aasigned to this event by 
the Malay manuscript. Including the converted prince, he ^ves Ihe uames of the 
five kings who reigned down to A-LHuqcebque's conquest, and these agree sub- 
stantially with those of the other statements. This account, then, which would 
give from twenty-two to twenty-three years to each reign, is, after all, perhaps the 
most probable. — Decade IV, Book 2, Chap. 1. 

" The flourishing condition of Malacca, at the time it was attacked by the 
Portuguese, has, no doubt, been much exaggerated, but making every abatement. 

Mai of British Malaya. Mftl 

enough will remain to show that it was a place of considerable commercial impor- 
tance, judging it by the ideas of the beginning of the sixteenth century, and by 
the pecidiar value then attached to some of the commodities of which its trade 
consisted. * In matters of trade,' said Babbos, * the people (the Malays) are artful 
and expert, for, in general, they have to deal with such nations as the Javanese, 
the Siamese, the Peguans, the Bengalis, the Quelijo (Chulias or Talugus), Malabaris, 
Gujratis, Persians, and Arabians, with many other people, whose residence here has 
made them very sagacious. Moreover, the city is also populous, owing to the ships 
that resort to it from the country of the Chijs (Chinese), the Lequios (Japanese), 
the Lu^oes (people of Luzon in the Philippines), and other nations of the Orient. 
All these people bring so much wealth, both of the East and the West, that Malacca 
seems a centre at which are assembled all the natural products of the earth, and all 
the artificial ones of man. On this account, although situated in a barren land, it 
is, through an interchange of commodities, more amply supplied with everything 
than the countries themselves from which they come.' The same author, in the 
same place, describes the general aspect of the town as follows : — * Our people, 
although they did not see majestic structures of stone and mortar, or ramparts, 
or towers, or indeed any other kind of defence, beheld, notwithstanding, a town 
extending along the beach for a good league, and, ranged along the shore, many 
merchant vessels. But if the town was almost entirely built of wood, and the 
houses thatched with palm-leaves, in others places there were towers, walls, and 
some examples of a better architecture. Its real defences were a numerous people, 
and a multitude of ships.' 

" The account given of Malacca by the author of the ' Commentaries of Albu- 
querque ' is less moderate. Thus, he asserts that the predecessor of the last king had 
accumulated a treasure of 140 quintals of gold, and that the town, in his time, con- 
tained 40,000 dwellings (vezinhos). According to him, it contained, including its 
precincts, 100,000 dwellings when Albxtquebqfe attacked it. * It is truly believed,' 
says he, * according to the information we have of Malacca, that if another world 
and other navigations were discovered, all parties will still resort to it, for here 
come every sort of drugs and spices of the world that can be named, because its 
port is the most convenient in all monsoons of any from and within Cape Comorin.' 
—Chap. 18. 

** Castanheda's account is less extravagant. * The city,' says he, * at the 
time of its capture, was as long as from Dexobragas to the monastery of Belem, 
"but narrow. It might contain about 30,000 hearths (fogos). The river divides 
it into two parts, the communication between them being by a wooden bridge. 
The houses are of wood, and principally by the sea-side, but in other directions, 
they are of stone and mortar, very noble. In the quarter which lies to the south 
stand the king's palace and the large mosque, and here dwell all the nobility. On 
the northern side dwell the merchants, and here the city is most extensive.' — Vol. II, 
R. 335. 

" According to the most moderate of these accounts, Malacca is made to contain 
a population of 150,000 inhabitants, and although narrow, inland, to have extended 
three miles along the shore. It is evident, however, that it was for the most part a 
mere assemblage of thatched huts, and, with the exception of temporary breast- 
works, it is certain that it had no kind of fortification such as the Portuguese 
themselves had found in other parts of Asia. 

"The reputation of Malacca had reached the Portuguese as soon as they had 
arrived in Calicut, and in 1509, ten years after that event. King Emanuel fitted 
out a fleet in Portugal in order to establish a trade with it. This was under the 
command of Diboo Lopez db Sequeiba, and reached the city in the following year. 
Here, through the representations of the Mohammedan merchants of Western 
India trading with Malacca, an attempt was made to cut him off, and some of his 
people were killed, and others taken prisoners. The ill-conduct of the Portuguese, 



Descriptive Dictionary 


indeed, bad been such, since their arrival in India, that an act of perfid}' to cut 
them off is easily credible on the part of a semi-barbarous people. Bakbob, after 
de-scribing the flourishing condition of Malacca, gives the following account o£ the 
effect which the depredations of his countrymen had produced on it ;— • This busy 
trade,' says be, ' lasted until our arrival in India, but the Moorish, Arabian, Persian 
and Guzrati ships, fearing our fleets, dared not. in general, now undertake the 
voyage, and if any ship of theirs did so, it was only by stealth and escaping our 
ships. The king Mahoked of Malacca immediately began lo experience a loss in 
the duties which he levied on trade. As from the great number of ships which 
had frequented the port, a large revenue had bepn realized, and now feim a few 
there was but a small one, he began to recompense himself for his loss by plunder- 
ing the resident merchants, and they, consequently, began to leave the pla^e.' — 
Decade H, Book 6, Chap. 2. 

" According to Bakbos, the conduct of SeqiTEiaA was, at least, as barbarous 
as that of the Malay king. * Finally,' says he, ' seeing so many inconveniences to 
arise, they agreed that it was expedient to quit the place, and by way of proclium- 
ing their future intentions, Dieoo Lopez commanded that a man and woman, who 
had come on board the ships the day of the affray, should have an arrow passed 
through their skulls, and thus they were landed in one of his boats as a present to 
the king, who was thus informed through these his subjects that, unless he kept a 
good watch, the treason which he had perpetrated would he punished with fire and 
sword.' It was to punish the act of perfidy practised towards SBttUBiaA and his 
companions that Alfonso ALBcqirBEiiPB, then Governor- General of India, fitted 
out the expedition which e^cted the conquest, and which he himself commanded 
in person. This fleet consisted of nineteen sail, and, according to Babbos, the 
Portuguese troops amounted to no more than 800 men, with 200 Malabar 
auxiliaries, the latter armed only with swords and shields. The fleet anchored in 
the Malacca roads on the first day of July. 1511, near a small island, the usual 
station of the Chinese junka, of which three had already arrived. The first care of 
ALBuqiJEBtiUE was to enter into a negociation in order to rescue the prisoners of 
Sequeiba's fleet, in which he succeeded, and with the information which they fur- 
nished, he resolved to attack the city. In his first attempt, however, he met with 
such resistance that he was either beaten back or found it prudent to retire to hia 
fleet, and it was only in the second assaidt that he succeeded, and then, in a good 
measure, through a kind of blockade, which lasted nine days, and by which the 
Malays were starved into (Quitting it, ' In the attack.' says Babbos, ■<jueb(idb 
confined himself to capturmg the bridge, at which he entrenched his troops. In 
this position he maintained himself for nine days, until the Malays were wearied 
out and forced to abandon the town. Among them there was such hunger that, 
in order to pilfer a little rice from houses in which they knew there was a store, 
they preferred risking their bodies against our steel to losing their lives through 
want of food.' 

" The preparation for and commencement of the first attack is thus mentioned 
by Bakbob : — ' Next day, which was the vesper of St. Ja^o, before dawn and to the 
sound of the trumpet, the captains in their boats repaired to the admiral's ship, 
and having received absolution from the pnest, they instantly made for the land. 
AI.FONB0 Albuquebque making for the mouth of the river in order to capture the 
bridge, and the other commanders proceeding to the different [uints assigned to 
them. ALBuqDBBiixiE giving the word " St. Jago," the trumpets sounded the signal 
to engage, and the soldiers set up a shout. Some artillery, brought in the b^ts, 
replied to the cannon which the Malays hod on the bridge. On this, the air wm 
rent with a confusion of noises, so that the trumpets, the cannon, and the shouts, 
could not be distinguished from one another, the whole forming a doomsday of fear 
and terror.' The arms of the Malays consisted of cannon (6otiifcan/o«), hand-guns 
{e»yvu^o,rda»), buwa and arrows, bluw-pipes for discharging small darts, sfwurds, 


of British Malaya. 

daggers, spears, and bucklers. Among other means of attack by the Malays were 
elephants, and with the usual result to those that employ them. ' The king and 
his SOD,' say the ' Commentajnea,' ' who were mounted on elephants, seeing themselves 
pressed by our men, turned back, with 2,000 men that accompanied them, but some 
of our men. meeting them at the end of a street, resolutely attacked the elephants 
with their lauces. The first to do this is said to have been Feenao Qohes de 
Lemos, As elephants bear ill to be wounded, they turned backwards and fell on 
the Moors, throwing them into confusion. The elephant on which the king was 
mounted, feeling the pain of its wound, seized the " negro " that guided it with ita 
trunk and dashed him to the ground, on which the king, wounded in his hand, dis- 
mounted, and not being recognized, effect«d his escape.' 

"In the first attack the Portuguese set fire to both (]uarterB of the city. 
' Prom the stockades which he had erected,' say the ' Commentaries,' " Alfonso 
D'AiiBUciUEBQUB directed Gaspae db Paiva, with 100 men. now that the sea-breeze 
had set in, to fire the commercial part of the town, and Stxao Martinez, with an 
equal number, to do the same to the king's palace. When the fire took effect, it 
consumed a great part of the city, and the Moors, in consequence, kept at a distance 
from our people.'— P. 369. 

" Ab soon as the Portuguese had become masters of the town, Albuqttbbijue. 
as a reward to his troops, gave a general order to sack it, making an exception only 
in favour of the natives of the Malabar coast, and of the Javanese and Peguans, 
who had &,vouFed his enterprise. No account is given of the total loss sustained by 
the Portuguese in the capture, but in the first attack the number of the wounded is 
stated at seventy. ' Of the Moors.' say the ■ Coramentariaa." ' men, women, and 
children, an infinite number perished by the sword, for no one was spared.' 

■' Babbob estimates the value of the plunder taken at 500,000 crusados, which 
would amount to no more than <£62,20l), but Cahtakhbda reduces it to no more 
than two-fifths of that sum. All the authorities seem to agree that the number of 
cannon captured was 3.000, most of them, in all probability, mere wall-pieces. 
This is the account given in the ' Commentaries' : — " There were captured 3,000 pieces 
of ailallery, 2,000 of them of brass, and among these was one large gun presented 
to the 'S^n^ of Malacca by the King of Calicut. The rest were of iron. All this 
artillery, with its appurtenances, was of such workmanship that it could not be 
excelled, even in Portugal. There were also captured matchlocks (espingardas), 
blow-pipes for shooting poisoned arrows, bows and arrows, lances of Java, and 
divers other weapons, which excited the wonder of the captors. Besides these arms, 
much merchandise of many kinds waa taken. All this, and much besides not 
8tat«d to avoid prolisity, Alfonso Albuqdekque ordered to be divided among the 
commanders and crews of the fleet, taking to himself only sis large brass lions, 
which he reserved for his tomb. These, with a bracelet, some children of all the 
nations of the land, and some tributes to be presented to £ing Dom Euaiiuel and 
Queen Dona Mabia, were all lost in the ship Flor del Mar in returning to India. 
Let no one be surprised, in perusing this narrative, that in Malacca there were 
taken 3,000 pieces of artillery, for Rpt de Abacjo (a prisoner of Sbqceisa's 
fleet), NiKACHKTCAN (chief of the Talingas), and Alfonso Albcquekqub stated 
that in Malacca there were 8,000. and this may be believed for two reasons: first, 
that in that town there was much copper and much tin, with smelters as good as in 
Germany, and in the second place, that the city was a league in length, and that 
when ALBiTQUEB<ti7E was effecting a landing he was fired upon from all parts, from 
which it will appear that the number of guns was even small for the extent that 
had to be defended.'— Chap. 28, p. 380. 

" The Portuguese certainly onsidered the capture of Malacca one of the most 

S'orious of their Asiatic conquests. Castanhbda, speaking of the point at which 
e chief resistance waa eipenenced, says of it. ' and surely until this day, from the 
time we began the conquest of India, was no enterprise undertaken so arduous as 


Descriptive Dictionary 


the affair of that bridge, nor one in which so much artillery was employed or in 
which 90 many were engaged in the defence. Moreover, from the play of the 
enemy's artiUerj-, we received much damage before we had effected a landing.' — 
Vol. ni, p. Ids. The enemy that Albuquesque had to contend a^^ainst was 
certainly both braver and more skilful and better armed than the American nationa 
over whom, a few years later, Cobtez and Pizabeo gained their victories. The 
inhabitants of Malacca, however, when attacked, divided aa they were into aeveral 
different natious. were not imauimoua. Thus, ehortly after capturing the city. 
ALBuqiTEKiiUE pursued the King to Muar, and his force ia described as having 
conaisted of 400 Portuguese, 600 Javanese, and 300 Peguana. In his meditated 
attack on the city, the commanders of the Chinese junks, anchored in the roads 
near his fleet, volunteered their assistance in the storm, but it was declined with 
thanks, and the reason is characteristic, although not consistent with the help he 
afterwards accepted. ' The Portuguese never accepted assistance when they fought 
against Moors, for Qod, through his apostle, had commanded them to fight them. 
But he (Albuqubbqub) requested them to look on and see how the Portuguese 
fouglit.'^BAKROB. Decade EI, Book 6. Chupter 4. 

"The Portuguese held Malacca for 130 years, a period of disaster throughout, 
in which, with the exception of courage and daring, they exhibited none of the 
qualities fit to rule an Asiatic people. Their subjects were Mahommedaus, moat 
of those with whom these maintained commercial rehktions were of the same 
religion, and against the Mahommedan religion the Portuguese declared a crusade 
from their first appearance in the Indian seas. Their main object, too, was the 
establishment of a commercial monopoly, and they made a pirutii^ war on all who 
opposed them in its prosecution. This policy necessarily raised against them a 
host of enemies. The expelled Malays made war upon them during their whole 
occupation of Malacca, and finally assisted in extruding: them. They had hardly 
got possession when they were nearly losing it by famine brought on by their own 
acta. This was immediately followed by an invasion from Java, and from the 
kingdom of Achin. in Sumatra. Malacca was invaded no fewer than eight different 
times. Besides these attacks by the natives of the different countries of the 
Archipelago, a far more formidable enemy — the Dutch— continued to assail them 
for 40 years, until they at last supplanted them by the capture of the city. 

" The Portuguese resisted all these enemies with eitraordinary courage and 
fortitude. The DuU'h had besieged Malacca in ltJ06 and 1608, and were defeated 
on both occasions, and it was not until 1641, and after a blockade, a siege, and an 
H,ssault, that they succeeded in capturing it. the siege having in all lasted nine 
months. The Dutch foire had amounted to 1,500 men, with Malay auxiliaries to 
the same number, the storming party to 650. The Portuguese garrison on the 
capture was found reduced to 200 Euroi>eaiu and 400 natives. This was the end 
of the proud conquest of Axbuqukkqub and his companions. The Dutch held 
poaseasion of Malacca until 1795, or for 154 years, when, during the war of the 
French Bevolution, it was surrendered by capitulation to the British Government, 
by which it was occupied untU 1818, when it was restored to the Netherlands 
Government, which exchanged it for Bencoolen in 1824. Down to 1813, the 
principles on which all the three European nations governed the country were 
those of an escluaive commercial monopoly, and the result of this mode of govern- 
nicnt was that the country was far poorer than it had been under its native rulers 
three centuries before." 

Turning from the accounts of those who. more or less interested in the 
events recorded, were apt to colour them in accordance with their own vii-wa, lirt us 
now refer to the imjjression produced on the minds of travellers, who were at leaal 
presumably free from bias. The first we quote ia from "The Navigation and 
Voyages of Lkwib WKarKRMANUBof Home, in the year 1503" :—" Sailing westward 
towards the city of Malaeka. we arrived in eight days' aailing. Not far from this 


Mai of British Malaya. Mai 

city is a famous river named G-aza» the largest I ever saw, containing 25 miles in 
breadth. On the other side is seen a very great island called Sumatra, and is of 
old writers named Taprobina. When we came to the city of Malacka (which some 
call Meleka) we were incontinent commanded to come to the Sultan, being a 
Mahommedan, and subject to the great Sultan of China, and payeth him tribute, 
of which tribute the cause is, that more than 80 years ago that city was builded by 
the Sultan of China for none other cause than only for the commodity of the haven, 
being doubtless one of the fairest in that ocean. The region is not everywhere 
fruitful, yet hath it sufficient of wheat and flesh and but little wood. They have 
plenty of fowls in Calicut, but the popinjays are much finer. There is also found 
sandilium and tin, likewise elephants, horses, sheep, pyne, pardilles, bufflos, 
peacocks, and many other beasts and fowls. They have but few fruits. The people 
are of blackish ashe colour. They have very large foreheads, round eyes and flat 
noses. It is dangerous there to go abroad in the night, the inhabitants are so 
given to rob and murder. The people are fierce, of evil condition and unruly, for 
fihiey will obey to no Governor, being altogether given to rob and murder, and 
therefore say to their Q-overnors that they will forsake the country if they strive to 
bind them to order, which they say the more boldly because they are near unto the 
sea and may easily depart to other places. For these causes we spent no long time 
there, but hiring a brigantine we sailed to the I. of Sumatra, where in few days 
sailing we arrived at a city named Pidir, distant about eighty miles from the 
continent or firm land." 

The following is from the voyage of John Francis Gomblli Casebi, who 
seems to have visited Malacca in 1505 : — " Malacca is situated in 2° 20^ N. lat. 
It contains about 5,000 souls, most of them Portuguese Catholics, better instructed 
in matters of faith than any in Europe, there being children 10 to 12 years old 
that answer in questions concerning religion as solidly as a divine could do. 

• • • rpijg ^j^y gives laws to all ships that pass the Straits, obliging them to 
pay anchorage, whether they put into the port or not. Spanish and Portuguese 
ships pay 100 pieces of eight each, others less. The Dutch are so hard upon these 
nations, because they say they paid as much when the Portuguese were masters of 
it. The English are not ouly free from the burden, but much honoured. * * * 
The port of Malacca is very safe, and has a great commerce from east and west. 

• • • rpijg dominion of the Dutch reaches but three miles round the city, 
because the natives being a wild people, living like beasts, they will not easily 
submit to bear the Holland yoke. They are called Menaricavoes, very great thieves. 
Their king, called Pagarioyon, has his residence at Naning, a village made with 
mats, ill put together, in the thickest of the wood. No better account of their 
country can be had, from want of commerce with them." 

The next extract is from the travels of Caesar Frederick, under date 1564 : — 
" Malacca is a city of marvellous great trade of all kinds of merchandise, which 
come from divers parts, because that all ships that sail in these seas, both great 
and smaU, are bound to touch at Malacca to pay their customs there, although they 
unlade nothing at all, as we do at Elsinor ; and if by night they escape away and 
pay not their custom, then they fall into a greater danger after, for if they come 
mto the Indies and have not the seal of Malacca they pay double custom. I have 
not passed further than Malacca towards the East, but that which I will si>eak of 
here is by good information of them that have been there. The sailing from 
Malacca towards the East is not common for all men, as to China and Japan, but 
only for the King of Portugal and his nobles, with leave granted to them of the 
King to make such a voyage, or to the subscription of the Captain of Malacca. 
These are the King's voyages that every year there departeth from Malacca two 
gallions ; one of them goeth to the Moluccas to lade cloves, and the other to Banda 
to lade nutmegs and maces." 

Tlie next extract from ancient voyages is from that of Newhoff, in 1662 : — 


WbX I}tse r ^ii v » Dieiienary Mftl 

** Tbi!> v^iHtad citv is likewise calW UiUftctn. heine the same in former timea called 
* Jj^kitU.' It Ii«« u]i<l«r $.S0 in > bur at tb« asLvat of a hiil ou the w^st side of the 
Kii«r Muar (utb^rwisv imllvd tlt<» Qaia sumI Jv^ra aud KroUaat, or, a« the Dutch 
•i|iivtu il. Krisanuit). whivh. Iiavlu^ its riw tf<wp in tho ootmtrv. divides the castle 
frv'U the ciu. smd. wiuhiii); its walla, (alls with a rapid current into the sea. Cross 
this riTvr is a stivui; bridge buih of stooe with several anies. • • * It ia 
wrv itopntons. • • • Tht> Kiu); of Johoiv besieged the dty in 1606 with 
ftJ.^Ki mea. thr IVrtupJi-so having; luaiutained themselres there till 1646, when 
tlu' l^ili-h itftor a vic^ of fowr mouths made themselves masters of it, after the 
Ponui^iu'itf had Ihi'd in|HWBraaioiil30 yrars. • ■ • The foundation of Malacca 
vos hud altout J.'iO vvara Wforv the arrinO of the Portuguese in India. About that 
timi) one Sanosinoa n^t^ni^ >n Sinkepure, situate under SO minutes of north latitude, 
Mid iu the uetghboiu-ing country of Java one PxiuviaA, who at hia death left his 
sous under the guardiauahin of iie own brother, their uncle ; but he having found 
occasion to murder the eldest, usurped the throne, at which some of the noble 
Javanese. Wing highly disgusted, did. with Pabahibora, their late king's youngest 
son, fly to Sinkepure. wliure they met with a kind reception from Sahosisoa, but it 
was not long before Pakamisoba, in combination with hia Javanese, murdered 
Banosimoa and put himself in possession of his kingdom. The King of Siam 
being highly exasperated at the treachery against Sangsinoa, his vassal and son-in- 
law, forced the Javanese to quit the countrT. who, being now obliged to seek for a 
new habitation, settled themselves near the River Muar, where they built a strong- 
hold called Payopayo, beside the Javanese. Pabamisoka was followed by 2,000 
others called Cellati, who live upon fishing and robbing ; but. though they had 
been very instniraeutal in Sinkepure. he did not think fit to receive them within hia 
new built eity. which made them settle their colony about 3 or 4 leagues fri>m the 
River Muar. not far from where Malacca now lies, where they joined with the 
inhabitants, who were half savages, since which time their langua^ is called the 
Malaya language. Biit when they became straitened for room aome of them settled 
themselves about J of a league from thence on a hill called Bitan surrounded with a 
largepkin. Pabamisoka being taken with the conveniency and pleasant situation 
of this place abandoned Payopayo, and transferred his colony near this place, which 
afterwards was called Makcca, i.e., ' banished persons,' in memory of the exiled 
Javanese. Saobab Dobsa, son of Paeamisoea, succeeded him in the kingdom. 
and, having submitted himself as a vaasal of the King of Siam, reduced the whole 
country of Sinkepure to the East as far aa Porto on the isle of Zambilan, which 
lies west of Malacca, a tract of land 40 leagues in length. Hia successors found 
means to shake off the yoke of Siam, especially after they were, by the Persians 
and those of Sinat, brought to the Mahommedan religion. The King of Siam,_iu 
1502, about nineyears before the Portuguese became mastera of Siam (Malacca?). 
did attack the King of Malacca with a fleet of 200 saila, aboard of which were 
G.OOO soldiers under the conduct of the Governor of Ligor, but the fleet was 
scattered bv a atorm. 

" The iarbour of Malacca is one of the finest in all the Indies, being navigable 
at all seasons of the year, a conveniency belonging scarce to any others in the 
Indies. Whilst the Portuguese were in possession of it, this city was very famous 
for its traffic and riches in gold, precious stones, and all other varieties of the 
Indies. Malacca being the key of China and Japan trade and of the Molucca 
Islands and Suuda. In abort. Malacca was the richest city in the Indies, next to 
Qoa and Ormus. , , - - . 

■■ The Portuguese used to take ten per cent, custom of all ships passing that 
way. whereby they got vast riches, but the Dutct E. I. Co. has abolished this, 
looltiug upon it as an unreasonable imposition, and are contented to traffic there. 
Malacca is a country producing but veiy little itself, but must be looked upon as 
the staple of the Ind"ies. • • • In short, there is such vast traffic and concourse 

Mai of British Malaya, Mai 

of merchants here that from them probably it got the name of * Q-olden Chersone- 
8US ' among the ancients, Malacca being certainly the richest harbour that can be 
seen, for formerly and to this day the merchants were so rich here that they used to 
compute by no less than by bars of gold." 

" Sinkepure lies on the most southern point of all Asia, about half a degree to 
the north of the line and 20 leagues from Melacca. * * * To the south of 
Melacca is a small island of about half a league in compass, by the Portuguese 
called Isle das Naos or Ship Island. Two leagues from Melacca is a pretty large 
island called Sapta." 

The foregoing extracts give sufficiently graphic sketches of the State of Malacca 
to a little over two and a quarter centuries ago. We will now give a short precis 
of its fortunes, taken from Mr. Skinner's excellent article on '' British Connection 
with Malaya " : — 

" Malacca having been taken from its Malay Sultan, Mahmud Shah, by the 
Portuguese under Albuquebque in 1511, to pumsh an attack upon his lieutenant, 
Sequeiba, in 1509, it was held by them till 1641, when the Dutch, after several 
fruitless attempts, succeeded, with the help of the Achinese, in driving them out. 
The place remained imder Dutch government till August 25th, 1795, when it was 
taken military possession of by the English. The Dutch Q-ovemment was dis- 
solved on December 4th of that year ; and the English administration which took 
its place under Admiral Mainwabino abolished the Dutch system of monopoly in 
the Straits, as Baffles afterwards did on a wider scale in 1813. Malacca was 
held by the English till 1818, at which -date it was restored to the Dutch, in accord- 
ance with the Treaty of Vienna. It came finally into our hands under the Treaty 
with Holland of March, 1824, in exchange for our Company's Settlement at Ben- 
coolen, and other places on the west of Sumatra. By that treaty it was also 
arranged that the Dutch should not again meddle with affairs, or have any settle- 
ment on the Malay Peninsula, the British Government agreeing, at the same 
time, to leave Sumatra to the Dutch, saving only Achin in the north, of which the 
independence was protected until the recent Treaty of 1872. 

"A few years after reoccupying Malacca, a small force of Sepoys had to 
proceed against Naning, the interior district of Malacca, in which Dutch 
sovereignty had apparently never been fully admitted. Our first expedition (1831) 
failed; the second (1832) succeeded. In 1833 a treaty was made, settling the 
S.E. boundary of the Settlement as at present. There has been no disturbance in 
any part of Malacca since the * Naning War.' 

"When Malacca was taken possession of by the Portuguese in 1511, it was 
one of the grand entrepots for the commerce of the East, and it so continued till 
the close of the sixteenth century; but as the Portuguese and other European 
nations pushed to the East, in the Archipelago and neighbouring countries, the 
trade of Malacca gradually declined, and the place ceased to be of much conse- 

Suence as a collecting centre, except for the trade of the Malayan Peninsula and 
lie Island of Sumatra. This trade it retained, under Dutch rule, till the estab- 
lishment of Penang in 1786 ; when, in the course of a few years, it became, what 
it has ever since been, a place of no commercial importance, but possessing some 
agricultural resources. Penang soon acquired most of the trade of the Malayan 
Peninsula and Sumatm, Borneo, the Celebes, and other places in the Archipelago, 
not reduced to mercantile subjection by the Dutch ; but soon after Singapore was 
established, Penang in its turn declined in importance, the greater part of the 
extensive Eastern trade being centred at Singapore. [Penang* s local trade has, how- 
ever, largely increased within the last few years, in consequence of the increased 
prosperity of the extensive tin mines in Larut, Renong, Junk Ceylon, the tobacco 
plantations on the E. coast of Sumatra, &c.] The opening of Singapore in 1819 
may be said to have accomplished for the time being, the ruin of Malacca's 

[209] p 


Descriptive Dictionary 

commerce. To use Eapfles' own words at the time, ' the mt«rmediat* station of 
Malacca, although occupied bv the Dutch, haa been completely nullified,' " 

One of the most romantic episodes in the history of the town was connected 
with the visits to it of St. Francis Xatieb, " the Apostle of the Indies," On 
the first occasion, in 1547, he described the inhabitants as living in the commission 
of all crimes, " without fear of laws, ecclesiastical or civil. Avarice, intemperance, 
uncleanliness, and forgetfulness of God were everywhere predominant, and the 
habit only, or rather the excess of their vices, distinguished the Christians from 
the unbeUevers." 8t, Fbamcis' teaching, however, produced a temporary effect, but 
on his subsequent visit he found the people had relapsed into their former 
iniquities. " Before his final departure," says Mr. T. Bsaddell in his article un 
the " Ancient Trade of the Indian Archipelago," " Malacca was publicly cursed. 
Standing in the church door, the Saint took off hia sandals, struck from them the 
dust, and, declaring the place accursed, refused to bear away so much as even the 
dust from the earth. The curae ia said to rest on Malacca to the present hour. 
and is frequently brought forward to account for the wretched state of decay and 
misery in which the place is now (1858) found." 

Under British rule, however, such a description as that contained in the last 
sentence is no longer appreciable. That its former fortune has entirely decayed 
cannot be denied. But there is probably as little misery in either the town or , 
settlement aa in any other portion of our colonial empire. 

Gbolooy, — The geological formation of the territory of Malacca consists , 
chiefly of granite rocks, overlaid in several places by the red cellular clay iron- 
stone called by geologists laterite. Many of the low plains are aUuvial, the soil 
composed of decayed vegetable mould intermixed with sand. The metallic ores 
are iron, gold and tin. The surface generally is undulating, consisting of low, 
round ridges and narrow valleys, the only mountain of considerable elevation being 
the Ledang of the Malaya, and the Ophir of the Portuguese, 4,400 feet aboTe the 
level of the sea, or leas than one-hatf the height of the principal mountains of 
the volcanic islands of Java, Bali and Lomboe, or those of the partially volcanic 
neighbouring Island of Sumatra. ' 

MiHBBALOOT. — The mineral products of Malacca were at one time looked [ 
upon as offering valuable prospects. Gold to the extent of 1,500 ounces yearly was 
obtained in 1857-8, but the yield decreased to such an extent that it ia no longer 
worked. Tin, about the same period, assumed considerable importance. The first 
mines were opened in 1793, but no great enterprise was displayed until 1848, when 
some 5,000 cwt. was the annual product, This increased until 1858, and a largo 
number of Chinese were employed in the industry. The superior yield of the 
Native States, however, combined with the eidiaustion of the surface washings, 
resulted in mi ning enteriiriBe in Malacca l>eing virtually abandoned, although 
both gold and tin probably still exist in workable quantities. Mount Ojihlr, 
just beyond the E. border of the Settlement, and its immediate neighbourhood, 
is undoubtudly auriforons, as is also Chindras on the N, border, some 15 niilca 
from Mount Ophir. The failure of a local company tormi^d some 13 years ago 
to work the mines has, however, damped foreign enterprise, the want of roada 
for transport being the chief difficulty, 

Climatb. — The climaf« of Malacca, as to temi»erature, is such as might be 
expected in a country uot much more than 100 miles from the eqiiatiir. lying 
along the sea-shoro — hot and moist. The thermometer in the shade ranges 
from 72° to 80'' of Fahrenheit, seldom being so low as the first of these, and 
not often higher than the last. The range of the barometer ia only from 29-8 
to 30'3 inches. Nolwithstandmg constant heat, much moisture and many 
swamps, the town at least is remarkable for its salubrity, and, with the excep- 
tion of the early jjoriod of its occupation by the Portuguese, has always enjoyed 
this reputation. 


Mat of British Malaya, Mai 

PAxnfA. — Malacca offers numerous attractions to the oniithologist and 
entomologist, but is less rich in mammals than many other tropical' districts. Nine 
species of quadrumana, the tiger, black leopard, wild cat, several species of viverra, 
such as the muBang and hinturong, the elephant, one-homed rhinoceros, tapir, six 
species of deer, and two of the wild ox, comprise a nearly complete list. Most of 
these are referred to under their respective headings, the remarks under each 
applying to the entire Peninsula. Fair sport can be obtained by those fond of 
shooting, from tiger to quail. It is noteworthy that the existence of the tapir was 
imknown until 1816, although European intercourse dated back to some three 
centuries before. Tigers in the early days of Portuguese occupation were so 
plentiful that the want of inhabitants was seriously attributed to this cause. 

As with the birds and insects, so with the reptiles. The snakes, lizards, and 
crocodiles are, as a rule, those of the Peninsula generally, the birds alone presenting 
a rather larger variety than those of other districts. Nor does the vegetation 
present any exclusive features, being that of the surrounding States. The coast 
line is poor in shells, and the absence of limestone accounts for the few species of 
land shells found within the district. 

AaBicuLTUBB. — The following remarks by Crawptjbd on the poverty of the 
soil in Malacca were evidently written on imperfect information : — " Some English 
writers have dwelt on the eminent fertility of the soil of Malacca, apparently 
judging it by the luxuriance of its vegetation. Facts contradict such a flattering 
notion of it. In a practical sense, a country can only be considered fertile when it 

Eroduces the cereal grasses, that is, the best human food with comparatively little 
kbour, and this proof is eminently wanting in Malacca. It has no chain of high 
mountains yielding a perennial supply of water for irrigation. With Malacca, the 
result of this absence is, that it has not only never exported com, but never even 
furnished enough for the maintenance of its own scanty population, always — evfen 
down to our own times — importing it, first from Java, then from Bali, Siam, and 
Arracan. The Portuguese conquerors had formed a far juster estimate of the 
capabilities of the soil of Malacca than ourselves. Babbos expressly calls the 
country a •barren land' {terra esterU), and informs us that, immediately after the 
conquest, a dreadful famine ensued, in consequence of the junks which brought 
the usual supplies of food from Java being stopped and seized by the expelled 
Malays, while the Portuguese themselves were prevented by an adverse monsoon 
from repairing to that island for a supply." Facts, however, contradict this 
estimate, as in reality Malacca padi commands a high price, and it supplies large 
quantities of fruit to other ports. The reason for the comparative unproductiveness 
of the soil lies in the circumstance that the Malays do not plant for purposes of 
trade, but simply to supply their own immediate wants. Short-sighted and careless 
of the future 'io a degree scarcely comprehensible to Europeans, their want of 
energy invariably result-s in an insufficient supply and the consequent necessity of 
importation. Properly cultivated, Malacca might, in this respect, be self-supporting. 
The chief agricultural industry at this moment is tupioca, to which the recent 
recovery of the market has given an essential impetus. 

Trade. — The trade of Malacca is comparatively insignificant, except as regards 
articles of domestic use. Since the abandonment of tin-mining, but little has been 
done in the way of exports, its agricultural resources alone enabling the Settlement 
to pay its way. A good import business is carried on from Singapore in the way 
of household necessaries, but no important article except tajuoiia figures in the list 
of exports. The development of the territory, owing to the formation of good 
roads, has nevertheless been very satisfactory. In 1853 the imports were valued at 
^248,385, and the exports at iJ337,058. For 1887 they were $3,833,311 and 
♦8,985,308, respectively. 

Population.— " in 1847 the population of the whole territory of Malacca,*' 
says Crawfttrd, " was reckoned to be within a fraction of 55,000, which, on the 

[211] p 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 

estimated &rea, gave 55 inhabitants to the square statute mile, the majority,' 
however, being 'compriaed within the narrow compasB of the town and its vicinity, 
which consequently left the greater pi)rtion of the country either vory thinly 
inhabited, or a mere jungle. The population then consisted of 2,784 Europeans 
and their descendants ; 10,589 Chinese and their descendants; 83,473 Malays; 
6,875 natives of Hindustan and their descendants ; and about 1,000 natives of the 
islands of the Archipelago. The remainder consisted of a few Arabs, 'Siamese, 
and African negroes. In 1828 the population had been estimated at no more 
than 28,000, so that, in about twenty years' time, it must have nearly doubled, if 
these figures be oorrect. By the latest census (of 1881) the total population is 
mven as 93,571*, or nearly double that of 34 years before. Of these, 19,700 were 
Chinese, and 67,000 Malays, the Europeans numbering 40, and Eurasians 2.213. 
The absence of any troops probably accounts for the enormous difference between 
2.784. and 40. 

GoTBBNMEHT. — The Government is administered by a Resident Councillor, 
assisted by a Ma^sttate, Collector of Land Revenue, District Officer, Harbour 
Master, Police and Prison staff, Medical staff. &c., the majority being under heads 
of departments residing at Singapore. 

Revenue. — The revenue of Malacca is derived from the same sources as that 
of the other British, and generally of the Dutch, possessions in the Archipelago, 
namely, from excise licenses for the vend of opium, spirits, and the like, together 
with the land revenue, now of considerable importance. As elsewhere, much of 
the revenue is reaUzed on the principle of farming, the ^rmers being always 
Chinese. As at Penang and Singapore, no custom duties, or any other charges on 
ship or cargo, except light-dues, exist. In 1847, the total net revenue amounted to 
£1£>,272, of whii^h ,£3,427 consisted of a tax on the rent of bouses assessed for i 
municipal purposes. This amoimted at the exchange of the day to a tax per head j 
of b»tt«r than 8s., which was more than the rate paid in any part of continental | 
India, and chiefly ascribable to the Chinese, who were the principal contributura. \ 
The expenditure was enormous, having amounted in the same year to no less than 
£51,783, or 168 per cent, beyond the receipt*. It must be stated, however, that a 
very considerable portion of this expenditure was factitious and extrinsic, such as 
th^ expenses of convicts from continental India, the salary and establishment of a 
non-resident Gk>vemor, and a share of the charge of two war st^am'Shlps engaged 
in the protection of the general trade of India from piracy. Certain estates, the 
fee simple of which had been alienated by the Dutch Government to private 
parties, were bought up for jCI.OOO a year by a former Governor, and others 
itn- being bought up under the Tithes Impropriators Ordinance sanctioned in 1887. 

The immense increase in revenue since 1847 will be seen by the foUowii^ 
figiu'cs : — 

1868 ... 8I12.725 

1875 $118,307 

1887 ... J306.763 

The revenue for 1892 was $294,507. The expenditure, in the latest returna ' 
available, is included in that of the sister settlements. 

TopoQBAPHT. — The territory of Malacca is divided into 38 distri<:l,s, some o( 
those, however, being known locally by other names; but it will suffice, tor 
the purposes of this work, lo state the principal divisions in alphahetimil order, " 

Aver Pah Abas. 
Datu Berendam. 
Bulcit Linggei. 



Durian Tuuggal. 

Mftl of British Malaya. Mftl 



Kwala Sungei Bharu. 

Linggi, E. and Kwala. 




Malakka Pindah. 




Padang Sebang. 

Parit Melana. Tanjong Eimau. 

Pigou. Umbei. 

Pondok Kompas 

Pulau Sebang. 


Sungei Bharu Uir. 

Sungei Bbaru Tengah. 

Sungei Bbaru Ulu. 

Sungei Petei. 

Sungei Siput. 

Sungei IJdang. 



Tangga Batu. 

EiYEBS. — There are no important rivers within the territory, the largest — 
Sungei Malakka — which takes its rise in the Juse district, being insignificant in 
width. The Duyong, about 2i miles to the E., is only 13 miles long. The Kessang, 
which divides it from Muar, and the Linggi between Malacca and Sungei Ujong, 
are the only two streams of any importance, although numerous little rivers flow 
into the sea. 

MoTTNTAiNB. — No mountains, and but few hills of any elevation, exist, the 
territory being, as a rule, flat and well adapted to the purposes of cultivation. 

Dbscbiption. — The town lies upon an open roadstead, of which the only 
advantage is its immunity from stormy weather, variable winds of little force, or 
complete calms, nearly always prevailing. Short heavy squalls, called " Sumatras," 
are sometimes experienced, but they seldom cause much damage. The shallow- 
ness of the water, however, obliges vessels to lie at from one to two miles off the 
shore, and the advantageous geographical position of the port was the sole 
reason of its importance before its eclipse by the sister Settlements of Singapore 
and Penang. 

Landing at the jetty, the visitor finds himself on a road winding round the hill 
upon which formerly existed the Portuguese fort surrounded by a wall, now de- 
stroyed. Grouped at the base are the Stadthouse, court-house, gaol, the site of the 
old Inquisition and convent, the police office, post office, school, and master atten- 
dant's office. The military and hospital buildings were formerly within the same 
circle, but are no longer used for these purposes. Upon the summit of the hill are 
the ruins of the Church of Our Lady do Monte, erected by Albuquerque, whence, 
according to received legend, St. Fbancis Xavibb solemnly cursed the ungrateful 
and profligate town as he shook its dust from his feet before departing on his last 
voya^ to China. The eastern end, which alone retains a roof, has for many years 
been used as a powder magazine. The grass-grown pavement of the nave contains 
numerous tombstones (some dating back to the time of Albuquebque himself) of 
long-forgotten priests and soldiers. What appears to have once been the belfry is 
still inhabited by the signalman, who signals passing vessels to the town below, 
and keeps the light burning by night, which forms the main guide to vessels enter- 
ing the roads after dark. Tradition is singularly silent regarding the church, 
beyond the fact of its erection by Albuquebque. There is no record of when it 
exchanged the solemn pomps of Catholic service for its present ruinous and dis- 
mantled condition, but it seems probable that this latter dates from 1641 (just 130 
years after its erection), when the Dutch, as above related, captured the town after 
a siege of nine months. Sir Pbedebick Weld, K.C.M.G., whilst Governor of the 
Straits Settlements, placed a tablet in the ruins commemorating St. Fbancis 
Xayieb's visit to the place. (See Xavieb.) 

Just below the church is situated the residence of the Eesident Councillor. 


Descriptive Dictionary 


Till! 8UiiUUiiiiai:<, alKivc rcferrtnl lo. coutnins most of the public offices, is generally 
tlio rtimitli'utH) of tho MitKiatrat«, nud aSords ucctiiuui«>ilatiua to the Chief Justice 
iiuil utJicr iifficials whou thi\Y visit tUf town. 

A iiiil)ti^rriiu(<ivn tHUsoi^ fomicrlT ciistod from the church or couvent to the 
(i>ol: tif lilt' hill, thi> outer ftitraut.'ebc-mg still opeu. But although several attempts 
liiivo liio'ii luivilo to cxplon> it, the earth has so fallen iu a short distance from the 
iiioittli, tUiil ui> aiK'oi.'ss has Altcnded thorn. 

A litlli> to the south is the Hilt of St. John, and ia Uie rear that of St. Francis. 
IJimii liolli nlill oiist the remains of IVrtiium'se and Dutch forts commanding the 
iMU«(.i'i-H tiiid soiilht'ni iKirtinus vi the town. Smaller hills intervene, mostly used as 
(.^hliiDite >'eiiu'tehe« ; the vaymt imj>ortant is calW Bukit China. 

A» aliiwl/ stattnl. a small river divides the town into two parts, and the 
iiriitiil)<al l>u«iut>M quartor i« sitiialvd oa the right, or N. bank. Three large 
hmiimKKrarvs nut iiorullpl to the coast, one continuing as far as Limbongon. 
TIiIk ixuitaiiiH niiviiv well-built houses inhabited bj descendants of the Dutch 
iiii«w>tii>iir<a and by the N'ltor-oouditioaed Klings. Chinese and Malays. The Anglo- 
UliJuxMti tVi|liw<, ouoe the head-quarters of Mobbihon and tlie few sinologues who 
Uteii etiittiiil, in iti this road, now known as Heeren Street. Numerous interesting 
dl'lvi'B oui bi' luiule liy those who desire to see the place more fully than by vii^win^ 
It rniui (lio hill. There is an old-world look about it that is rather faaeiuatin^, 
but Ihe (iljtK'iicii of relics of the past — if the old archway forming an entrance to 
tliii Toi't Ih' uxcentfd — is somewhat striking, and a visitor unacquainted with the 
liiiiliirv of tbi' ptiiiw would scArcely give it credit for the romance surrounding. it. 

iVrii.ii.' UuiLoiNos. — There are no public buildings, except those already 
ri'Fcrred to. and tho three churches — Protestant and Catholic. The former is an i^Iy 
tHliti<!ii, built by the Dutch, and stands in the square opposite the Stadthouse. The 
tiWo Oatholiu ehurches are respectively under the charge of Portuguese and French 
prieate. The Portuguese one ie an ancient building, but the French church has, 
on the contrary, some pretensions to impressive ness. The latter, though built only 
soma 35 years jvgo, the stucco used for its exterior gives it a look of antiquity which 
deceives most people, who are much astonished to learn that it is the offspring of ft 
very recent enterprise. 

Places op Amusemekt. — None, eicept Chinese theatres. 

Social Aspect. — Malacca numbers but few Europeans amongst it« popula- 
tion, but a hospitable and well-to-do class, more or less purely descended ftom its 
former [wsBesaors, form an appreciable portion, and they perpetuate the names 
celebrated in its history, notably that of ALBvqnEBiiDE. Many wealthy Chinese 
also are found, who are ever ready to welcome strangers duly introduced. 

The following statistics give tho average fur the jjast few years : — 

Clergy and those connected with Clerical matters ... 11 

Officials and clerks, £c,, other than Chinese ... ... 106 

Persons connected with Schools and Libraries ... ... 14 

Banks .. ... ... 3 

„ „ Telegraphs ... ... ... i 

„ „ Mercantile firms, European and 

Eurasian... ... ... 27 

„ ,, Chinese Members of Firms ... 56 

It must, however, bo borne in mind that these numbers only represent those 
wbose names appear iu the Directories, and that, as regards the Chinese and the 
poorer class of Portuguese especially, larger figures might be given. 

Malacca Canes (<Sa mamfru). ^Not, a» the name would imply, grown at 
Malacca, but a species of rattan imported from Borneo and other places, and origi- 
nally offered for sale to Eurojicans at Malacca. They are largely used for feuun. 
onlv the iKSt being reserved to become walking-sticks. 

Mftl of British Malaya, Mftl 

MaJaCCSt Fish. — Often known as " Macassar fish." A small fish from 2 to 
6 inches in length, which, having been cleaned and deprived of its head, is salted 
in quantities and placed under pressure in flat earthenware vessels. After two or 
three days of this treatment, they are washed and saturated with toddy vinegar ; 
ginger, peppercorns, brandy and " red rice " being added (** red rice " is hroB ptdut 
steeped in an infusion of cochineal). The result is a deep brick-red colour to the 
fish, which is then covered with vinegar in bottles for sale. It is locally known as 
ikan mas, 

Malacca Straits. — ^This is the name given to the channel which separates 
the Malay Peninsula from the Island of Sumatra, but the Malays have no name 
for it, for it is not consonant to their practice to give the appellation of strait 
(seUU) to so large a body of water, who^tever its form. The Straits of Malacca 
form, in fact, almost a land-looked sea, in which variable winds prevail, and in 
which the monsoons are felt only for a few miles at both extremities. Their 
extreme length is about 500 miles, and their breadth varies from 40 up to 300. 
At their western end there are many islands, chiefly towards the Malayan shore, 
half a dozen of which, including Penang, are of considerable size. At the eastern 
end they are almost innumerable, about a dozen of them, including Singapore, 
being large. The Straits of Malacca form the usual channel through which is 
carried on all the intercourse of the countries of Asia east and west of them. 
The dangers which impeded the navigation in the middle of the passage from sand- 
banks, and at the eastern entrance from countless islands, have of late years 
been obviated by the construction of two lighthouses by the British Government. 
The first notice we have of these straits is by Ludovico Barthema, a native of 
Bologna, who seems to have visited Malacca alx)ut 1503, or six years before the 
visit of Sequeiba, and he would seem to have taken them for a salt river. 
" Opposite to that city (Malacca)," says he, "there is a very great river (Fiumara), 
than which we had never seen a larger. It is named Gaza (?), and appears to be 
about 15 miles broad." — Bamtcsio, Vol. I, p. 166. 

Malakka Pindah. — A district ll miles N. of Malacca-town. A reach of 
the Malacca river close by is called Kwala Malakka Pindah. Two villages, one 
on the N. and the other S. of a small range of hills called Bukit Panchor, are 
called by this name. Fruit-trees flourish exceptionally well in this neigh- 

Malakoff Estate. — Known to the natives as Ara Eendang, from the small 
village of that name beside it, is 9 miles 6 furlongs N.E. from Butterworth, Pro- 
vince Wellesley. It was originally opened by Mr. E. Chassebiau as a sugar 
estate, but is now, and has for some years been, under tapioca, with considerable 
success. The manager occupies a very well-built house close to the works. 

Malang. — Rocks visible at high water — such as M. Sakit Mata and M. 
Tikus, near Pulo Babi, off the S.E. coast of Pahang. 

TV[ft]a'"g Hitam. — On S.W. face of Blakaug Mati Island, S. of 

Malay. — The word is correctly Malayu, in the language of the Malays 
themselves. A people of the brown-complexioned race, with lank hair, speaking 
the Malay language, is found in greater or lesser number all over the Archipelago, 
from Sumatra to New Guinea, and from the Peninsula to Timor. It is, however, 
only in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and islands adjacent to its coasts, and in 
Borneo that they exist in large numbers, and have a distinct independent nation- 
aUtv, for everywhere else they are found only as settlers or sojourners among 
indigenous populations. With the exception of a few wandering negritos, they 
form the entire population of the Malay Peninsula and its adjacent islands, and 
their number here has been estimated at about a quarter of a million. In this 



Descriptive Dictionary 


number, however, is no doubt included many not of the original Malay stock, but 
who, adopting their language, manuera and religion, came, in procosB of time, not 
to bo diatiDguishable. 

The Malay nation may be divided naturally into three classes — the eivilized 
Malays, or those who posaess a writt^^n langua^, and have made a decent progress 
in the useful arts ; the gipsy-Iiko fishennen, called " the sea-people ; " and the rude 
half -savages, who, for the most part, live ^reearioualy on the produce of the 
forests. The civilized Malays consist of tlie mhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. 
The sea-gipsies are to be found aojouming from Sumatra to the Moluccas, but 
are most numerous among the narrow seas of the many isIaiidB lying between 
Sumatra and the Peninsula towards the eastern end of the strait that divides 
them. The only habitations of this people are their boats, and they live esclu- 
sivoly by the produce of the sea or by the robberies they commit on it. The most 
usual name by which they are known is Orang-laui, literally, " men of the aeA," 
but they are also sometimes called Rayal-laut, or '■ Bea-subjeota," the Arabic word 
for subject being here used to eipreas their dependence on the princes of the 
civilized Malaya. Another name for them is Sika, and a very frequent one Bajau, 
which seems to be onlv the Javanese word bajo, a robber, with a Malay termination. 
The rude, wandering class, speaking the Malay language, is found in the interior 
of the Malay Pcninaula, in Sumatra, and in the islands lying between them, but 
in no other part of the Archipelago. They are known under the name of Orang- 
utan, men of the woods, wild men, or savages. The moat general name for them 
is Orang-henua, that is, " men of the soil," or aborigines, but in some parta they 
are called Sakei, which means followers or dependents. These ore, all of them, 
names given by the civilized Malaya, for among themselves the many tribes into 
which they are divided are known only by the names of the localities which they 
frequent, as Udai, Jakun, Sabimba, Bssisi, &c. 

These three classes of Malays existed near three centuries and a half ago, 
when the Portuguese first arrived in the waters of the ArchipclEi^o. just as they 
do at the present day. That people descril>ea them as having exist*?d also for two 
centuries and a haft before that event, as without doubt they did in times Ear 
earlier. Thus Babros describes the first class of Malays its men " living by trade, 
and the moat cultivated of these parte ; " the second as a " vile people," whose 
" dwelhng was more on the sea tJian the land." and who " lived bjr fiBlung and 
robbing J " and the third as " half-savages " (quasi meioi gelvat/es), while the Malay 
language was common to all of them. 

The question of the parent country of a people so widely spread over the 
Archipelago, which baa exercised so large an influence over the other population of 
the same region, and of whose tongue clear and unquestionable traces are found. 
not only in thoae of the Philippines, but of the South Sea lalands, and even of 
remote Madagascar, has been much debated, but certainly not aettled, nor, indeed, 
hkely ever to be precisely determined. The Malays themselves, hke all people in 
the same state of society, have no true biatory. The books which have been called 
their Annals are, in reality, romances, and indeed so called by themselves. The 
quality of these productions may be judged from the example of one of tliem 
translated by the learned l>r. Lbyuen, and which is deemed the most authentic. 
It is called Siijarak Mdlayn, which is rendered " Malay Annals," and slated to have 
been composed in 1612, at Malacca, of course under the govemmcut of the Portu- 
guese, This was framed from a Malay manuscript which had been brought from 
Qoa, and entitled a hdkayat, the Arabic word which the Malays use, in common 
with the Sanskrit one. charilra, for a tale or romance. Even the name given to 
these Annals themselves is not Malay, but Javanese, and misspelt in adoption. 
They are without a single date, and indeed, for the i>criod of Mamy history which 
))receded the conversion to Mabummedamsm. there could hardly have been any datee, 
as the Malays are not known to have had on era from which to reckon. The 

Mai of British Malaya. Mai 

narrative is a wild tissue of fable often drawn from Hindu and Arabian mythology, 
and the personages that figure in it not unfrequently Arabians and Hindus. It 
is conclusive of the worthlessness of such writings that the Malays have long 
ago converted even the events of the Portuguese conquest of Malacca into a mere 

In order to conjecture what may have been the parent country of the Malays, 
and to form some notion of their early history, nothing better than a reasonable 
hypothesis can be offered. The name of the people gives little assistance in this 
inquiry. The word Mdlayu is an adjective which requires to have a noun prefixed 
in order to give the sense required, as orang Mdlayu, a Malay or Malays ; tunah 
Mdlayu, the " Malay land," or land of the Malays ; and bahaaa Mdlayu, the Malay 
language. Mdlayu is, no doubt, the name of the original tribe or nation, and its 
source is obscure and untraceable. We need not, indeed, go further than our own 
language for a name as obscure, for Angle, as applied to ourselves, our country 
and our language, is as difScult to trace as Mdlayu applied to those of the Malays. 

It is natural to look for the parent country of the Malays where this people 
are most numerous, and least intermixed with other nationalities ; and this locality 
can be no other than either Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, or the islands lying 
between. The Malays themselves called the Peninsula tanah Mdlayu, that is, the 
** Malay land, or country of the Malays ; " and they designate its wild inhabitants, 
speaking the Malay language, as the orang hdnua, literally, " people of the soil," 
or, as we should express it, "aborigines." The term "land of the Malays" is, 
however, given to the Peninsula by the civilized Malays, perhaps only on account 
of its being the only country almost exclusively peopled by Malays ; whereas in 
Sumatra and Borneo they are intermixed with other populations. The term " men 
of the soil," applied by the civilized Malays, may, in the same manner, be used by 
them only to distinguish the rude natives from themselves, claiming to be foreign 
settlers. The expression, however, would seem to imply that the civilized Malays 
considered the wild tribes, speaking the same language with themselves, as the 
primitive occupants of the land. But the same wild tribes, speaking the Malay 
language, although not distinguished as " men of the soil," exist also in Sumatra, 
and more especially on its eastern side opposite to the Peninsula ; and they are 
found also in several of the islands lying between these countries, extending even 
to Banca and BiUiton. 

The first seat of the Malayan nation may, therefore, be either the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, or the islands lying between them ; and, as in the instance of 
the Polynesian people of the islands of the Pacific, where we find men speaking the 
same language and of the same race, from the Sandwich Islands to New Zealand, 
and from the Friendly Islands to Easter Island, it is difficult or impossible to 
determine on a particular locality for an original seat. The origin of Malay 
civilization, however, is quite a distinct matter from that of the nation ; and we 
may be tolerably sure that this did not spring up in the Peninsula, or islands 
adjacent to it, for no civilization has ever sprung up in any part of the globe in a 
country of such a physical character — in a region covered with an obstinate tropical 
forest, -destitute of open plains, composed of moimtains without table-lands, without 
natural facilities for irrigation, and with a stubborn or sterile soil. Such obstacles 
would be insuperable in the early and feeble stages of society, and, indeed, in the 
Peninsula, have not been conquered even in a more advanced one. The only Malay 
State within it that ever acquired any degree of eminence was Malacca ; and it owed 
it to the strangers who founded it, and to the convenience of its position as a com- 
mercial emporium; assuredly not to the fertility of a soil which never raised 
sustenance enough for its inhabitants, many of whom still continue in the condition 
of mere savages. 

All the civilized Malays of the Peninsula claim their origin from Sumatra 
and from Menangkabau, the most powerful State of that island ; but they do not 


HaI Descriptive Dictionary MaJ 

pretend to state the time or the cause of their migration. Some o£ the Statxjs of 
the interior even called themBelves " men of Menangkabau," their chiefs reeeiving 
au inTestiture from that place. Indeed, the migration from Mi?nangkabau to the 
Peninsula, although in dribblets, goes on down to the present time. The Malays 
of Borneo, in like manner with those of the Peninsula, claim their descent from the 
same Menangkabau. 

The claim of Malays beyond Sumatra of Ijcing colonies from a country in the 
heart of that island, is probably, aft^r all, no better than a myth, founded on a 
desire to claim a descent from a country which had, at one time, acquired more 
power and distinction than any other inhabited by Malays. The apocryphal 
Malay chronicle, for such without a doubt it is, referred to in the article on 
Malaica, does not, however, refer to Menangkabau. but to Palembang. as that part 
of Sumatra from which Singapore first, and afterwards Malacca, was founded. 
This probably arose from the real founders of both, as has been attempted to 
be shown elsewhere, not having been Malays but iTavanese, Even, however. 
supposing the emigrants in these cases to have been Malays, and the !<tat«ii]cnt 
to be trustworthy, the mere peophng of two small places, and this. t«o, at a time 
by near a century [waterior to the Norman conquest of England, would be neither 
an account of the parent country of the Malay nation, nor a history of its 

To account for the civilization and migration of the Malays (to fix their original 
seat is hopeless), the most probable supposition seems to be, that the wandering 
tribes of the Sumatran coast, or of the Peninsula, or of the islands between them, 
after they bad learned the construction of boats, after they had acquired some 
nautical skill and enterprise,— after they had, in a word, become the sea-gipsiefi 
which some of them still continue to be, — in procesa of time reached lands more 
promising than their own, and there settled, abandoning, to some degrte, their 
habit« as fishermen, and addicting themselves to agriculture. By such a progress 
they would, in due course, become what most of the civilized tribes of Malays are 
at the present day — half-fishermen and half- husljand men. Of such tribes, there 
eiistcd in Sumatra, at the time of the arrival of the Portuguese, no fewer than 
uine-and- twenty ; while in the Peninsula there were, at least, eight. All of these 
were at or near the coast, and invariably at the mouth or on the banks of a river. 
The maritime character of the Malay nation is, indeed, impressed on its language, 
and discoverable in the copiousness of its meteorological and nautical vocabulary. 
Thus, the compass is divided into sixteen points with specific names, all native ; 
and there are peculiar idiomatic terms for windward and leeward, signifying 
htjirally, "above the wind," and " below the wind." The river, the favourite and 
familiar locality of the Malay nation, affords room for a curious variety of eipres- 
sion : — Kwala. and mviioara signify " the mouth," and ulu " the source " of a nver j 
ilir is to " descend." mudik to " ascend " it. these last terms signifying, at the same 
time, ■' the interior " and " the sea-board." Teluk means " a bight," or " cove," and 
rantau " a reach ; " but they also signify a district of country, which is moreover 
frequently called anak-anngei, " child of the river." 

There is but one country eminently favourable to the development of an early 
civilization, in which we find the Malay nation planted — Menangkabau, so often 
referred to in Malay story. This is in the centre of Sumatra, among the fertile 
vallevs of the volcanic mountains, rising to a height exceeding 10.000 feet ; in short. 
in a locality of similar features to Java, and the islands immediately to the east of 
it. Sir Stahfobd Baffles, who had visited Menangkabau. dedai^d that it was 
as populous and well cultivated as any part of Java that he had seen, which ia 
assuredly what cannot be asserted of any other country whatever inhabited by 
Malays. The great probability then is, that this country was peopled by tho 
Malays of the eastern coast of Sumatra penetrating into the interior of the island 
by the principal rivers which have their source in it. This, indeed, is distinctly 

Mai of British Malaya. Mai 

asserted in the traditions of the Malays themselves. In this favourable position 
they would naturally acquire a degree of power which the same people have 
certainly nowhere else reached. It is, no doubt, the possession of this com- 
parative power which has caused the maritime Malay States to look to it with 
respect, and claim their origin from it. Malay tradition, however, by no means 
asserts that Menangkabau was the primitive seat of the Malayan nation ; but, 
on the contrary, affirms that it was itself peopled from Palembang, in the same 

The Javanese, as already intimated, appear to have had no inconsiderable share 
in the civilization of the Malays ; and although there is certainly no historical 
record of it, there is satisfactory proof. The Javanese would seem to have been 
even the founders of Malacca. Monuments, which prove the presence of this 
people in the country of the Malays, have even been discovered. Thus, Sir Stam- 
FOBD Baffles, when he visited Menangkabau, found there inscriptions on stone in 
the ancient character of Java, such as are frequent in that island ; and he was 
supported in his conclusion that they were so, by the learned natives of Java who 
accompanied him in his journey. The settlement of the Javanese in several parts 
of Sumatra is, indeed, sufficiently attested. In Palembang, they have been 
immemorially the ruling people ; and although the Malay language be the popular 
one, the Javanese, in its peculiar written character, is still that of the court. In 
the State of Jambi, which borders on Palembang, Hindu images, identical with 
those of Java in all respects, except that the material is granite instead of trachyte, 
have been discovered. Probably as much as one-fourth part of the Malay language 
is equally Javanese, and in a good many instances of compounded words, their 
Javanese origin is satisfactorily made out through their elements, themselves 
without significance, in the Malay language. One example will suffice. The 
founder of the States of Menangkabau, who is stated by Malay tradition to have 
come from Palembang, is called Sang Sapueba. The word sa^ is not Malay but 
Javanese, and signifies, literally, " a flower," but is frequently prefixed to the titles 
of personages of distinction, as sang-prabu, or sang-aji, *' a king ; " aang-yogi, " a 
devotee ; " and sangywang, " a god " or " deity." Sajmrha is composed of the 
article «a, " one," and the Sanskrit p^irha, ** first " or " beginning." The name, in 
fact, has much the appearance of one fabricated for the occasion. To these 
evidences of Javanese influence, it may be added, that Malay literature has nothing 
original of its own ; being, when not drawn from Arabic sources, borrowed from 
the fictions of Java, or the mythology of the Hindus, such as the latter was in 
that island. 

It is remarkable that Baeeos, drawing his information, no doubt, from the 
traditions furnished by natives to the Portuguese conquerors, expressly states that 
the Sumatrans themselves considered that the Javanese were once masters of their 
island. " It is held by themselves," says he, " that the Javanese (Jaos) had been 
once masters of their great island, and that prior to the Chinese (Chijs), they 
conducted its commerce, as well as that of India." — Decade III, Book 5, Chap. 1. 
The authority of Baeeos in this case, no doubt, suffers some depreciation from his 
asserting afterwards that the Javanese themselves were a people of Chinese origin, 
a derivation which he founds on their supposed imitation of the policy of the 
Chinese, and of their skill in the mechanic arts. This assertion, however, is but 
an hTOothesis of his own. 

The reliable history of the Malays began only with the arrival of the Portuguese. 
As already stated, the maritime Malays, without including those of Borneo, were 
at this time divided into nearly forty petty States. With the Malays of the interior 
of Sumatra the Portuguese did not come into communication. Menangkabau is 
aimply named, but certainly not, as it has been very absurdly called by some 
European writers, as a great empire, which undoubtedly it never was, unless we are 
contented to accept assertion for proof. The Portuguese found the maritime 


Hal Descriptive Dictiovary Mai, in common with the Java.nese, conducting the carrying trade of the 
Archipelago, including, at the time, the most important branch of it — the spice 
trade. Along with their trade, they propagated the Mahomraedau religion. Many 
of the inhabitants of Borneo, of the southern Philippines, and moat of those of the 
Moluocae, they had converted before the arrival of the Portuguese. In most of 
the sea-coaats of the islands of the Archipela.go we find traces of the settlement of 
Malays. Both for trade and propagandism, this language was the medium of 
communication, and for such a purpose it is certainly peculiarly well suited, from 
the simplicity of its structure and facility of its pronunciation and acquisition. 
From Sumatra to the Philippines and Moluccas, it was in general use for this 
purjjosc. " The Gentiles of the interior, as well as the Moors," says Bakbos, " who 
dwell on the coast, although they differ from each other in language, nearly all 
8|)eak the Malay of Malacca, being the most common in these parts." When 
Magellan discovered the Philippines, he bad no difiiculty in communicating 
with the inhabitants through a Sumatran slave that be had brought along with 
him. The same state of things continues t« the present day from Sumatra to New 

But the Malay language, besides being the common medium of communica- 
tion, has been infused, to a greater or less extent, into all the languages of the 
Archipelago, and clear traces of it are to be found even in the languages of tribes 
with which the Malays of our time hold no communication, and even of whose 
existence they are wholly ignorant, as in the case of tie languages of the islands 
of the Pacific and of Madagascar.* 

Malay Peniasula. — Position. — The Malay Peninsula extends from 7° 4' 
N. Lit. to 1' lUj' (Tanjong Bolus), or, if Singapore and it« outlying islands bt 
included, to 1" ICK N. lat.. its extreme W.W. point being in long. 99^ 41' E., and its 
eitreme eastern ixiiot (Toujong Puiigi, 41 mileB to N. of Poiut Boinania) lying in 
long. 104" 20J' E. The Horsburgh LightJiouse, however, which is a portion of 
the Straits Settlements, lies in 104° 245' E. The Peninsula is bounded on the N. 
by 8iam, on the E. by the China Sea, and on the S. and W. by the Singapore and 
Malacca Straits. 

H18TOET. — This work only dealing with the Peninsula and British Settle- 
ments, it is not proposed to sketch the history of Malaya generally, of which a 
good summary is given in Mr. Seisnkk's" Eastern Geography." His work, however, 
has, with others, been availed of to furnish some of the salient facts referring to the 
more restricted area. 

The first notices of the Peninsula are dated 1511, when the Portuguese made 
their appearance at Malacca, but it was not until 1592 that Captain Lancastkr. in 
the Bonaveniure, cast anchor in the harbour of Penang, Remaining there from 
June till the end of August, he set sail for home, taking care, in the fashion of 
those days, to plunder a few Portuguese and Peguan vessels, off the Perak coast, 
of pepper and other spices. Meanwhile the Dutch had visit«d and ojiened factories 
in other portions of Malaya, but there is no record of further European visits to the 
Peninsiila until 1613, when Captain Hippon is said to have formed a factory at 
Patani, being the tirst Englishman to sail round the Peninsula. In I65U, the 
Dutch established a factory in Perak, and shortly before that, one in Kedah. These 
were, however, abandoned about 1661. Malacca had been captured from the 
Portuguese br the Dutch and Achinese in 1641. 

The reaj history of the Peninsula begins with the foundation of Malacca, 
and to make this notjce more complete the more detailed a<:count given, mih voce 
Malacca, is here repeated in condensed form : — About that time, one SAMoniKOA 
reigned in Singapore, and in the neigliboiiring country of Java one Paratiba, who. 
at his death, left his sous imder the guardianship of his own brother, their uncle ; 
but he having found occasion to murder the eldest, usurped the throne ; at which 

IJbsI of British Mataya. Mo 

some of the noblu Javauese, being highly disgusted, did, with PAiuiii80fiA, their 
la,te King's youngest son, fly to Singapore, where they met with a kind reeeiitioa 
from Sanqbinqa; but it was not long before PAiuuitioaA. iu combination with 
Ilia Javanese, muiMlered SAitoawaA, and put himself iu possession of his kingdom. 
The King of Siam, to avenge the outrage Inflicted on Sangsinba, his vaaaal and 
son-in-law. forced the Javanese to quit the country for Muar : and subsequently 
Paaamisoua transferred his colony to Malacca. The KjQg of Siam's interfereuoe 
was common then. In 1502, only seven years before the Portuguese arrived, ha 
attacked the King of Malacca with a fleet of 200 sails, aboard of which were 
6,000 soldiers, under the conduct of the Governor of Ligor j but the fleet 
scattered by a storm." 

Tho whole of the Peninsula, exci'pt Malacca and Johore, appears at this tii 
to have been under Siameae influence. Attached to Johore was Singapore, said 
have been founded about a.d. 1150, It rapidly rose in importance and wi 
noticed by Babbos as : — " The resort of the navigators of the westei 
India as well as those of the eastern seas from Siam, China, Choompa (Chamj>a), 
Camboja, and of the many thousand islands which lie towards the East." But 
in one hundred years it had so far declined, that Mabco Polo makes no mention 
of its name, and when Europeans first began to settle on these shores, a rude fii 
ing village alone occupied the site of the rich godowns aud palatial public buildi 
of to-day. 

Meanwhile, Malacca was founded as above related (circa 1200), and 
eclipsed its southern rival. No doubt, as regarded foreign intercourse, " the real 
history of the Peninsula " commenced at this date. But as the various Native 
States with, in many cases, different names and different frontiers, then eKistAid, the 
history of Malacca can hardly be said to furnish the history of the lai^ ai 
which was then practically unknown to voyagers, and is even at the present dai 
almost a terra incognUa to that very persistent animal— the modem explorer. Natii 
records unfortimately contain more fable than fact, and the latter of so doubtful 
character that its reproduction as " history " would l>e absurd. 

The most valuable and original portion of Mr. Skinnbb'b compilatii 
perhaps, that relating to Johore and its Archipelago. He says : — " The Johore 
Archipelago was probably inhabited from a very remote period, anterior even to 
existence of any of the Malay race iu Sumatra, by a maritime branch of the same 
people, radically Malayan, who are now found in the interior of the Peninsula and 
of the southern half of Sumatra. Several tribes, in various at^es of civilization, 
still possess the Johore islands. Though little known to Europeans, they can never 
have been without Malay or Hindu-Malay visitors, for it was by the great rivers ol 
Palembang, Jambi, Indra^ri and Eampar, before whose embouchures these islands 
lie, that the Hindus of Ceylon and Southern India must have gradually carried 
civilization into the interior of Southern Sumatra. The Indragiri, in particular, 
appears to have been crowded vrith Hindu-Malay settlements, many of the numerous 
Tillages on its banks retaining purely Hindu names to this day. It was by this 
river, probably, that they reached the fertile plain of Menangkabau. It is ptobable 
that the Malaya on these rivers had attained a certain civilization in advauce of 
the wandering mountain tribes, even before the Hindus came." All that can be 
gathered of the various other States will be found under those headings, and la 
most cases this amounts to very tittle. 

Matters become clearer towards the end of the seventeenth century, and it 
becomes increasingly evident that the history of the Peninsula, so far as it affected 
European iat^reste, was comprised in the ooings of European enterprise on these 
_£Aa8ts. Prom 1684 to 17G2most of this was directed to places, Malayan indeed, but 
fcot the Peninsula. These efforts had a reflex effect upon our intercourse with the 
Hfttive Rajas, but no real footing was gained until the foundation, by friendly cession 
^ptd pavment, of Penang in 17S6. Tea years after it b-'oame the pi-ual settlemeolfl 

■ m>] i 

real * 
the ^ 

ore ^1 

the ^M 




Descriptive Dictionary 


for India, and very satisfactory traces of that meaeiire eiist in the eic^Uent roads 
and other works constructed by convict labour. 

The success of Penang induced the Indian Government to send an eipedition 
to seize Ualaoca in 1795. A brief account of it« fortunes will be found «ui twee 
Malacca, as also of the later proceedings which eventuated in its complete cession 
to us in exchange for Bencoolen in 1825. A few years previously we had made 
treaties with the Native States of Perak and Selangor. Thtf .modern history of 
the Peninsula has really been that of the dominant power — Great Britain. The 
Naning and Perak wars have been the only two of importance, and these will be 
found detailed under their respective headings. 

An effort has been made m the foregoing brief notice to avoid trespassing too 
much upon the ground occupied by Mr. Skinnee'b " Outline History of the British 
Connection with Malaya," which embraces a far wider field, and which general 
students will do well to consult. 

Gkoloot.— Geologically speaking, the extremity of the Peninsula extends to 
BillitoD {pHiionq), including the three Archipelagoes of Bentan, Lingga, and Banka, 
now cut off from the main. But as these latter districts are not included within 
the scope of this work, we confine our attention to the Peninsula, The Mala^ 
Peninsula, wrote Mr. Logan, has, jierhaps, the roost stubborn and intractable soil 
of all the large countries of the Archipelago. Its geological formation is exclusively 
sedimentary, plutonic and alluvial, and it is destitute of any peculiar facilities of 
irrigation. It is rich in tin, iron, and even gold, but its soil is either sterile or 
stubborn. The consequence is that its mountains, valleys and plains are, with the 
exception of a few patches, covered with a stupendous primeval forest. This 
estimate, however. Is scarcely correct, large tracts being admirably suited for culti- 
vation, Mr, Skinnek describes the formation as granitic, traversed by veins " of 
stanniferous quartz and overlaid by sandstone, unfossilized clay slates, laterite, or 
ironstone, and in a few places, principally to the north, by limestone ; for although 
no trace has been found of recent volcanic action, there are several isolated and 
unstratified limestone masses, from 500 to 2,000 feet high, of a highly crystallized 
character, with- no tossils of any kind." 

MiifBRALOOT. — The following remarks by Mr. Logan hold good at the present 
day. The prevailing metals are iron, tin, and gold, " Iron ores," says Mr. Looan, 
a skilful geologist, '■ are everywhere found, and in the south they exist in vast pro- 
fusion. In some places the strata have been completely saturated with iron, and 
here the naked surface of the ground, strewed with blackish scoriform gravel and 
blocks, presents a strange contrast to the exuberant vegetation of the surrounding 
tracts, appearing as if the ground had been burnt and blasted by subterraneous 
fires. Much of the ordinary forms of iron-masked rocks are so common, and so 
little regarded for their metallic contents, that in Singapore they are tised to 
mawidamixe the roads, although containing nearly 60 per cent, of pure metal." The 
Peninsula, with tho islands adjacent to it, certainly contain by far the moat eit«n- 
sive lin-fielda in the world, extending as they do over seventeen degrees of latitude, 
or fi'oiu Tavoy, in nortli latitude 14°, to the island of Billiton, in south latitude 8". 
" Seeing that tin is procured in all parts of the Peninsula where it is sought for, 
and iu proportion to the enterprise and labour which are devoted to the search, we 
may consider the entire none as a great magazine of tin. It is. in fact, incomparably 
the greatest on the globe." He gives examples of the extent of its distribution. 
Within the territory of Jehore. forming the southern extremity of the Peninsula, it 
was not thought to exist imtU 1846. when it was found in several places. In I84S, 
the whole quantity produced in the territory of Malacca was at>out 13 tons; in 
1846 it rose to 84 tons ; and in 184?, when there were fifty different mines o^n, to 
260 Ijins; and this result proceeded eutii-ely from the application of the skill and 
enterprise of the Chinese, for tin was not discovered in tne Malacca territory until 
1798. The intelligent writer who furnishes thesi' details estimates the whole pn>- 

Mai of British Malaya. Mai 

duoe of the Peninsula in 1848 at 2,400 tons. This is constantly increasing, and 
forms a large portion of the consumption of Europe, China, and India, and is the 
great staple product of the Peninsula and its islands. The whole ore is " stream," 
or alluvial, and as jet the metal has not been traced to its veins in the rock. 
Galena is frequently found in close proximity. Mr. Skinneb gives some additional 
details: — "Tin is found throughout the Peninsula, from Tavoi 14° N. to the 
Carimons (Keriman) ^and to Lingga (on the Equator) ; and again, after a break of 
of about 2°, as far south as Banl^ and Billiton (3° S.), which, as pointed out above, 
form, in every respect, but an extension of the Peninsula. Tin has not been found 
elsewhere in the Archipelago. The bed of the ore is, where it has yet been 
observed in situ, the quartz : which is found penetrating the granite at every eleva- 
tion ; but all tin-mining has hitherto been confined to the deposits near the foot of 
the hills, in the alluvial ground formed by the decomposition of the encasing 
rocks." Gold is much less abundant in the Peninsula than in Sumatra, Borneo, or 
Celebes, and its whole produce is thought not to exceed 20,000 ounces a year, less 
than the weekly produce of a single locality in Australia. Iron exists everywhere, 
but has never been thought worth the cost of mining. Some of the W. Native 
States have the reputation of producing precious stones, but this is doubtful, most 
of those shown having been imported from Borneo or other places. 

Climate. — " The climate everywhere is moist and hot, though seldom malarious, 
even along the low muddy banks near the coast. The mean temperature in the 
Peninsula is, throughout the lowlands of the plains, about 80°. There is, strictly 
speaking, no winter, nor even any very distinctly marked rainy season ; the alternate 
north-east and south-west monsoons distributing the moisture over the east and 
west slopes throughout most of the year." 

At Penang, in latitude 5° 15' N„ the mean annual temperature, at the level 
of the sea, is nearly 80°, and the mean range from 70° to 90 . At the height of 
2,410 feet, the mean gf the year is 70^ and the range 10°, from which we may infer 
that the average temperature of the year at the highest elevation of the Peninsula 
— ^Mount Ophir — ^is rather less than 40°. The average number of rainy days in the 
year is 190, and the mean rainfall of the Peninsula from 100 to 180 incnes ; a rainy 
season being but indistinctly marked. Heavy dews fall in all clear nights through- 
out the year, and fogs, although not dense ones, are frequent, especially during the 
most rainy season. At Malacca, in latitude 2° 1^, the mean temperature of the 
year is 80°, and the range 15°. At Singapore, in latitude 1° 17', the average heat of 
the year is 82°, and the range from 68 to 92°. The fall of rain here is frequent, 
generally every third day, although a continuous drought of ten or fourteen days, 
and in some cases, three, four, or five months, occasionally occurs. A rainy season 
is scarcely distinguishable. Generally, the climate of the Peninsula, notwithstand- 
ing its heat and moisture, is not insalubrious, although a few ill- ventilated spots ' 
here and there occur with most pestiferous malaria. Singapore, indeed, is termed 
the " paradise of children," so few infantile complaints occurring. The west coast 
is exposed to sudden squalls of short duration, known as ** Sumatras " from the 
direction whence they blow ; while the opposite side is almost closed to navigation 
under sail alone during the north-east monsoon. 

Fauna. — The fauna of the Peninsula is allied to that of the adjacent Archi- 
pelago. Of the mammals, the following is a brief view of its most remarkable 
animals. The quadrumanas, or apes, amoimt to nine — eight monkeys, each species 
having a distinct name, and a loris, the Lemur tardigradus of naturalists, called by 
the Malays the kukang, and occasionally kainaldsan, that is, " the lazy," or ** the 
slothful." Of bats there are several species, but the most remarkable is the 
vampire, or kaZung of the Malays. This flies high in great flocks, and but for 
larger size and slower flight, flocks of them might easily be mistaken for those of 
crows or rooks. The kalung is a great enemy to the best esculent fruits. The 
only plantigrade animal is a bear, which attains a res|)ectable size, known as the 


Mai Descriptive Dictionary Mftl 

" 8UU " or " boney " bear, peculiar to tbe Feniaeuk and Borneo. Of Tiverra, o 
weasels, there arc several specieB, the largest and most singular of which is th 
hijiturung of the natives, and the Ictidee ater of naturalist*. Of tbe feline family 
there are seven, Including tbe royal tiger and the black leopard, both of them far too 
numerous. The domestic cat exists, as in Siam, not unusually with a tail half the 
usual length, as if it bad been amputat«d, but with a sort of kink or excrescence 
in it about half-way down. The domestic dog, the aiijing of the Malaya, exists in 
the same vagrant state in which it is found in most Asiatic countries ; and a wild 
dog is said to exist in the woods. The otter, the immbrang of the Malays, exists, 
but seems to lie scarce, which is not easily accounted for, considering tbe abund- 
ance of fish. The Pai^hydermata, or thick-skinned family, <;onsist of four — the 
elephant ; the one-homed rhinoceros, the same with that of Sumatra ; the Malay 
tapir, or titnau of tbe Malays ; and tlie hog. Elephants are numerous, and appear 
to be of tbe same species as the ordinary Asiatic one. That they are equally 
capable of domestication is certain, for the^ are used as beasts of burden in the 
northern parts of the Peninsula, and occasionally exported to tlie coast of Coro- 
mandol. The bog is found both in the wild and domestic state, and numerous in 
tbe first, constituting the chief animal food of the nomadic races, as no duubt, 
before their conversion to Mahommedanism, it did of the cultivated Malays. No 
animal of the Equine family is known in the Peninsula, for the horse itseu is not 
found even in the domestic sta(4^, excepting, of course, in tbe British and pro- 
tected States. A country covered with forest or marsh, and where it would be 
difficult to find a mile of firm open laud, is eminently unsuited to it. The ox or 
the buffalo takes its place. Even in Malacca under the Malays, the horse seems 
not to have been used ; at least the early Portuguese make no mention of it. The 
species of Rumiuauts are thirteen in number, namely, eight deer, the goat, the 
buffalo, and three species of ox. Two of the deer are smaller than tbe European 
hare, a third about the size of a fallow-dcer, and the fourth as large as an elk. The 
domestic goat is a small mean-looking animal, of little valu^ ; and there exists iu 
the forest a wild one, tbe same with that of Sumatra. The buffalo attains its 
greatest size in tbe Peninsula, and is larger than that of Java, or of Cochin-Cluna, 
both of which far exceed the buffalo of Italy, and in a still greater degree that of 
Conttnental India. Tbe domestic ox is a short-legged, compact, strong and hardy 
animal. The wild species are -two^the Sunda ox of Java and Borneo, and an 
undescribed one called by the Malays t<iladang, and which would seem to be pecu- 
liar to the Peninsula. The sheep is known to the Malaya of the Fenuisula by its 
Sanskrit name bin, butin the British Possessionsas kambiiig, and as a partially accli- 
nmt«d stranger. The hare is wholly unknown, and the rabbit only in the domestic 
state, introduced by the Portuguese, the name tarwdu and kuweln being probably 
a corruption of the Portuguese eoelho. 

The most remarkable birds of the Peoinsula are those of the gallinaceous and 
pigeon families. Of tbe first, there are tbe peacock, or mdrak of the Malays, the 
same as that of Java, but differing from that of India, and never seen in tbe 
domesticated state ; tbe double -spurred peacock, smaller than the European 
pheasant, a beautiful but ahy and timid bird ; three species of pheasant, includ- 
ing tbe Argus, or the kuaaa of tbe Malays ; a partridge, the Perdrlt jaoaniea ; 
and tbe wck in the wild and domestic state, the last a small bird, but of 
great courage. The species of pigefins are very numerous, from those of the 
size of a thrush to that of the European ringdove, the prevailing colour being 
green, and some of them beiug probably migratory. Snipes are numerous, and 
quails rare. Iu the wild state, there is but one duck^a teal— ^ind no goose. 
The only poultry of the Peninsula, in so far as the Malays are concerned, is 
the common fowl and the duck. The goose is known only by its Sanskrit 
name — angm ; and the peacock and rock pigeon have not been domesticated. 
The parrot family — in Malay nuri, the same word which we have converted into 


of British Malaya. 

lory- — is numerous, but none of the apeciee are equal in brilliancy of plumage 
to those of New Guinea and its adjacent islands. The esculent rest-maldng 
swallow, the lamf. of the Malays, exists in the caves of the coast of some 
uf tbe islands, liut is not numerous. The birds of prcT iire numerous, and 
consist of kites, alaiu/, and hawks, alapalap, in Malay. The vulture does not 
exist, and there is no hawk of a size to entitle it to tbe designation of an 
eagle. Some further particulars of the birds of the Peninsula will be found under 
the head of Okhithologt. 

The reptiles consist of the alligator, the iguana, and several species of small 
lizards, and o£ some fifty different species of snakes, of which fifteen are poisonous. 
Among the innocuous snakes is a python, and among the poisonous ones, four 
apoeies of cobra. Both the seas that wash the shores of the Peninsula, but more 
especially the comparatively shallow and Bhelfj."red one which part« it from 
Sumatra, abound in fish, which form the principal sustenance of the great mass of 
the inhabitants. The seal and the whale do not exist, the latter being known 
to the Malays either by a Sanskrit name — jfoj'aA-twiTio— which signifies " elephant- 
fish, or as pans." The only cetaceous animal is the Anyang, which our naturalists, 
by the mistake of a single letter, have converted into dugong. This animal, not 
very frequent, lives in the shallow waters, feeding on submarine plants, and its 
flesh is esculent, being much superior to that of the green turtle. The fresh- 
water fish are not abundant, nor held in much esteem by the natives, but some of 
those of the sea ai-e of excellent flavour ; and the white pomfret. the bavial of the 
Malays, as also the ikan- merah, are certainly two of the most delicate fishes in the 
world to the European palate, being less rich than the turbot, and hig' 
flavoured than the sole. 

Botany. — The botany of the Peninsula is a very wide field, aa yet not wholly 
onilored. Many plants put to economical uses are, however, sufficiently known. 
Of the great many species of forest trees not the whole yield good durable timber. 
The forests yield ebony, sapan, and eagle-wood, but none of them of the best 
nuality, or in much abundance. They yield also rattans, bamboos, the nibong and | 
tie nipa palms, all constituting the main materials of the Malayan architecture 
But their most remarkable and valuable product is the gutta-percha, some years | 
ago used only for Malay horsewhips and knife- hand lea, but by the help of which 1 
the sea is now crossed by the electric telegraph, It was from the Peninsula, in fa«t, 
that this article was first made known to Europeans, more than three centuries | 
after the country had been frequented by them. This was in 1843, when 
WrLLiAM MoNTooMEKiE first made the discovery, and was rewarded for it by the 
gold medal of the Society of Arts. The chief products of agi-iculture are rice, the 
cocoa, and areca palms, yams, the batata, and the sugar-cane. The esculent fruit« 
are numerous, abundant, and some of them excellent. Incomparably the most 
rsteemed by tlie natives is the dvrian, which attains perfection without culture ; i 
and by the Europeans the mangosteen, which is the most delicate fruit in the world, j 
The exotic ananas, with little or no care, attaana the same perfection as the beat I 
pines of our hot-houses, and is hardly dearer than Swedish turnips, The same soil I 
brings such luxuries aa these to perfection which ia unfruitful in the production of J 
the food of man, if sugar, aago. tapioca, and rice be excepted. I 

Fruita, woods, ferns, &c.. wUl be found catalogued under their respective 1 
headings. I 

PaoDucTa, AaHicui-TiniB. ahd Trajok. — The principal products and exports of 1 
the Peninsula, arranged in alphabetical order, are: — Buifalo horns and hides 
cloves, coffee (Liberiau and Arabian), copra, cow-hides, dammar, fish-mawa (fron 
which isinglass is made), gambler, gutta-percha, mace, nutmegs, pepi^r, rattans, 
rice, sftgii, sugar, bipioca, and tin. Rice is uncertain, and in some years enormous I 
imports furnish the inhabitants of the Peninsula with the staff of life. In addition J 
to the foregoing, several articles appear in the trade reports which are more or less M 
[225] (i 



Descriptive Dictionary 


foiud in tho Fenmsula, but Eire also largely imported from native centres elgewhere 
for export to Europe, such as cubebs, cutch, gamboge, green snail-shells, gums, 
benjamin and copal, ilipe-nuts. mother-of-pearl shells, sapan-wood. sticklac, and 
teel-seed. To the European market, gutta-percha is probablj the most important. 
Its purchase and eiport lies in the haudu of a few of the more enterprising of the 
European community. As regards imjiorU (we are of course dealing in this case 
with European and Chinese houses only, as no Malay ever yet dreamed of 
importing anything as a matter of business), Manohestcr and Sheffield goods, 
with wines, spirits, and canned provisions exhaust the list, long enough however 
even then. 

That any import trade is done at all in the Native States is chietly owing to 
the fact that they are all more or leaa settled by Chinese, who deal in cottons, 
matches, Ac, for sale to the Malays, whose export trade in gutta, rattans, and other 
jungle produce is almost entirely owing to the inducements held out by foreig^i 
buyers m the Settlements. The articles named will be found dealt with nnder their 
reapeetive headings. 

PopiTLATioN. — The estimated population of the Pemusida and Settlements is 
1,300,000. That given by the " Encycloptedia Britannica," viz., (350,000, is certainly 
understated. The amended estimate gives 13 inhabitants to the square mile, and 
of these some dSr.OOO belong to the Straits Settlements. 

As regards race, the inhabitants of the Native States may be divided into 
Malays. Benua, Jakuns, and Sakeis. But numerous subdivisions exist, there being 
the Orang Besisi, Biduanda, Gargasai, Gunong Kenaboi, Laut, Liar, Miutira, 
Rayat, Semang, and Udai, while there are local tribes, such as the flabimba and 
Selitar, who once inhabited Singapore. Each of these are noticed at length under 
their respective headings. Broadly speaking, the central portion of the Peninsula 
appears to have been settled by immigrants from Menangkabau in Sumatra, and 
the Malay raee of the Peninsula appears to be more or less derived from the same 
stock, making allowances for the difference consequent on intermarriages with 
native races of the better class. The orang-utan, or men of the woods, such as the 
Jakuns, &c., seldom contracted these alliances, and have to the present day pre- 
served their distinctive characteristics. In the British Settlements, three races, 
other than Chinese or Malay, atone eiuat in any large numbers^thoso purely 
British, those of Dutch and MaUivaa descent, and those of Portuguese. Asian 
descent ; and the latter form valuable members of the community. The Chinese 
and native races are described under their separate heads. 

QovEsNMBNT. — " The only forma of government to be found in the Peninsula, 
outside the colony of the Straits Settlements, are either tribal or elective, as 
in Berabau and the contiguous inland States ; or autocratic and hereditary, like 
those of the Malay or Siamese Kajaa and Governors on the seaboard. Some- 
thing of a tribal form of rule is to be traced in all Malay administrations ; and 
none of them, whatever the form, appear to be ' free ' States, in any true sense of 
the word. 

" The government of the colony is that of the usual ' Crown Colony ' type, 
Penat^ and Malacca being represented in the Legislative Council, which sit* at 

" The administration of the Protected States is peculiar to themselves, It has 
been a natural development from the state of things which was left after tho mili- 
tary occupation of 1875. Supreme power is vested in a State Council, of which 
the Resident is the moving spirit, though it is presided over i»y the Sultan 
or Bajah in person, and consists in each State of the highest native author> 
ities as well as the principal English officials. The Besidents arc directly 
under the GK)vemor of the Straits Settlements, and have, of course, almoRt tho 
entire control of, and responsibility for, the affaire of tlie State in which thvy 


Mai of British Malaya. Mai 

Eeyenue. — ^Details, so far as obtainable, will be found under the heading of 
each State and British Settlements. 

TopoaBAPHY. — The area of the Malay Peninsula is about 70,000 square 
miles, somewhat smaller than Great Britain. It consists m,ainlj of connected 
ranges of mountainous land, running N.W. and S.E., which constitute a water- 
parting between the streams flowing east and west to the surrounding seas. 
The western range continues unbroken from the interior of Kedah (6® N.) to 
the intenor of Malacca (2° N.), and it reappears at intervals in the south 
(Johore). On each side of the elevated region is a narrow littoral of recent 
formation, by which the G-ulf of Siam and tiie Straits of Malacca are bordered, 
and which alone, it may be said, is inhabited and cultivated at present. The 
primeval forests which, in general, cover the whole country, are occasionally inter- 
spersed with grassy plains in the north. The coast on both sides, and pai*ticularly 
the west, is abnost invariably marshy and alluvial, scarcely raised above the sea, 
and being under shelt-er of Sumatra, even and unbroken towards the Straits of 
Malacca. The seaboard is generally overgrown with mangroves for some four or 
fives miles inland. In some parts the breadth of the plain reaches 30 miles, but 
it is usually much less. On the east coast, where there is an open sea, the hills 
at several points are close to the shore ; but the general character of the country is 
the same ou both sides. The height of the mountain chain increases towards the 
wider parts of the Peninsula, at the back of the Bindings ; many peaks in Perak 
being now known to exceed 8,000 feet — it is even said 10,000 feet ; such as the 
l^ti Wangsa hills between Kedah and Perak, and Mount Eobinson and other 
summits in the south of Perak. An unexplored ridge — Mount Tahan — on the east 
side of the Eiver Pahang, near the west frontier of Ti*ingganu and Kelantan, is 
thought by Maclay, who alone has traversed the interior (1875), to be the highest 
land of the whole Peninsula. 

The entire Peninsula, to within some 10 to 25 miles of the coast, is broken 
and hilly, covered both on hill and plain with dense forests. 

ErvEBS. — The principal streams, following the coast from N. to S., are as 
follows : — Between the Pakshan (the lowest course of which separates the Penin- 
sula from Tenasserim in British Burma) and the Rivers Muda and Krian, there are 
none but small streams. The first large river is the Perak, with it« chief tributaries 
— the Plus, Kinta, and Batang Padang. (The Perak, on the west, and the Pahang, 
on the east slope, are the larger river basins in the Peninsula, each draining an area 
of 4,000 to 6,000 square miles.) The other chief streams are the Bernam, with as 
large a volume of water, but draining a less area ; the Selangor, the Klang, and 
the Langat, on the south-west coast ; the Linggi, the Muar, and the Johore, of 
which the estuary faces Singapore. On the east side, there is the Endau, the 
Pahang with its large tributaries — the Bera, the Triang, the Jelei, &c. ; the 
Kwantan, the Besut, the Kelantan with its large tributary the Lebih ; and the 

Mountains. — ^The highest mountains of the Peninsula are probably not yet 
discovered. Those known are: — Kedah-Perak (Jerei), 3,894 feet; Mount Titi 
Wangsa, 6,840 feet ; between Kedah and Perak ; Inas, in Kedah, 5,000 feet ; Bubo, 
5,650 feet, and Ulu Temeling, 6,435 feet, near the right and left banks respectively 
of the Perak River ; the Slim range, 6,000 to 7,000 feet, in South-east Perak ; 
Mount Robinson (Riam), about 8,000 feet; Chimberas, 5,650 feet, in Selangor ; 
Berembun, about 4,000 feet, in Sungei Ujong ; Mount Ophir (Ledang), 4,200 
feet, until recently supposed to be the highest point in the Peninsula ; and Blumut, 
3,2()0 feet, in the centre of Southern Johore, and where the River Johore takes its 

Of the remaining elevations the following list is published in the " Singtipore 
and Straits Directory," a most valuable work to all resident in the Peninsula or 
Settlements : — 

[227] Q 2 



Tcrrilorr In whlob altontc. 


Torrttory (n which litiutc. 






QunoDgBabn ... 


Bukit Sidonan 


Gunong Juu ... 






BuMtBruBng ... 



Bukit Brisu 


Caulfiold's HIU 




Bukit Piiluu Boaar 


Gunong Arang Para 



Sito of Reservoir of propoaad now 

Gunong Hijau 




Phovince \VbLLB3I.KT— 

Bukit Mectajam 



Bukit Panohoro 


Bukit Joru . ... 



SnsQEi Djono — 



Bukit Tanggali 


BatuEtun ... 


Gunoog Angai... 


Bukit Sungei 


Bukit S'tul 


Low's Paw 







Islands. — Tlie northern se&board Las several small iskndB and insular groups, 
vliicb lie in clusters of innumerable small islets on both sides of the isthmus 
to the. north. The coast farther south is remarkably free from islands. The 
only ones of any conaequeiUM are Langkawi and Penang (Ptitang). on the west 
aide; the Carimons (KSrlmom), Singapore (Shujapim). and the Bhutan and 
Bulang Archipelagoes, at the south oitremity ; and on the east side, off the coast of 
Johore, some high peaks, of which Tionian and Tinggi are the largest, and a similar 
but less important group (the Oreat and Little Redaugs) off Kelantun. 

Political l>ivisiONa, — -Ligor and Singora being purely Siamese, are not dealt 
with in these pages. On the west coast, the most N. of those nominally tributary 
to Siam is Eedah, and following the coast line come Perak, Selangor and Klang, 
Sungei tJjong, and Johore ; Province Wellesley taking a slice out of the Kedah 
coast, and Malacca intervening between Sungei tijongand Johore — or rather Mu&r, 
which, however, now forms an integral portion of the Johore territory. Ascending 
the east coast, the States are : — Pahang, Tringganu, Kemaman, Kelantan, Pataui, 
and Eeman. In the interior N.W. of Malacca lie the Negri Sembilau, or Nine 
States {q. v.). The Straits Settlements comprise Penang and Province Wellesley, 
opposite Kedah, the Bindings, originally part of Perak, Malacca, and Singapore. 
The portion under British influence covers about 35,000 square miles. 

Communication. — As regards the British Settlements, the great mail and 
ocean lines afford a ready means of reaching almost any part of the world, the 
Cape and Mauritius alone having infrequent communication. On the west oo««t, 
small coasting steamers run at short intervals from the Settlements to most of the 
principal native porta, but sailing boats or vessels are alone available for the east 
coast, and these only iit certain seasons. 

Malim aud Malini Kechil. — Villages in Malacca aliout 4 to 5 miles 
N.W. of town. Mud about 1 mile W. o£ Malacca Eiver. 

Malim Kechil. — A village in Naning, N. of Malacca. 

Mamadin Creek. — Formerly the site of a bridge across the Prai B.. 
Province Wi'llcwlcv, now decaved. 


Mam of British Malaya. Man 

Mambu. — ^V. in Sungei Ujong, 5 miles W. of Eassa. 

Sffaminalia. — A catalogue of the Mammalia known to exist in the Malayan 
Peninsula, by Dr. Cantob, will be found in Vol. 11, p. 1 et seq, of the " Essays 
relating to Indo-China " published by the S. B. E. A. S. The Catalogue is 
obyiously beyond our limits, but it may be added that scientific exploration has 
scarcely added a single mammal to the hst published as it was forty years ago. 

Iffaildai. — A district in N.W. Singapore, its principal point being Kranji, 
whence there is a ferry to Johore, with a Police Station and Government Bungalow. 
Upper Mandai is the name of the district immediately S. of Mandai. 

Iffaildelillg. — A people who, like the Kawas, came originally from Sumatra, 
and have partially colonized Selangor. They are said to be a branch of the Batta 
tribe, who are alleged to be cannibals. Dr. Leyden published a rather sensational 
account of their cannibal ceremonies in 1823, which was reprinted a few years ago 
in a local paper. But there appears to be good reason to believe that the Battas 
ate human flesh, and that if they have abandoned the custom, it is only within the 
last few years. 

Mandor. — A good-sized V. on the coast 2 miles N. of Tanjong Kling, 

Sllaiiei. — V. on S. bank of Pahang R., E. Pahang. 

Sllailgkudu (Morinda umbeUata), — The root of this plant was used exten- 
sively by the Malays as a red dye, but European importations of aniline have, to a 
great extent, displaced it. Malacca at one time exported considerable quantities. 

Sllailgkwailg. — in places pronounced I^nghwang, A pandantis somewhat 
resembling a pine-apple in growth. The leaves, edged with prickles or thorns, 
furnish a fibre much used by the Malays for rope, string, &c. The umhut is eatable, 
being used as a vegetable. 

SllailgO. — The native mango is a very poor imitation of its Siamese or Philip- 
pine cousin. It is usually gathered green for pickling, and is seldom touched by 
Europeans, except a solitary species Imown as Maiigga DodoL 

MailgOStdeil. — A delicious fruit, the pulp of snowy whiteness being 
enveloped in a tough brown rind, a decoction of which latter is said to be a good 
cure for diarrhoea. A patent has also been taken out for the manufacture of a dye 
from the same source. The petals of the flower, which leave a mark on the skin 
of the fruit, indicate the number of lobes into which the pulp is divided : thus, if 
there are five in the exterior, there will be the same number of lobes inside. 
The fruit exudes a juice precisely resembling gamboge, and as a rule drops of this 
on the skin indicate an unsound interior. It is common throughout Malaya. 

Mangrove (Bakau), — There are two varieties of this tree — one having a 
globular seed, and the other long skittle-shaped pods. The latter plant themselves 
by dropping perpendicularly in the mud. The trees affect brackish or salt water, 
and flourish best in the black mud common at the mouths of tropical rivers. The 
bark is used in tanning, and is also said to prevent incrustation in steam boilers. 
Mr. T. Chbistt says : — " It is used by the tanners in the localities where it abounds, 
but hitherto has not been profitably employed in England, from the fact that the 
leather made with it is of a bad colour and spongy nature. It has been tried on a 
large scale in England, but the result has always been the same, the leather being 
very inferior in colour and quality. A good deal of cheap leather which reaches 
us from India is tanned by means of this material, and has to be corrected by the 
use of Myrobalans and other tanning materials in this country to render it of a 
saleable colour. Tanners in other parts of the world, where the mangrove flourishes, 
might use it in this way with profit." 

In India it grows to the height of 50 feet, spreading out its roots in all 



Descriptive Dictionary 



directiouB in the moist soil. The mtingrove appears to thrive in bmckiah wiiter. 
Aa the muddy deposits at the mouth of the tropical rivera become consolidated, the 
maugrovo takes posseeaioa even to the verge of the salt wator. All parts of the troe 
appear to bo useful for taDning ; the bark, roots, and leaveH, have bocD so applied. 
It coutaiDB about 17 per cent, of tannic acid. 

llflaJlti, — V. in N. Malacca, about Sj niilea from the Johol frontier, on the 
road to Chiadraa, Hill of the same name \ mile to the N. 

IVtaJltis. — N^o insects present such eitraordinarj forms as the Miiniidx, of 
wliuni Ihc Malay Fcuinsuta is a principal habitat. Some naturalists include the 
Phimmidte or jihantom family (which includes " stick " and " leaf " insccttt) 
under the same head. But even the Mantidse proper arc sufficiently grot^-squi? in 
shajie. The '■ praying mantis," which is the commonest representative form, and 
so called from its usual attitude, is also one of the most ferocious. Two inKctts, 
even male aud female, are never kept long in confinement together without one 
(usually the female) destroying and eating the other. The long serrated fore-feet 
can at one blow decapitate or cut in halves an antagonist, and the quicker insect is 
always the victor. In addition to causing injur}' with its legs the mantis can inflict 
a tolerably severe bite on the hand of a human captor, and it is always advisable to 
use a cloth in handling one. (See Stick amd Leaf Insects.) 

Mantra. — A Y. iu central Malacca, once a mission station, now abandoned. 
A tapioca plantation exists on the W. side. 

Mantra Mission. — In W, Malacca, just above Tangga Batu district. It 
compriscH over H square miles, and has a church at the 8. extremity. 

Marachet.^-A hill in Padahg Sebaug district, Naning, N. Malacca. 

Marbeau Kudong.— A v. on the Prai Kiver, 7 miles from Butterworth, 
Province Welicsloy. The produce of the Malakoff Estate is shipped from this 
point, the river being narrow but deep. 

Maritime Code of the Malays. — The Malacca code apijears to hare 
lieeu compiled during the reign of Sultan Mahmttd Shah, the first sovereign of 
MaiiLcca mentioned in the Malayan annals Ui have embraced the Mahommedan 
faith. The circumslanue is understood to have taken place about the year of the 
Hejirah corresponding with the Christian era 1296. The origin of the Malay code 
may, therofoi'e, be considered as nearly coeval with the first estAblishmenl uf 
Isliimism among the Malays. The authority of the code is state^l in the preamble. 
A translation of all essential parts appears iu No. 3, p. 62, and No. 4, p. 1. of the 
J. 8. B. li. A. 8. (1879). It was esecuted by Sir Stampoed Raffles, and originally 
appeared in the Malacca Weekly Register. It answered to our Merchant Shipping 
Act. defining the laws and usages of the Malays at sea. 

Maps of the Feninsxila, &C. — The first official map known to exist 
was published in 1857, and was attached to a book containing copies of the Treaties 
of the E. I. Co. with Native Princes. A second, published in 1862, like it« 
predecessor, was apparently based on an old Dutch map of 1820. In 1879 a large 
scale map was computed by the Hon'ble A. M. Skinkeb, and published under the 
auspices of the S. B. R. A. 8. A second and improved edition was published in 
1888, and a revised issue is now in the printers' hands. 

A map of Perak was imblished in Blue Boot C. 1,512 (June, 1876), and a 
similar, but less correct one, by the local Government at the end of the same year. 

The oldest known map of Malacca was published in 1857. The latest official 
map appeared in 1878. 

Of Fenang and Province Wellesley, maps first appeared in 1854, followed by 
corrections in 1879. The latest edition, 1886, is a sensible advance on previooi 



of British Malaya, 


The following is a list of the latest existiog maps of the Settlements and 
Peninsula : — 

Singapore Island, 1885. 

Singapore Town, 1881. 

Malacca, 1878. 

Penang, 1886. 

Province Wellesley, 1886. 

Bindings, no detached map printed. 

Perak, no detached map printed. 

Selangor, 1884. 

Sungei Ujong, 1885. 

Malay Peninsula, 1893. 

Straits of Malacca, Admiralty Charts 

brought up to 1886. 
Jelebu, 1885. 

Markets, —it may be interesting in a work of this nature to give a list of 
the ordinary articles sold in the markets of the SettlemcDts, with their approximate 
prices. It would be obviously impossible to give the latter with any precision, for 
not only do they differ at each Settlement, but from day to day in each. The 
following may be taken as giving a fair idea of the average values — under 5 cents, 
varjring a cent each way, and those of 20 cents and upwards, 2 cents. Certain 
fruits are, of course, only in season at particular dates. Thus durians, varying 
from 7 cents to 81.50, are omitted. Turtle again is very seldom procurable at 
Penang, though always plentiful in Singapore. But the following list will give a 
new-comer a fair idea of what can generally be obtained : — 

Beans, Long 

do. French 

do. Egyptian ... 

Beef Steak 
Bean Sprouts 
Bamboo Sprouts ... 
Beans, Flat 




Cabbage, Batavia ... 

do. China ... 

do. Salted ... 

do. Singapore 

CazTots, Imported 

do. Singapore 

do. Large 
Celeiy leaves 
Chillies, Fresh 

do. Dry 
Cocoa-Nut Oil 
Chunam, Coloured 
do. White .. 
Coffee, Ground 

do. Baw 
Crabs, Large 

do. Small 
Duofas, Large 

do. Small 
Duck Eggs, Fresh 
do. Salted 
E§^, Hen ... 

„ Turtle 

Egff Fruit 

Fish, Large Fresh 
do. Medium 

per catty 






per 100 

per catty 

per loaf 

per catty 






per catty 




per catty 





per catty 
per dozen 





per catty 








i Fish, Small 

per catty 



do. Pickled 



do. Large Salted 




do. Siam Salted 




do. Small Salted 




do. Medium Salted 




do. Roe 




Firewood, Charred 

per picul 



Flour, best American 




do. Whampoa 




Fowls, Large 

per dozen 



do. Medium ... 




do. Small 





per catty 

■ • • 





• • • 





• • • 



Geese, Large 





do. ^ledium ... 





per picul 


per bag 



per catty 




per dozen 




per catty 



Laksa, Chinese ... 





per packet 


Milk, Fresh 

per chupak 


do. Condensed ... 

per tin 




per catty 


— - 


per bunch 



per catty 



Malacca Sugar 

per packet 




per lb. 



Onion, best Bengal 

per catty 




do. Small 





do. Spring 




Potatoes, Bengal ... 




do. Batavia 



do. Sweet ... 




do. do. New Zealand do. 


Prawns, Fresh 




do. Dry 

do. Salted ... 








Descriptive Dictionary 





Sugar, seoond quality 

por catty 


Pepper, White ... 

per catty 

do. third ., 



do. Bkck 


Sea-Woed, Jelly ... 


Poaa, Green 


Sirih Leaves 

per bundle .. 



per pair 

Tamarind, Red ... 

por catty .. 




per catty 


do. Black,.. 



per bunch ... 



per packet .. 



per bimch ol 10 


Tobacco, Java No. 1 

per catty 



per catty 


do. Java No. 2 



do. Chops 



do, Chinese ... 







Rice, Gret quality 
Raddish, Chinsao... 



por catty 


Tuba Hoot 

per bundle .. 


do. EngUsh 


Vegetables, average prioe per catty 


Salt, Table 



per bundle .. 

do. Coarse 




por catty 


Sugar, first quality 



Marong Mahawangsa or Annals. ^Treated as worthy o£ 

some credibility by Col. Low. who translated them {»e.e Contents, J, I. A., «ttfcroce), 
but unsparingly condemned by Ceawfued as ■' a dateless tissue of rank fable." 
Maxwbi.1. add* : — " If, as there aeems good reason for believin)^, the Hindu legends 
in these works are traceable to the Brahminical scriptures of India, their value 
from an ethnological point of view may perhaps some day be better appreciated." 

Maroo Chandong. — v. on N. bank of BemamR.. 5 miles below its abrupt 
turn S. in S. Perak. 

Ildarriage. — The only terms for marriage in Malay are the Arabic and 
Persian ones, respectively iiiltak and kamn, the native ones having probably been 
displaced by these and forgoit«n. Owing to the youth of the parties in a first 
marriage, the negotiation is almost always conducted by the parents. The court- 
ship among the Malays consists in the lover sendiug his tnistress a present of areca 
and betel pepper, the ceremony, from the name of the first of these, being called 
vinangan. Children are frequently betrothed at an early age, and this goes under 
the name of IvnaTtgan. 

The conditions of the marrii^^e contract vary, but generally there is more or 
less of a purchase of the bride by the bridegroom, or. more correctly, by his 
jnreuts, The sum among the well'to-do la about 9100, and this is paid over on 
the morning of the marriage. 

The marriage ceremony is everywhere a religious one. The Kali is present at 
the wedding feitsC and formally records the mamage in his register. Sir Stampobd 
Rapfles ^ves the following translation of the form in Java, which resembles that 
of the Penmsula, as pronounced by the priest ; — " I join you. Radenmas, in wedlock 
with Satiya, with a pledge of two reals weight in gold. You take ^tiya to be 
your wife for this world. You are obliged to pay the pledge of your marriage 
(Hgikawin), or to remain debtor for the same. You are responsible for your wife 
in all and everything. If you should happen to be absent from her for the space 
of seven months on shore, or one year at sea, without giving her any sustenance, 
and are remiss in the duties you owe to your sovereign, your marriage shall be 
dissolved, if your wife demand it, without any further form of process ; and you 
will, besides, be subject to the punishment which the Mahommedan law ordains," 
Much the same form is used everywhere. A betrothal ring is given to the bride a 
month before the marriage, but the actual ceremony, equivalent to our putting on 
the ring (" with this ring I thee wed," Ac) is that of twining the fingers. 
Marriages always take place late in the ovenlng, and the guests appear in uieir 
moat brilliant dresses — red, green, or yellow. Two days after the marring the 
newly-wedded pair dress in their gayest clothing and receive the congratulations of 
their friends. 

Mar of British Malaya, MST 

Marriages within certain degrees of consanguinity are prohibited, but, as with 
the Jews, a man can intermarry with the widow of a brother, and then becomes 
liable for all the obligations of the deceased husband. Polygamy and concu- 
binage are legal, but these are, from the nature of things, only the riotous 
indulgences of the few rich and powerful. Divorce — in Malay, cherei or telak^ 
signifying ** a parting," or " a separation " — is easily obtained. A seven months' 
absence by land, or a year's by sea, without provision for the wife, is declared to 
be a virtual divorce, should the wife demand one. Among the simpler inhabitants 
of the Archipelago, divorces are of rare occurrence ; but not so in the Peninsula, 
where they are frequent. Amongst the Mentira, the teeth of the bride and 
bridegroom are filed with a stone before the day of marriage. {See also 

Iffarsddlli William. — ^Was born in Dublin, the son of a merchant of that 
dty, and the second in descent from a Derbyshire gentleman, who had settled in 
Ireland in the last years of the reign of Queen Anne. After the usual school 
education in Dublin, he received a civil appointment for Bencoolen, at sixteen 
years of age ; proceeded to that place in 1771 ; remained there eight years only, 
and returned to England in 1779. In 1782 he published his "History of 
Sumatra," which established his reputation as an Oriental scholar and a man of 
clear and sound judgment. His well-earned reputation obtained for him, first, 
the situation of Under-Secretary, and, idtimately, of Chief Secretary to the 
Admiralty ; and these offices he discharged with great credit for the twelve years 
from 1795 to 1807, when he retired, and returned to his favourite studies. The 
fruits of these were his " Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language," the 
first deserving the name which had been published in England, and the best which 
had been published everywhere. This work had engaged, more or less, his atten. 
tion for six-and-twenty years. In 1811 a new edition of his "History of 
Sumatra," which had been translated into French and German, was called for and 
published. In 1817 he published, with copious and vahiable notes, his translation 
of the celebrated " Travels of Marco Polo," that singular work which gave the 
hints that led to the discovery of the New World. In 1823 he published his 
" Numismata Orientalia, or Description of Eastern Coins," a valuable collection of 
which had fallen into Ids hands ; and in 1834, in his seventy-eighth year, he gave 
to the world his last work — a " Collection of Essays " — the most valuable of which 
consists of a dissertation on the " Polynesian and East Insular Languages." By 
his will he bequeathed his valuable collection of Oriental coins, medals, and manu- 
scripts to the British Museum, and his library to King's College, London. 

Mabsden's long and meritorious career terminated on the 6th of October, 
1836, when he had nearly completed his eighty-second year. He was the first 
literary and scientific Englishman who, with the advantages of local experience 
treated of the Malayan countries ; all our knowledge before him being confined 
to the crude narratives of mariners and voyagers unacquainted with the language, 
through which, alone, accurate knowledge could be obtained. He was the contem- 
porary of Sir William Jones, of Colebrooke, and of his own relative. Sir 
Chables Wilkins ; and while they were studying the philosophy of Continental 
Asia, he was doing the same thing for its islands. The chief characteristics of 
his writings are laborious care and scrupulous fidelity, ever under the control 
of a sou^d judgment — qualities in which he has not been excelled, or even 
equalled, by any writer on the subjects he treated of, foreign or native. He is, in 
ffbct, the model and example of all that has been done since his time — sometimes 
with more knowledge than he could have possessed, but never with more care or 

Mamngal. — The name of a tree the root of which resembles horse-radish 
in taste, and is so used by foreigners in the Straits Settlements. The leaf is used 
as a vegetable and the bean for making curries. 



Descriptive DicHotiary 

MflSoi or MiSOi. — The aromatic barb of a tree imported from New Oitinea 
iLtiil tliu adjacent islands for iisu as a cosmetic and external medieine b; the 
Miilaya and Chinese. It is the Cortex oninus of Eumphips, 

Mata-IVIata (^i(. "eyes"). — Thu nativo word for a ^ardian of the ix;aoe, 
and now the conventional terra for policeman. 

Matang.— V. on N. side of Lamt R.. close to Port Weld, Perak. 

Mats, Matting (tilxr). — Matting is woven by the Malaja from a soft rush 
of indifferent durability, but they have never approached the tast* and ingenuity 
of the Chinese, who practically supply all the matting used in the Straits. 

Mayung,— A kind of theatrical performance with some dancing and so- 
called singing — the performers being as a rale a travelling company of three or 
four men and perhaps one woman, who make their living by their performances, 
and play either at the invitation of a Eajah in his own house or before the public 
on a stage ureeted in the street.— (Maxwell, J. S. B. K. A. S., Ho. U, p. 163.) 

Meals. — The Malay breaks his fast at daybreak with some light food, and 
those that can afford it imbiljc coffee or tea ; the former is preferred. 

Between 8 and 10 a.m. the first regular meal is eaten ; boiled rice forma tho 
staple dish, the usual addition being burnt salt fish or sambal. During the day 
food is seldom touched, and the second meal is eaten between 7 and 10 p.m. No 
difference is perceptible in the food used at the two meals. Rice, salt fish, ipiUc, 
or curry, and sambal are the principal dishes found at a Malayan feaat. 

The giilie, or curry, of the poor, is a very simple dish ; it consista of the prin- 
cipal ingredient — be it fish, flesh, or fowl — and some sliced chillies, onions, and 
ginger, the milk of the cocoa-nut being sometimes added ; the last is obtained by 
bruising or nisping the kernel of an old cocoa-nut and squeezing the juice 

SambaU are invariably used instead of curry with rice. The principal 
ingredient in a sambal is blachan, which is a condiment prepared from shrimps and 
small fish, to which is added a thousand articles of food, ;uid these Ba7nbal» to*; 
exceedingly palatable. 

In the f mit season, scarcely anything else is eaten, and from morning to night, 
man, woman, and child may be seen eating durians, mangoateens, chemjxulaks (a 
Hpeciea of jack), and other fruits. The diirian is considered eiceedingly nutri- 
tious and is much prized, and although nauseous to an European palate on the first 
introduction, the dislike is generally overcome, and he enjoys it eventually as much 
as a native. 

The most common preparation of rice is called na^ jrtdut, which is made in 
three ways i — First, the Pulut pangang, which is thus prepared : — a sufficient 
quantity of uncooked rice ia well washed and steeped in water for about half an 
Hour; the water is then poured off, and the rice ia put in an open basket and 
steamed over a pot of boihng water. When half cooked, the rice is thrown into 
uocoa-nut milk and allowed to soak for some time ; it ia then closed in pieces of 
plantain leaf and roasted over a slow fire. 

Pvlut inti is similarly prepared, but it is not roasted. 

Puhif chachan is also prepared in the same way, except that after the rice has 
been steamed, it is mixed with cocoa-nut milk and syrup poured into moulds 
and cooled ; it is then cut into various shapes and served up as confectioneiy. 
Poor Malays live prmcipally on rice, pulut, and fried plantains. 

Those better off indulge in rich curries with their rice, which resemble the 
curries of India. Tbey are thus prepared : — Each ingredient is first ground into 
a pulp ; the more numerous the ingredients the more palatable will the curry be ; 
turmeric, onions, garlic, chillies, coriander, and other aromatic seeds, and tamarind 
are the principal ; a little of each ia thrown into boiling greaae or oil, with veg»- 
[234] I 

Msc of British Malaya. Msil 

tables, fish or flesh, and simmered over the fire till cooked ; to it is added cocoa-nut 
milk or lime-juice as a relish. 

Malays are not at all particular as to their companions at meals, they may bo 
seen feedmg with Chinese, Indians, and Europeans; a few of the very devout, 
especially those who have visited the Holy Land, are more exclusive. The 
Hmduized Mahommedans of Bengal are so particular that thev will not sit at 
meals with the votaries of any other creed ; those that gain a livelihood by serving 
Europeans on board ships are looked upon as outcasts, and, on quitting the sea, 
they have to pay largely for certain religious ceremonies that must be undergone 
ere their countrymen will admit them into their circles again. The only distinction 
a Malay draws is between the sexes ; men and women never eat together,' the former 
eat first, and then the females partake of their meals. There is very little ceremony 
observed at Malayan feasts. The rice is put in a large plate, or bowl, with dried 
fish or curry in small cups, which are placed on a mat spread on the floor, and four 
or five eat off the same dish, each helping himself to curr}- as needed. Water is 
always placed handy in pots. The rich enjoy their meals with more luxury. If 
the family be large, several mats are spread in the hall, and one or more water jars 
are placed near, curries and samhals are put in small earthen saucers and placed 
on a brass tray which is put on a pedestal or stand, and plates sufficient for all are 
placed on the mats. The guests and males of the family sit in groups, and a bowl 
of water is brought for each to dip his hand in ere he commences his meal ; rice is 
heaped upon each plate, and the curries and sambcda are partaken of as required ; 
smsdl earthen spoons are placed on the tray on the side of each samhal dish. 

Water is handed round in brass or earthen pots with spouts like teapots and 
drunk out of china cups, glass tumblers, or from a small brass bowl-cup which is 
used to cover the mouth of the water-pot. Plates, knives, forks, and spoons of 
Europe are now commonly used. 

After meals, or on entertaining a visitor, the sirih holder is produced ; the 
latter has generally a tray fitted on the top, which is divided into several compart- 
ments, containing the ingredients used with the sirih ; they are prepared with 
lime, betel-nut cut into small pieces, and gambier ; portions of each are wrapped in 
the sirih leaf, well masticated and the debris ejected ; tobacco is masticated by a 
great number. 

Light refreshments are also presented to guests, consisting of tea, cakes, &c, 
— J. D. Vauohan in J. I. A., Vol. XI. 

Mecca. — ^ belief in the efficacy of a pilgrimage to Mecca is deeply instilled 
in the Malay mind. The returned pilgrim is termed a Haji, is privileged to wear 
the Arab costume, and is treated with much consideration by his fellow-countrymen. 
Begular lines of steamers are now put on the berth to meet the demand for 
"pSgrim" accommodation. 

Medicines.— fi^ee Dbuos. 

Melagapi. — ^V. on E. bank of Muar E., W. Johore, about 25 miles from its 

Melaki. — v. in the Melakek district, N. Malacca, about 2| miles N. of Alor 

Menangkabau Codes.— /S^e« Laws. 

MenaBgkabaU States. — Those until recently known as the " Negri Sem- 
bilan " — the small States between Malacca, Pahang, Johore, and Selangor. Their 
original inhabitants are supposed to have come from Menangkabau in Sumatra. 

Mengah. — ^V. on the road from Ohabau to NyaJas, E. Malacca. 

Mengkudu. — The bark of a tree used for dyeing purposes. It is one of 
the exports from the Oocos Islands. Probably the same as that known in the 
Peninsula as MengJcddu, the wood of which is used for posts, &c. Sp. not known. 



Descriptive Dulionary 

Meiltira.-~A name ai>plied to one of the aboriginal tribeB generally spoken 
of as Orwng-Benua (q. v.). The account given of the latter applies in all essential 
detiiils t« the Mentira. They prineipallr inhabit the interior lying at the junction of 
Malacca. Johol, Pahang, and Johore. For a full acconnt of them, see J. I. A., 
Vol. I, pp. 246 and 294 et feq. Curious details of their superotition are given at 
p. 30? et teq. of the same volume. 

Merebau. —A small V. in the S. of the Lundu district, about 2 miles from 
Paynh Eumput, Malacca. 

Merhun. — V, on S. bank of Sungei Sayong, the S. source of the Johore B, 

Merliina.U. — l>iatrict and V, in S.E. Malacca, the latt«r one mile from tJie 
coast, and the sit^ of a Police Station. 

Mermaid. ^I-ike most nations dwelling near the sea, tiie Malays have their 
mermaids, of which the dugong is the probable origin {q. v.). — J, I. A., I, 9. 

Metals. — There is no word for this general term in Malav, or any other 
lauguapt; of the Archipelago. Sometimes the word hJburan, signifying the " melted 
object," ia used by the Malays. The metals immemorially known to the natires of 
the Peninsula are gold (mas), iron (bpgi), tin {limak), silver {jierak and mtaka), 
and copper {tembaga). The only alloys known to them are those of gold and 
copper (auwasa), and those of copper and tin (logang and kvningan). The three 
first-named metals only are native products and have native names. Silver has also 
native names, the origin of which cannot be traced, but the metal is certainly a 
foreign one, and Babbos informs us that, before the arrival of the Portuguese, the 
Malaya of Malacca received their supply of it from Siam. to which. Baesos t«11s us, 
it bad been brought from Loo. The probabiUty, however, is that most of it must 
have come from China. The name for copper is the corruption of a Sanskrit one. 
and the knowledge of tjijs metal was probably made known by the Hindus, but at 
the arrival of the Portuguese, the market of Malacca was supplied from China. 
Quicksilver was probably, like copper, made known to the Malays by the Hindus, for 
the only mime for it — rasa^is Sanskrit. Lead is known by a name which signifies 
" black tin," and is probably of Chinese introduction. Down to the year 18W. when it 
was first made known to them by Europeans, the natives of Malaya were as ignorant 
of antimony, which abounds in their country, as were the natives of Europe four 
centuries before.* 

A writor in the J. S, B. R. A. S. thus noticeB the metallurgical producU oE 
the Peninsula :— 

'• Gold, tin, and galena have been a source of export from the Peninsula for 
some centuries, and the early Portuguese and Dutch settlers used to return to their 
countries with rich cargoes of those precious metals. Some of the wprkings that 
were active in the last century are still yielding valuable resvilta; others were 
abandoned on account of the extortion and oppression of native princes ; others from 
the alluvial washings and shallow leaders having ' run out.' A different order of 
things eiists at the present day ; chemistry, geoli^y, and steam have in i>ther 
countries converted obsolete mines into valuable properties, and if the same 
services are applied to the Malay Peninsula, the country might become rich aud 

" It would ap|war that the Malay Peninsula would be a vast uninhabitable 
juugle were it not that the interior yields rich gold and tin alluvia! deposits on 
either side of the range of hills that form the backlione of the country. Tbesu 
deposits, crushed and washed down by nature from their original rocky bed, have 
attracted large numbers of Chinese miners for many years, and on their industry 
(for the Malay miners are in a very inferior minority) the revenue and prosperity 
of the PeuiuBula in a great measure depend. Apart from pohtical and protective 
purposes, it would appear to be a question whetner the Native States were worth 
luterferiug about were tin not to exist. 


of British Malaya. 


" The soil is generally of a very poor deacriptiou. With the exception of a 
fflw patclie§ of good Emestone country, it is a granit© formation of recent dale, 
alowly undei^ing decomposition, and as yet quite unable to cope with the rich 
loaoiB of such countriee as Cuba or Java. Malays do not grow sufScient rice for 
their own isonaumptiou, and. with the exeeptioa of tin, nearly all that comes 
under the title of 'Straits Produce," comes from other countries, and merely 
rests at Singapore and other ports for transhipment. The tin produce, and the 
consequent importation of Chinese miners, is essential to the prosperity of the 

To this it may be added that gold in paying quantities has recently been 
discovered in Pahang, and that companies have already been formed to work it. 

MiaS.— The Eorneau name of the Oranq-iitam., and as such known to many 
Malays. The animal, however, doeti not exist in the Peninsula, the term Orang- 
utan beiug applied to the aborigines, or real " men of the woods," found in the 

iy[iddl6 Cftpe forma the S, boundary of entrance to Kemamau R.. 


Middle Island. — &'ee Pulo Sabakut. 

Miko.— A V. in Eembau {not marked in map S. A. S.), 

Miko Bukit. — A Mt. in Rembau, Negri Sembilan (not marked in map 
8. A. S.). 

MiHElh (Buraag ttotuj). — Two varieties are knowu. tt is alleged that this 
bird is the best imitator of the human voice amongst the feathered tribes. A 
specimen belonging to the writer had acquired the words " Good-bye, boy ! " and 
one day made his escape. It was extremely ludicrous to see him perched on a 
branch, out of reach of the domestic, while he kept repeating the very Apropos 
words. He was eveutually enticed back, and lived for some three years in con- 
tented captivity, Minahs command about 55 each, if good talkers, 

Mines a-nd Mining. — Practically speaking there is only one form of 

mining industry largely carried on in the Malay Peninsula. Gold is found and is 

being worked by Europeans in Pahang, but gold-mining is scarcely as yet an 

. established industry. Of other metals tin alone is produced in such quantities as 

to yield a large revenue to the Government and profit to the mine owners. 

The assertion made in McCulloch's "Dictionary of Commerce," "that the 
most extensive and probably richest tin deposit in the world" exists in the Malay 
Ptminsula and its neighbouring islands, may be accepted as a statement of fa«ti 
The stanniferous area is estimated to have an extreme length of 1,200 miles, and 
few portions of Malaya are destitute of indications that the metal exists beneath 
the surface. Singularly enough, the whole product as yet met with consists of 
^uvial ore, known as " stream tin," and is obtained by simply washing the soli 
after the superincumbent layer of clay or gravel has been removed. The generally 
accurate authority above quoted makes the somewhat misleading remark that " no 
att«mpt has hitherto bi.'en made at regular mining, or obtaining the ore from its 
rooky matrix ; " misleading because as yet such matrices remain undiscovered, 
although natives occasionally aver that they have seen large lumps thus procured. 
As the local Govenunenta have offered a fair reward for any information as to the 
existence of reefs, it seems hardly probable that the Malays, who prefer to make 
money in any way rather than by hard work, would have neglected such a chauco. 
Pmctically ^eakltig, at all events, the tin of the country is derived exclusively 
from tin -sand. 

CerCAin portions of the Peninsula are naturally more productive than others, 
and Perak. or the " Silver Stat« " — why so named is a mystery, as no silver has 
been found there— stands at the head in this n-spect. The richest district of the 


Descriptive Dklionary 

State lies a little to the eastward of the right brauch of the Perak EItct — known 
as the Kinta Kiver— the Kinta diatrict occupying the southern half of the entire 

The great industry is carried on in a similar way throughout the countiy. so 
that a description of tiie methods pursued in Perak applies to Malayan mining 
generally. It must not, however, be supposed that the Malaj's are the mi'uera of 
the place. A few " ancestral mines," i.e., mines which have been worked by their 
fathers and forbears, are indeed in Malayan hands. But the great majority of the 
working claaa in the Peninsula — as, indeed, everywhere else, if they can get a 
footing — are Chinese. Untiring in hla toil, sober, to be relied on if well-treated, 
and willing to work for wages on which any one else would starve, while his cMef 
vices — gambling and opium-smoking — are only indulged in when the day's toil is 
completed, Ah-sin and hia friends are the pioneers of the Eastern world. It is 
usually agreed that the miners ahall receive a share of the profits made by each 
miue, the small sums paid them meanwhile being treated as advances from the 
amount finally due, 

Let us see how the Chinaman sets about opening a mine. It seldom happens 
that the woiild-be tin-digger is a man of means. He therefore goes to aomc richer 
friend, who agrees Uj advance the necessary money upon condition that the metal 
obtained is sold to him exclusively, and that all the tools, food, opium, and anything 
else required is Iwught from him. We assume that the digger has obtained a 
yearly license, but if not, he can, for a small fee, get the ground he proposes to 
work surveyed and staked out, and upon payment of a dollar be entitled to work it 
for twelve calendar months. These preliminaries settled, the next question is 
plant. It is very simple. Firstly, a number of changkols, or native hoes, must be 
obtained, according to the number of men it ia proposed to employ. This service- 
able tool becomes, in Eastern handa, the equivalent of spade, hoe, and rake — to a&y 
nothing of its uses aa a weapon of offence. The next articles to be got aw a 
sufficient number of bakola and ragas, or baskets. The ordinary earth-carr^tng 
basket is known by the former name, but the three varieties used only in mines 
by the latter. They are, aa a rule, spoou-shaped, with two handles, and are made 
of an open-worked sort of wicker, so aa to act as a sieve when lifting stones or 
dirt out of the mine. When the tin-bearing stratum is actually reached a sort 
of wooden spade is used in place of the changkol to work up the sand. The next , 
necessity is to provide wooden planking to build the waterways, as without water no 
mine is workable. The stream thus obtained turns a rudely-made undershot wat«r- 
wheel. * feet to 5 feet in diameter, and about the same in width. A sprocket-wheel on 
the axle serves to work the well-known Chinese pump, familiar to all who havo 
visited exhibitions or museums. It resembles our old man-of-war chain pump, 
but the pistona are square instead of round. When used at an angle, these work 
in a three-sided trough, passing over another sprocket-wheel placed at ita foot, 
For more perpendicular work the trough is closed, and thus becomes a four-sided | 
pipe. The trough jmsses through a water-tight box In the wheel-sluice, into 
which it empties its contents ; and as it is always at work, it effects the end in view I 
well enough. 

From 10 feet to 12 feet of "overburden" is the average that has to be removed 
before the karaug or tin-bearing drift is reached, and water usually appears at 
about this depth. Asaurain^ the vein to be aatisfaetory, and the pit Kept well 
drained, the coolies load their ragas with the tin-sand, gravel, and Roil, of which 
tjie drift, consists, and convey it up iilanks to the edge of tlie ptt. The backets aro 
either carried singly or from a bamboo yoke in pairs, and the drift is then thrown 
into the head race. The sluice-box is frequently made of a tree 8]ilit lengthwise 
and hollowed out. Small dams are placed at intervals in the race to retain the 
rich dirt, which is again and again re-washed, until only the biji or " tin-seed " 

t . 

M[in of British Malaya. Mill 

To smelt the bi|i, two forms of furnace are employed. One in use by the 
Malays is supplied with a blast from two upright cjlmders. It is built of claj. 
The Chinese smelting furnace differs from it slightly in shape, and being supported 
on three legs is yulgarly known as the 8am Kak Miao, or " three-legged cat." It 
deriyes its blast from a square wooden box, in which slides a feather piston, usually 
wotked by a boy squatted on the groimd. The melted metal pours from the 
furnace direct into the mould, not more than one slab or shoe of tin, as a rule, 
being cast at the same time. The slabs are piled in a hut, until a sufficient number 
haye accumulated to freight a good-sized boat, when they are despatched to head- 

Such in brief is a general sketch of natiye tin-mining. Expenses haye, of 
course, to be incurred in building attap huts for the coolies and staff, and in 
obtaining sufficient proyisions. Eiots often occur if the commissariat is not well 
looked after, as also on the six-monthly or annual settling days, should the coolies 
imagine they haye been cheated of their just rights. In the main, howeyer, the 
work is peacefully carried on, and many who began as day-labourers haye become 
rich men. Europeans haye gone to this district, and haye sent out quantities of 
costly machinery for the tin-mining, dressing, and smelting. They haye, howeyer, 
failed, chiefly because that which will pay on the yery economical system of working 
adopted as described, will not pay under European systems with a numerous and 
expensiye staff and costly machinery. The pay to natiye labourers is exceedingly 
small, and it will only be by a yery careful study of the whole of the conditions 
and circumstances on the spot that reaUy profitable working will be possible to 
Europeans by Western methods. 

Milliak. — ^A small V. in the forest reserye, E. of Sungei Siput district, N.W. 
of Malacca. 

^ Mining Customs and Superstitions.— An interesting paper on this 
subject was contributed by Mr. A. Hale, Inspector of Mines, Kinta, to the 
J. S. B. E. A. S. for December, 1885. Much of what follows is condensed from 
his article. 

When any one wished to prospect for a mine in former years he usually engaged 
the seryices of a pawang (q. v,) or medicine man. Nowadays this step is sometimes 
dispensed with, bufc if the would-be mine owner is sufficiently rich he will probably 
follow the old custom. A pawang usually has a good ''nose'* for tin, and knows 
where to look for likely spots. He uses a special yocabulary like the camphor 
hunters, and this is called hdhdsa pantang. Thus an elephant must be called ber- 
oiak tinggi, a cat her-olak dapur, a water buffalo sial, a lime salah nama, and so on. 
The first proceeding is to erect a sort of altar, and inyoke the hantu of the locality 
to help the enterprise. He also hangs an ancha., or square tray made of split 
bambo<>, under the eayes of the smelting-house. Certain rules, the breach of which 
inyolyes a more or less heayy fine, are then promulgated. Thus raw cotton in any 
shape or form must not be brought near a mine. None but a pawang may wear a 
black coat ; earthenware, glass, limes or lemons, and cocoa-nut husk are prohibited 
articles, as are also water gourds. Charcoal must not be allowed to fall into the 
races, weapons are forbidden in the smelting-house (where coats are also tabooed), 
and the posts must not be cut or hacked. Elephants are forbidden to come near a 
mine, for the good reason that they might break down dams, &c., owing to their 
great weight. Beyond these, and many similar regulations, the Malay miner has 
peculiar superstitions about tin and its properties. He belieyes that it is under the 
protection of certain spirits, whom he endeayours to propitiate ; but he also thinks 
that the tin itself is aUye, and has many of the properties of living matter ; that it 
can of its own yolition moye from place to place, and that it has likes or dislikes 
regarding certain people. Hence, says Mr. Hale, it is adyisable to treat tin ore 
with a certain amount of respect, to consult its conyenience, and, what is perhaps 



Descriptive Dictionary 

more curious, to ao conduct tbe business of mitiing that the tin ore maj', as it were, 
be obtained without its own knowledge ! 

Mr. Hale adds a moat uaoful mining T0CB.bulary to his paper, few of the words 
being found in existing dictionariee. 

Missions and Missionaries. — As regards Protestant UisBions. the 
S. P. O. mar be said to have begun its operations in the Straits with a Tamil 
Mission at Singapore in 1867. This liaa since been extended to the Malaj^-speaking 
Eurasians and Chinese, and possesses, besides the School-Chapel and Uissiooary's 
house in Singapore, an important branch at Juroog, where a substantial Church 
has been erected. In 1871. a Tamil Mission for Penang and Province Weileslev 
was begun, for which a School-Chapel and Missionary's bouse were erected in 1886. 
It is now proposed to add to this a Mission to the Chinese. In Malacca, a Misstou 
to the Chinese has been in existence since 1870. and is conducted by a Catechist 
under the Chaplain's supervision, some of the services beiug held in the English 

Missions, Catholic— The first Roman Cathobc Mission in the Straits 
was estabbahed at Pulo Tikus (Penang), by the Rev, M. P. Rbctbnwabd in 1797. 
Since that date no leas than six mission stations have been established in Penang, 
three in Singapore, four iu Malacca, and four in Province Wellesley, while ten 
stations exist in various parts of the Native States, such as Johore, Muar. Perak, 
Selaugor. dtc. The estimated number of converts is about 5.500 in the British 
Settlements, and 900 in the Peninsula. There are 23 French. 1 Eurasian, and I 
Chinese Missionaries j 22 mission schools with 1,200 boy and 900 girl pupils have 
been established under their auspices. A College at Pulo Tikus educates 100 
pupils for mission work, the inmates coming from Japan. Corea. China, Tonquin. 
Cochin-China. Cambodia, Siam. Bunna, and Malaya. The institution is directed 
by a Bector, aided by 9 clergy aod profeaeors ; 6 orphanagea with 4<80 g;irl8 and 
lt>0 boys owe their fouudatiou to the same source. The Procurateur des Mission 
Btrangeres resides at River Valley Road, Singapore. The Right Rev. Bishop 
Edouakd Gashiek is the present head of the Catholic Church in this part of tbe 

MoaX or Muar. — This is the name of a river which gives its name to a 
State, and of some note in the history of the Malays, a place situated on it being | 
that to which the Javanese foitnder of Malacca fied when driven out of Singapore, : 
and where his descendant first took refuge when driven from Malacca by the | 
Portuguese in 1511. The place is about ten leagues south of Malacca. At its 
embouchure, the river is 600 yards wide, and 18 miles up diminishes to one-sixth 
part of this breadth. A santi-bar obstructs its mouth on which there is no more 
than three-quarters of a fathom of water. The whole country is an extensive 
primitive jungle. The district now forms part of the territory of the Sultan 
of Johore. and is rising in importance, Its productions are the usual ones for 
such a country— most of them spontaneous products of the forest, as ivory, ebony, 
bees'-wai, rattans, &c. The interior, however, yields a Uttle gold and tin. 

Moh.— V. on S. bank of Plus E., about four miles E. of Perak R„ N. 

Mole {Mv.nAu]i). — Found in the Peninsula, and similar in all respects to the 
European variety. 

Money. — The current and convenient principal coin of the Malay countrie* 
is at present, and has long been, the Mexican dollar, which, now worth in sterling 
money barely 29 pence, has an universal preference. Of late yeara, the now nearly 
extinct Hongkong dollar and the Japanese Yea have been largely current, the 
latter in 1886 forming a good proportion of the coin tendered in the Settlcmentfl, 
The English rui>ee and the Duteh guilder are but of IocaI currencv, and always, 


Mod t>/ British Malaya. Mon 

more or less, at a discount. The dollar, In the aativo languages, is known b; 
various names. The Mataya usually call it ringgii, whifh Uterailj means " sceuic 
figure." Such figures had been represented on ancient coins ; and the impressions 
on llie Spanish coin, which was the first dollar introduced, appearing to resemble 
them, probably gave rise to the name. 

A great variety of small coins of brass, copper, tin, and zinc are in circulation 
throughout aU the islands. The most frequent of these ie the Butch Aoii, of which 
about 300 ought to go to a Spanish dollar. The intrinsic value of all such coins, 
however, having no relation to their assumed one, and being usually over-issued, 
they are generally at a heavy discount. The small coins of £edah are of tin. 
These go under the name of ira, which is, however, only the word *" stamp " or 
" impression." Of these, 160 are filed on a filament of rattan, of which 8 strings, 
or 1,280 coins, are considered equivalent to a hard dollar. Chinese cash are often 
known as pifia by the Malays. This was the name of the ancient coin of Java, and 
is a frequent appellative for money in general, as well as for small change. Chinese 
coins of this description were found, in the ruins of the ancient Singapore, of as 
early a time as the tenth century, and we have the authority of the first Europeans 
that visited Borneo Proper— the companions of MAOBLLAs^that they were the 
only money of that part of the Ardiipelago. "The money," saya Pigapktta, 
"which the Moors use in this country ia of brass, with a hole for filing it. On one 
aide only there are four characters, which represent the great King of China. They 
call itpJCM." — Primo Viaggio, p. 121. 

In Singapore, after our occupation, there were excavated some Chinese coins 
from among quantities of Chinese pottery. One of these bore the name of a 
Chinese emperor, whose death corresponded to the yearof our time 967, of another 
to 1067, and of a third to 1085, upon which Ckawfubd remarks that it may be 
confidently asserted that an intercourse, direct or indirect, existed between China 
and Singapore as early as the tenth and eleventh centuries. This belief, however, 
is quite erroneous. Coins of equally ancient or far older date are in common 
circulation throughout China at the present day, and may frequently be fouud in 
the strings of " cash " brought down by aoy newly-arrived coolie. 

The absence of all other current coin than such as are now mentioned previous 
to the arrival of Europeans is testified by the Portuguese historian, and this, even in 
Malacca, the most considerable trading emporium of the Archipelago. The enter- 
prising ALBuqrBBquB, before he quitted that place after its conquest, proceeded at 
once to supply this deficiency, actuated at the same time, in a good measure, by 
Mb hostility to the religion of its previous rulers. " Having," says Babbos, 
"done these things for the security of the city (bvdlt a fortification and a church 
from materials furnished by the tombs of ancient Malay kings), he did other 
things for its grandeur and for its commerce and this as if at the request of the 
people. With this view, he ordered money to be coined, for in the country gold 
and silver passed only as merchandise, and during the reign of King Mahouhbd 
there was no other coined money than that made from tin, which served only for 
the ordinary transactions of the market. "^Decade II, Book 2, Chap. 2. Tin 
money still circulates in Fahang and other Native States. Castaobneda is more 
full in his account of the transaction. " As," says he, " there was no money in 
Malacca except that of the Moors, the governor- general ordered some to be coined. 
Dot only that he might extinguish the Moorish coin, but also in order that a coin 
might be struck with the stamp and arms of his royal master. And taking on this 
subject the opinion of the Gentile China (the Talinga Hindus) and other honour- 
able men, dwellers in the city, he commanded forthwith that a tin coinage should 
be struck. Of the one small coin called eaixa (cash), he ordered two to be made 
into one, to which he gave the name of dinJieiro. He struck another coin, which 
he named aotdo, consiatiug of ten dinkeiroa, and a third which he called hautardti, 
consisting of ten noldut. And as there existed no coin of gold or of silver, for the 
[241 j B 


Descriptive Dictionary 

merubauts made their saJeB and purcha^s by weighing the precious metalfi, the 
governor-general reeolved, with the advice of the persons above-mentioned, to coin 
gold and silver money. To the gold coin he gave the name of cdtholicos, and it 
weighed 1,000 reas, and to the silver that of mahtqaet. Both were of the purest 
metal that could be smelted." — Vol. II. 

The Malays generally, however, had no recognized coinage. Some employed 
salt, cakes of beea'wax, and similar commodities as a standard of exchange : but 
most of the civilized nations used gold dust, estimated by weight and touch, a 
practice in which it is evident, from the derivation of the terms connected with 
them, that they were initiated by the Hindus, moat probably the Telingaa of the 
Coromandel coast. Thus we have the scarlet weighing- btian rakil, from, the 
Sanskrit raktaka, mat from maeha, tael from talaha in the same language, with 
mutu^the touch of gold — from the Telinga. The values of the denominations are 
all Hindu. Thus 24 of the scarlet boons, each 2^ grains troy, make a mo*, and 16 
mas make a lael, while the touch Is a scale of 10, like that of the Hindus. A 
colony of the Hindu of Telingana still exists in Malacca, whose profession it is to 
try gold by the touch and to refine it. 

There is no word for " coin " in Malay. For money, the Malay name is uwatig, 
abbreviated laang, but the Sanskrit word bdnda is used. Uv:ang or tvang, in 
Malay, signifies also " the palace," and may possibly be the source from which the 
term for money is derived, in something like the manner in which our own coin ia 
called "a sovereign." The Malays use also the name of their small coin — yi'iit or 
pichit — for money generally, but viang is the common name throughout the Malay 

A large quantity of uoins are still current iu Perak supposed to have been 
minte* by the East India Company for Malayan use. Five sorts of dollar, in 
addition to those of Hongkong and the Pillar dollar, are in circulation, the 
latter being, however, now seldom met with. The Maria Tkaresa dollar la 
accepted as bullion only. The majority of the coins are either JajMinese Ten 
or the Mexican cap and «wZe, The banks in the Straits Settlements issue notes 
of from 25 to $1,000 in value, but those of Penang are at a slight discount in 
the other Settlement, and vice-vend. 

Counterfeit coin and notes sometimes find their way into circulation, some 
32 sorts of dollars having been imitated. The blanks for absolute base coin are 
of whitfi brass, and the imitations are often excellent, the familiar Mexicaji 
being especially good. Oddly enough, base cents are also put into circulation, 
though one would hardly have thought such an enterprise remunerative. 
Chinese " cash " are not legal t«uder in the Settlements, but are freely used in 
the Native States. The dollar, from its original exchange value of 48. 2d., has 
within the past fifteen years sunk to below 2b. 6d.* (See Cubbenct.) 

Monitor (Monitor draasna). — The Indian monitor abounds in the Peninsula, 
and I have frecjuently seen it swimming across the ditches and canals in Proviaoo 
Wellesley. It ts indeed called by some naturalists the " water lizard," but, oddly 
enough, I cannot find that any popular work notices its existence in the Penin- 
' It may be described as a lizard with an extremely elongated neck, and in the 

Monkey or Ape.— Ckawfitrd says : — " I do not believe there is any 
genuine name to e^tpress the quadrumanas or four-handed family of animals in any 
tongue of the Archipelago. In the different languages, each sp«uies has ite owd 
proper name, and the family is referred to generally by the name of the uoat 
fanuliar species, as kra in Malay. There are names or synonyms for, at least, nioe 
different species j moniet, however, has of late years become the accepted t«rm for 
the animal generally." 




of British Malaya. 

One of the commonest known is Ilylobalee far, known as the wak-wah, ^m 
its peculiar and mournful cry. with which the foreata of the Peninsula resound at 
early morn. This animal, unlike moat monkeys, walks habitually on its hinder 
l^B, using the arms to balance itself. The fur is black, white, or a combination 
of both, but difference of colour is nut held to show a difference in species In 
some natural historiea, the leah-iodh ia named the " silvery pibbon." The kahau, 
or proboscis monkey, is said to inhabit the Peninaula, but the specimens as yet 
obtained haTC come from Borneo. Two or three species of Semnojiitkeeiis are aJso 
found. They are long-tailed and of small size and full of vivacity. Two species 
of macaque inhabit the jungle, M. cywrmolgue and M. aemegtriniig. The latter is 
taught to climb cocoa-nut trees to pick the nuta — a teat performed by one at the 
compiler's house in Butterworth. None of the moDkeys of Malaya have prehen- 
sile tails. The orang-vian is not found in the Peninsula. 

A very short-ttuled monkey known as bruit: is also trained to pick cocon-nnts 
or durians, and does so very cleverly. ' 

Monkey Cup {Nepenthe). — Thia curiously-shaped order of flowers, known 
also as the " pit«her plant," is the telaga burorig, or " bird's well," of the Malays. 
There are several varieties, the most beautiful of all being found in Malacca. 
On Penang Hill is a circular patch of two or three acres known as " Monkey Cup 
Hill," where a very handsome species flourishes, almost to the exclusion of every 
other plant. The cups of some varieties are from 10 to 12 inches in len^b, and 
cont^n a viscid fluid, in which is usually found a number of dead insects. Both 
the English and Malay names arise from the erroneous idea that monkeys and 
birds drink this liquid, although; as testified by Mr. Waluicb, the liquid is drink- 
able hj thirsty men. — Mai. Archip., p. 31. 

Monsoon. — This is a corruption of the Arabic word muaim, " season," 
which the Portuguese received from their first instructors in Indian navigation — 
the Arabs and other Mahommedau navigators — and which they corrupted into 
monpoo, whence the form of our own term. The word, in the sense of the Indian 
periodical winds, occurs in Babbos, who wrote his history in the middle of the 
sijteenth century. Thus, when he is giving an aet'ount of the famine which took 
place in Malacca immediately after its capture, he ascribes it to the supplies of 
com from Java being intercepted by the fleets of the expelled Malays, and by the 
impossibility of the Portuguese ships going for them themselves in consequence of 
the monsoon (moMfao) being adverse, that is, the south-east monsoon prevailing. 

The word mtirim is in use among all the maritime nations of the Archi- 
pelago, but only as a synonym for the Sanskrit words ItvUka and musa, " time " 
or " season." To complete the sense, the words east and west, tifnur and barat 
in Malay, must be added. There is a peculiar idiom of the MaJay language con- 
nected with the monsoons which requires a short eiplanation. The Malaya call 
aU countries west of their own " countries above the wind." and their own and 
all places east of it, " countries below the wind," the Malay words being atas angin 
And baiea angin. The expression is really equivalent to "windward" and"lee- 
wiird," lie west representing the first, and the ea.8t the last. The origin of the 
phrase admits of no explanation, unless it have reference to the most import«:nt of 
the two monsoons — the western, that which brought to the Malayan countries the 
traders of India. It is at least as old as the sixteenth century, and no doubt a 
great deal older, Basros deacribes it, but mistaking ea^t for west, he ^ves an 
explanation of the phrase which is necessarily erroneous. ■■ For," says he, " before 
the foundation of Mala*.-ca, which, by its position, ought to be the Saba of 
Ptolsmy, it was at Oingapura that the navigators of the western seas of India 
and the eastern eeaa of Siam. China, Champa, Camboja, and of the many thousand 
islands which lie to the eastward, assembled. These two difl'ereut quarters (the 
east and the west), the natives of the country (the Malays) call DybaTiangifii ' 
[243] E 2 


Descriptive Dictionary 


(iahoABO. rmgin), and Ataxangim (atas-angin), which mean below the wind and above 
the wind, that is, the west and the east. For as the chief parties that navigate 
these seas proceed from two great gulfs — that of Bengal and that which ezt*;nds 
towards the land of China reaching to a high northern latitude — it is in reasoa to 
call the one high and the other low."^ — Decade II, Book 6. Chap. 1. Basbos 
adds, by way of confirmation, that the espreasion may also have reference to the 
rising and setting of the aun in the east and west, and that it is consequently 
equivalent to the Levante and Ponente, or orient and Occident of European nations, 
a plausible theory founded, however, on a misstatement of facts.* 

The moasoons which blow over the Malayan Peninsula, are the north-east and 
south-west. The former is (relatively) the dry monsoon, and the latter the wet 
one. the rains being then heavier and thimderstorma frequent. 

Moringa Tree. — A forest tree the pods of which are used for curries, 
while the scraped root forms a substitute for horse-radish, which it exactly 
resembles in flavour. 

Morro. — This well-known Italian game has its counterpart amongst the 
Chinese of the Peninsula. Each player suddenly holds up auy number of fingers, 
or his clenched hand, the latt«r counting 0, and his opponent has to at once name 
the number held up. A full description will be found in " Notes and Queries," 
with No. 15 of the J. S. B. E. A. S. 

MoSQ^ue. — The Malay mosque is always square, with a verandah, where 
practicable, running round its four sides. A recess in the centre of one side oppo- 
site which the Imam recites the pmyers points towards Mecca. In front a large 
tank is provided for ablutions before entering. A drum is suspended in the front 
verandali or other convenient place, and is struck by the BUal to call the people to 
prayers. A goug is sometimes substituted for the drum. No furniture is provided, 
mate alone covering the floor. The Malaj term for moaque is mO^id, pronounced 
mSagid in the Nortb, 

Mosquitoes. — These abound throughout Malaya, the worst species being 
somewhat sniEill, banded with b]a<^k and white. The mosquito curtain is a necessary 
of life in these regions. 

Mother-o'-Pearl.— See Pbakl. 

Moths. — The helerocera of the Peninsula are still in need of a scientist who 
will describe and catalogue them. A few, such as the Atlas and Sphinies, attract 
everybody's attention by their size and beauty. The " death's-head " la also 
common. But no pretence can be made of even describing the commoner varieties, 
collections of which, if in good condition, command high prices from home 
museums, &c. 

Mount Elvira (2,884 feet). — Highest elevation in the W.